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lictiaiuirg o( Contemjpoiim^. 









" Some men are born to greatness, some men achieve greatness, and 
some men have greatness thrust upon them." It is not the first of 
these three classes, nor is it the last, with which this work has to 
do ; it is the one which is the middle, according to the poet's classi- 
fication, but which is pre-eminently, and for all time, the first and 
foremost in every true estimate of their relative grandeur. To be born 
to greatness, or to have ' greatness thrust upon one, may be gratifying 
to the individual ; but it is of comparatively little public interest ; and 
this work has not been compiled to gratify the vanity of individuals, but 
to record the achievements of those whose lives are a power on the earth. 

Here will be found inscribed the names of those whose master-minds 
govern the world of intellect — names famous in the arenas of literature, 
art, science, politics, peace, and war ; names of poets, orators, statesmen, 
astronomers, discoverers, chemists, geologists, naturalists, electricians, 
engineers, musicians, painters, sculptors, travellers, warriors, physicians, 
philanthropists, &c. — in short, the names of the distinguished Men and 
Women of the Time, who, by the greatness of their minds, the devoted- 
ness of their lives, or the transcendency of their genius, have earned for 
themselves " glory and honour," if not " immortality." 

Nor are there here only their names ; there is likewise a record of 
their deeds — the deeds of the most powerful thinkers and actors in the 
drama of life now being played before our very eyes. Mighty is fiction, 
and stirring are often its incidents when portrayed by genius ; but ever, 
in the perusal of fiction, the unwelcome consciousness that it is not a 
verity obtrudes itself, and breaks the fascinating spell which had bound us. 
Here, however, as far as it could be ascertained, all is truth ; and yet a 
more marvellous tale of achievements never was related. 

The work tells us of one whose spectroscopic researches discovered 
the physical constitutions of stars, planets, comets, and nebulae ; and of 
another whose telescopic mind pierced the far-off regions of the stellar 


universe, and saw what had never been beheld by mortal eye — the planet 
which was causing the perturbations in the orbit of Uranus, though that 
unknown perturbing planet was distant millions of miles beyond what 
had been considered the boundary of the solar system ! Truly the poet 
was justified in speaking of " the music of the spheres," so measured is the 
march, and so marvellously rhythmical are the movements, of the heavenly 
bodies. But not only has the far-distant been made actually visible, and 
poetically audible, by men whose lives are here recorded, but the imme- 
diately-near also has been vivified into startling life, for we read of one 
by whose discoveries sound is made visible in curves of exquisite beauty ; 
of another whose invention enables us to hear even the foot-fall of a fly ; 
and of another who has dared to say to the sea of the multitudinous 
undulations of sound, " Here shall thy proud waves be stayed ! " and, at 
his word, the tones of the human voice are stored up to be reproduced 
when the lips which uttered them have long been silent in the grave. 

By another discoverer, light, which travels with a velocity thousands of 
times swifter than the fleetest cannon-ball, and yet, when it falls on the 
tenderly sensitive eyelids of a sleeping infant, disturbs not its slumbers, nor 
ever stirs the gossamer-down on the wing of the tiniest moth, is made, 
under certain conditions, to revolve the mica plates of a radiometer ! 
"We read of another who has invented an instrument which is so sensitive 
to caloric rays that it is affected by the heat of a candle when distant 
1*71 miles; and of another whose voltaic balance detects the weight of 
one part of chlorine in 500,000 million parts of water. Yes, here are 
the memorials of men who have made works so delicately impressionable 
as to be almost beyond credence, and works so stupendous that their very 
magnitude might defy the puny arm of man to execiite them. However, 
they would defy in vain ; for, one man has built a Babel-like tower which 
soars up to heaven, but only to be followed by others which will overtop 
even that; another has tunnelled under a mighty river carrying down 
millions of tons of water per minute ; another has spanned an arm of 
the sea with a bridge whose daring flight and gigantic strength are the 
wonder of all beholders ; others have constructed engines of such intelli- 
gence, I might almost say, that, although weighing thousands of tons, they 
yet skim like birds over the ocean ; others, engines of such power that the 
pulsation of their heart-throbs has done the work of Titans, and the roar 
of their voices has said, with a truth undreamed of by Napoleon, " There 


shall be no Alps ! " for, with diamond teeth, those engines have cut their 
way through that range of mighty mountains, and Italy and France have 
become united by bands of iron. All these works find a memorial here. 

But not only have the votaries of science their records ; here also are 
the lives of poets who have given to eternal truths, and also to "airy 
nothings," a local habitation and a name ; musicians, too, are here, men 
whose exquisite melodies thrill the soul with unutterable raptures ; painters 
likewise, whose magic blending of colours makes the canvas glow with life ; 
and sculptors, whose marble creations seem only not to breathe. All are 
here : men whose works exhibit the gentlest emotions of the heart, and the 
most stirring incidents of life, as well as the glories of nature, and depict 
with equal skill the fair forms and opalescent hues of Beauty, and, in all its 
hideousness, the horrid front of War. 

Yes, men of lofty imagination are here, and likewise men of action 
whose feats of daring and whose heroic self-sacrifices have made their names 
to be "familiar in our mouths as household words " ; and, when their deeds 
are recounted, we listen with the most absorbed attention, and the 
pulsations of our hearts quicken, and our breathings become more rapid 
with emotion under the thrilling recital which tells us of those who, for the 
rescue of their fellow-men, " counted not their lives dear unto themselves," 
for neither, on the one hand, did the rigours of arctic winters, when the 
mercury had fallen 40° Fahr. below zero, nor, on the other, did the stifling 
heat and pestilential vapours of Darkest Africa, daunt those fearless men. 
They accomplished their work, and returned victors from the north and 
from the south ; and here are briefly told the stories of their lives— stories 
of conquests over the forces of nature, of triumphs of the indomitable 
human will, and of deeds of daring as valorous as are any which, on the 
field of battle, have won the Victoria Cross for bravery. And they, too, are 
here — the men who have xmflinchingly faced the belching fire of cannon, 
stormed the deadly breach, and planted the flag of England on the 
ramparts of the foe. 

Nor are the brave deeds of gentle women forgotten ; but time would fail 
me to epitomize here a hundredth part of all that is recorded. I can only 
refer the reader to the body of the work, and trust that these few intro- 
ductory remarks will gain for it the perusal of many who have hitherto 
looked upon it as simply a Biographical Dictionary to be consulted by 
Editors when a great man has died. 


A few words of detail : — The essential features of the work remain 
unchanged, b\it the title has been altered from " Men of the Time," to 
" Men and Women of tlie Time; " the size of the pages has been increased, 
and several internal improvements have been effected ; not the least 
important of which is that the present edition, which is the thirteenth, 
contains seven-hundred-and-forty-four additional memoirs, and has, as far as 
was possible, been brought up to date by autobiographical revision. But 
though it is so comprehensive, containing, as it does, memoirs of two- 
thousand-four-hundred-and-fifty celebrities, there are others whose memoirs 
the Editor would have liked to include in it ; but, concerning some of 
them, he has not been able to obtain the requisite information ; and some, 
from motives of modesty, have requested that their names might not be 
inserted ; and it would have been discourteous to refuse. 

In the compilation of a work of this sort, it is impossible to avoid 
errors ; the Editor can say only that he has done his best, and will be 
thankful for any corrections for a future edition. 

The Editor's thanks are due to those who have thus assisted in making 
the work what it is ; — the most comprehensive English Dictionary of 
Contemporary Celebrities that has ever been published; and his thanks are 
due also to his collaborator in America, Mr. L. E. Jones, of New York, for 
his valuable services in connection with the United States and Canadian 
memoirs. His acknowledgments are due likewise to editors of newspapers 
for memoirs which, from time to time, have appeared in the daily and weekly 
press, and of which he has availed himself in return for matter freely accorded 
to them. 

Three-hundred-and-seventy of those whose memoirs occur in the 
previous edition have died since its publication ; and the following are the 
names of those who have died, or whose deaths have come to the Editor's 
knowledge, after that portion of this work had been printed which contains 
their memoirs : — 

T. G. Balfour, Geo. Bancroft, T. F. de Banville, Sir J. Bazalgette, Earl 

Beauchamp, A. Bellot, Sir E. Boehm, C. Bradlaugh, H. B. Brady, 

Dean Church, Lord Cottesloe, Dr. Croll, 0. Feuillet, Baron Haussmann, 

Canon Jackson, A, Johnston, King Kalakaua, A. Karr, C. Marvin, 

J. L. E. Meissonier, Musurus Pacha, Osman Pacha, Prince Napoleon, 

Admiral Porter, and L. Windthorst. 


March, 1891. 


AARIFI PACHA was born at Constan- 
tinople in 1830, being the son of Shekib 
Pacha, a distinguished diplomatist. At 
the age of fifteen he was employed as a 
supernumerary in the offices of the Divan ; 
and in 18i7 he accompanied his father on 
a mission to Eonie. Subsequently he 
went with his father to the embassy at 
Vienna, where he resiiled for two years. 
On his return to Constantinople he ap- 
plied himself assiduously to the study of 
languages ; and he was employed in 
various capacities in the ministry of 
Foreign Affairs. Some years later he ac- 
companied Aali-Pacha to Vienna as First 
Secretary ; and a year afterwards he went 
to discharge the same duty in Paris. His 
knowledge of the French language led to 
his appointment as First Translator in 
Paris to the Sublime Porte, and after- 
wards as First Interj^reter to the Divan. 
The latter office he held till 1872. Sub- 
sequent to that date he occupied several 
important posts in Turkey, being suc- 
cessively Under Secretary of State for 
Foreign Affairs and Surveyor of Ord- 
nance, President of the Executive Cham- 
ber of Justice, and President of the Civil 
Chamber of the Court of Cassation. He 
next resumed his diplomatic career as 
Ambassador in Vienna ; and in 1873 he 
returned to the office of First Intei-preter 
to the Divan, and held it for about a 
twelvemonth. In 1874 Aarifi Pacha was 
nominated Minister of Public Instruc- 
tion ; three months later. Minister of 
Justice, and then, again. Ambassador in 
Vienna. On the establishment of the new 
Ottoman Constitution he was appointed 
President of the Senate, and soon after- 
wards received the portfolio of Foreign 
Affairs. He was accredited Ambassador 
of the Sublime Porte in Paris Nov. 5, 
1877, in succession to Khalil Sheriff 
Pacha. On July 28, 1879, the Sultan 
issued a decree abolishing the post of 
Grand Vizier and appointing Aarifi Pacha 
Prime Minister, with Safvet Pacha as 

Minister of Foreign Affairs. The new 
ministry, however, had but a very brief 
tenure of office. 

ABBE, Cleveland, born in New York 
city, Dec. 3rd, 1838, is the son of George 
Waldo Abbe and Charlotte Colgate, both 
natives of the United States of America, 
and of purely English ancestry. The 
earliest American ancestor of this family 
was John Abbey, of Salem, Massachusetts, 
in 1637. Mr. Cleveland Abbe graduated 
in 1857 at the Free College of the city of 
New York ; studieil Astronomy under 
Briinnow at the University of Michigan, 
1859-60, also under Gould at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, 1860-64, and under Struve 
at Poulkova, 1865 and 1866. He took the 
degree of A.B. 1857. A.M. 1800, LL.D. 
(Michigan University) 1889 ; became 
I)irector of the Cincinnati Observatory, 
1868-74, Professor of Meteorology in the 
Signal Service, and Assistant to the Chief 
Signal Officer, 1871 to the present date. 
He is a Member of numerous Scientific 
Societies ; author of " The Weather 
Bulletin of the Cincinnati Observatory," 
1869 ; " Annual Summary and Review of 
Progress in Meteorology.^' 1873 annually 
to 1888 ; " Eeport on the Signal Service 
Observations of the Total Eclipse of 
1878 ; " " Treatise on Meteorological 
Apparatus and Methods," 1887 ; " Pre- 
paratory Studies for Deductive Methods 
in Storm and Weather Predictions," 
1890 ; and numerous smaller memoirs. 
He was Delegate to the International 
Conveition of 1883 in Washington on 
Prime Meridiaa and Standard Time. 

ABBEY, Eiwin Austin, R.I., was 

born April 1st, 1852, at Philadelphia, 
U.S.A. ; and was a pupil of the Pennsyl- 
vania Academy of Fine Arts. In 1871 
he began drawing for the publica- 
tions of Messrs. Harper & Brothers. In 
1876 he became a Member of the American 
Water Colour Society. In 1878 he re- 


moved to England. He has illustrated 
the following works : — " Selections from 
the Hesperides and Noble Numbers 
of Eobert Herrick," 1882; "She Stoops 
to Conquer," 1887; "Old Songs," 1889; 
" Sketching Rambles in Holland," 1885 
(in conjunction with G. H. Boughton, 
A.R.A.); "The Quiet Life," 1890 (in 
conjunction with Alfred Parson). The 
following are his principal water-colour 
pictures : — " The Stage Office," 1876; 
" The Evil Eye," 1877 ; " The Sisters," 
1881; "The Widower," 1883; "The 
Bible Beading," 1884; "An Old Song," 
1886 ; " The March Past," 1887 ; " Visi- 
tors," 1890; "Mayday Morning," 1890 
(an oil picture). He was elected Member 
of Royal Institute of Painters in Water 
Colours in 1883, and received a second- 
class medal at the Munich International 
Exhibition in 1883, and a first-class 
medal at the Paris Exposition Universelle, 

ABBOTT, The Rev. Edwin Abbott, D.D., 

born in London in 1838, was educated at 
the City of London School (1850-57), and 
at St. John's College, Cambridge, of 
which he became a Fellow. (B.A. 7th 
Senior Optime and Senior in the Classical 
Tripos, 1861, first-class in the Theological 
Tripos, 1862; M.A. 1864.) He was As- 
sistant Master in King Edward's School, 
Birmingham, from 1862 to 1864, and sub- 
sequently at Clifton College till 1865, 
whtn he was appointed Head Master of 
the City of London School. This school 
was at that time in Milk Street, Cheap- 
side ; it now possesses sumptuous new 
buildings on the Embankment at Black- 
friars, and under the Head Mastei-'s 
guidance has taken a position as one of 
the most efficient day-schools in England. 
Dr. Abbott was twice Select Preacher at 
Cambridge ; Hvilsean Lecturer in that 
university, 1876 ; also Select Preacher at 
Oxford, 1877. The Archbishop of Can- 
terbury conferred on him the degree of 
D.D. in 1872. Dr. Abbott has published 
the following theological works : — 
" Bible Lessons," 18/2 ; " Cambridge 
Sermons," 1875 ; " Through Nature to 
Christ," 1877 ; " Oxford Sermons," 1879 ; 
the article on " G-ospels" in the ninth 
edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica ; 
and (in conjunction with Mr. W. G. 
Eushbrooke) " The Common Tradition of 
the Synoptic Gospels," 1881. His other 
works are a " Shakespearian Grammar," 
1870 ; " English Lessons for English 
People " (written in conjunction with 
Pro.essor J. R. Seeley), 1871; " How to 
Write Clearly," 1872 ; " Latin Prose 
through English Idiom," 1873 ; " The 
Good Voices, or, A Child's Guide to the 

Bible," and " Parables for Children," 
1875 ; an " English Grammar," in two 
parts, entitled "How to Tell the Parts 
of Speech," and " How to Parse," 1875 ; 
an edition of Bacon's " Essays," 1876 ; 
" Bacon and Essex," 1877 ; a " First 
Latin Book" entitled "Via Latina," 
1880; " Hints on Home Teaching," 1883 ; 
"Francis Bacon, an Account of His Life 
and Works," 1885 ; and a " First Latin 
Translation Book," entitled " The Latin 
Gate," 1889. Other works published 
anonymously, but subsequently acknow- 
ledged by Dr. Abbott, are "Philo- 
christus," 1878; "Onesimus," 1882 ; " Flat- 
land, or, A Romance of Many Dimensions," 
1884 ; and " The Kernel and the Husk," 
1886. Dr. Abbott resigned the Head- 
Mastership of the City of London School 
in 1889, and received a pension from the 
Corporation in 1890. 

ABBOTT, Lyman, D.D., son of the late 
Jacob Abbott, was born at Roxbury, 
Mass., Dec. 18, 1835. He graduated 
at the University of New York in 1853 ; 
studied law, and was admitted to the Bar 
in 1856. After practising that pi'ofession 
for a short time he abandoned it for the 
study of theology, and was ordained a 
Congregational minister in 1860. He 
was pastor of various churches until 
1865, when he was appointed secretary of 
the American Union (Freedmen's) Com- 
mission, a position retained by him until 
1868. For a portion of this time he was 
also pastor of the New England Church 
in New York, but he resigned in 1869, to 
devote himself to literature and jour- 
nalism. He had charge of the " Literary 
Record " in Harper's Magazine for several 
years, at the same time conducting the 
Illustrated Christian Weekly. Subse- 
quently he was associated with Mr. 
Beecher in editing the Christian Union, 
of which he later became (and still is) 
the senior editor. On Mr. Beecher's 
death he was invited to fill temporarily 
the pulpit of Plymouth Church, Brooklyn, 
and in 1889 was settled permanently over 
that church. In conjunction with his 
brothers Austin and Benjamin, he wrote 
two novels, " Cone-cut Corners," 1855, 
and " Matthew Caraby," 1858, which 
were published under the pseudonym of 
" Benauly," formed from the initial 
syllables of the authors' names. He is 
the author also of "Jesus of Nazareth, 
His Life and Teachings," 1869 ; " Old 
Testament Shadows of New Testament 
Truths," 1870; "A Dictionary of Bible 
Knowledge," 1872; "A Layman's Story," 
1872 ; " Illustrated Commentary on the 
New Testament," 4 vols., 1875-1887; 
" Life of Henry Ward Beecher," 1883 j 

ABD-tFL-HAMrD ll.— A'BfiC^fT. 


" For Family Worship," 1883 ; " In Aid 
of Faith," 1886 ; and " Signs of Promise," 
1889 ; in addition to which he has pub- 
lished a niimber of pamphlets, among 
them " The Results of Emancipation in 
the United States," 1807 ; and has also 
edited two volumes of sermons of Mr. 
Beecher, and a selection from his 
writings entitled " Mox-ning and Evening 
Exercises." The degree of D.D. was 
conferred upon him by Harvai'd Uni- 
versity in 1890. 

ABD-TJI-HAMID II., Sultan of Turkey, 
was born Sept. 22, 1842, being a younger 
son and the fourth child of Abd-ul- 
Medjid, the Sultan who died in 18G1. 
On August 31, 1876, he succeeded his 
brother, Mourad V., who was deposed, on 
proof of his insanity, after a reign of 
three months. Abd-ul-Hamid was 
solemnly girt with the sword of Othman, 
in the Eyoub Mosque, Constantinoijle, on 
Sept. 7. He is a Turk and a Mussulman 
of the old school, and, though without 
allies, he fought Eussia rather than sub- 
mit to any conditions which should bring 
about a disintegration of the Ottoman 
Empire. On April 21, 1877, Russia 
declared war against the Porte, and in 
February, 1878, after the fall of Plevna 
and the passage of the Balkans, the 
Turks were compelled to sue for peace. 
Since the Treaty of Berlin, in 1878, the 
Sultan has shown no great anxiety to 
carry out the reforms, either in Europe 
or in Asia, which were therein stipulated, 
though in regard to Bulgaria and 
Eastern Eoumelia he has been fairly 
loyal to that Treaty. He was often 
praised by Lord Beaconsfield for his 
courage and ability ; but of late years he 
has been given over to the fear of 
assassination, and his distrust of his 
ministers is proverbial. He has been at 
various times under English, German, 
and Russian influence ; the last seems 
to be now prevailing. The Sultan has 
never ceased to protest against the pi'O- 
ceedings of England in Egypt, and is 
believed to have secretly stimulated the 
rebellion of Arabi. 

KHAN, Ameer of Afghanistan, born about 
1830, is the eldest son of Afzul Khan, 
and nephew of the late Ameer Shere 
Ali. During the civil war in 1804, 
Abdurrahman played a leading part on 
the side of his father against his uncle, 
and gained several battles. The great 
victories of Shaikhabad and Khelat-i- 
Ghilzai were mainly due to his ability. 
He was intrusted with the Governorship 
of Balkh, where he made himself popular 

by his moderation, and by man-ying the 
daughter of the chief of Badakshan. In 
1868 he was tenable, however, to offer a 
successful resistance to his cousin, Yakoub 
Khan, son of Shere Ali, who defeated 
him at Bajgah, near Bamain, and also 
finally at Tinah Khan. Abdurrahman 
then fled from the country, ultimately 
reaching Russian territory. General 
Kaufmann permitted him to reside at 
Samarcand, and allowed him a i^ension 
of twenty-five thousand roubles a year. 
He remained in Turkestan until 1879, 
when he slowly made his way through 
Balkh to the Cabul frontier, and in July 
of the following year he was formally 
chosen by the leading men of Cabul, and 
acknowledged by the British Indian 
Government as Ameer of Afghanistan. 
From the Government he receives a 
regular subsidy of .£160,000 a year, with 
large gifts of artillery, I'ifles, and ammu- 
nition to improve his military force. On 
Dec. 26, 1888, he was shot at by a Sepoy, 
at Mazar-i-Sherif, but without injury. 

ABDY, John Thomas, LL.D., son of 

Lieut. -Colonel James Nicholas Abdy, was 
born July 5, 1822, and educated at the 
Proprietary School, Kensington, whence 
he proceeded to Trinity Hall, Cambridge, 
where he graduated as Senior in the 
Civil Law in 1844. In 1847 he took the 
degree of LL.B., and was ci-eated LL.D. 
in 1852. In 1850 he was elected a fellow 
of his college, and in January of that 
year was called to the Bar by the Inner 
Temple. For a short time he went the 
Home circuit, but subsequently chose the 
Norfolk circuit. In 1854 he was appointed 
Regiiis Professor of the Civil Law in the 
University of Cambridge, and he held 
that office till the close of the year 1873. 
He is Lecturer on Law at Gresham 
College, London. In 1870 he was 
appointed Recorder of Bedford, and in 
the following year was promoted to be 
County Cotirt Judge of Circuit No. 38. 
Judge Abdy has published " An Historical 
Sketch of Civil Procedure among the 
Romans," 1857 ; and an edition of " Kent's 
Commentary on International Law," 
1860. In collaboration with Mr. Bryan 
Walker, M.A., he edited, translated, and 
annotated " The Commentaries of Gaius," 
1870, and the "Institutes" of Justinian. 

A'BECKETT, Arthur William, yoimgest 
surviving son of the late Gilbert Abbott 
a Beckett, the well-known metropolitan 
police magistrate and man of letters (the 
descendant of an ancient Wiltshire family 
settled in West Lavington for centuries), 
was born at Portland House, Hammer- 
smith, Oct. 25, 1844, and educated at 

B 2 



Kensington and Felstead Schools. He 
entered the War Office, but left the Civil 
Service after three years* experience of it 
to become, at the age of 20, editor of the 
Glowworm, a London evening paper. 
During the next ten years he edited with 
much success several comic periodicals 
and monthly magazines. In 1870-71 he 
was special corresiDondent to the Standard 
and Globe diiring the Franco-German 
War. For the next two years he was 
private secretary to the Duke of Norfolk. 
Since 1S74 he has been on the staff of 
Punch, to which periodical he has con- 
tributed, amongst other series, " Papers 
from Pump-handle Court, by A. Briefless, 
Junior ; " published in a separate volume 
in 1889. Mr. a Beckett is author of 
several novels, and of two three-act 
comedies, "L.S.D." and " About Town ; " 
a domestic drama in one act, " On Strike ; " 
"Faded Flowers;" and "Long Ago." 
He has also dramatised (in conjunction 
with the late Mr. J. Palgrave Simpson) 
his novel " Fallen among Thieves," under 
the title of " From Father to Son." In 
1887 he edited and in some parts rewrote 
his father's "Comic Blackstone." origin- 
ally published in 1845, bringing it up to 
date. Having, in 1881, been called to 
the Bar by the Hon. Society of Gray's 
Inn, in 1887 he was a^jpointed Master of 
the Revels of that Society by H.E.H. the 
Duke of Connaught, Treasurer, and the 
other Masters of the Bench, and in that 
office edited and produced " The Maske 
of Flowers "in the Hall of Gray's Inn, 
in honour of Her Majesty's Jubilee. 

ABEL, Carl, Br. Phil., Professor tinder 
the Prussian Government Dej^artment 
of Public Instruction, the son of a Berlin 
banker, was born at Berlin, Nov. 25, 
1 837 ; studied Philology, National Psy- 
chology and History at the Universities of 
Berlin, Munich and Tubingen ; travelled 
and stayed for the purposes of linguistic 
research in England, France, Switzerland, 
Italy, Russia, and America. He has 
devoted himself chiefly to the compara- 
tive study of significations and the more 
exact branches of national psychology 
dependent upon the appreciation of 
meanings ; showed linguistic concepts to 
be distinctly national and their com- 
parison the truest means of gauging the 
intellect and feelings of a race ; examined 
the historical stages of significative 
development by an inqtiiry into sundry 
linguistic concepts of the English, 
French, German, Russian, Polish, Egyp- 
tian and Hebrew idioms ; analysed the 
prehistoric origin of meanings through a 
combination of Indo-Germanic and 
Egyptian etymology ; disclosed in the 

course of these labours an identity of 
roots, stems and primary phonetic and 
conceptual laws in the two families of 
speech ; proved these common primary 
laws, while they did not interfere with 
the separate laws of later times, to reveal 
a much more ancient and more per- 
spicuous period of etymology, which 
unfolds the prehistoric history of reason ; 
demonstrated the primitive variability of 
sound and sense, the inversion of both 
and the multiplicity of etymological 
connections and transitions resulting 
therefrom ; extended his investigations 
to Semitic affinities ; sifted, on the basis 
of facts established, the origin of 
language, the growth of signification 
and the theory of synonyms. Professor 
Carl Abel has acted as Ilchcster Lecturer 
on Comparative Slavonic and Latin Lexi- 
cograjjhy at Oxford University ; lectured 
on various etymological and semasiolo- 
gical topics at the Royal Asiatic Society, 
the Royal Literary Society, the Berlin 
Philological, Philosophical and Anthro- 
pological Society ; taught Philosophical 
and Comparative linguistics as well as 
English, French, German and Latin 
Synonymy in the Berlin Humboldt 
Academy of Science ; was linguistic 
assistant to the German Foreign Office 
and the Berlin Law Courts ; served as 
Berlin Correspondent to the Times and 
Standard ; was a contributor to various 
German philological and general perio- 
dicals. Professor Carl Abel reads all 
European and several Oriental languages. 
The following is a list of his principal 
writings: "Linguistic Essays," London, 
1880 (history and theory of signification, 
synonymy, countersense, origin of lan- 
guage, Latin order of words) ; " Sprach- 
wissenschaftliclie Abhandlungen," Leip- 
zig, 1885 (an amplified German edition 
of the foregoing); " Slavic and Latin," 
Ilchester lectures on Compai-ative Lexi- 
cography delivered at the University of 
Oxford, London, 1881; "Gross- iind 
Klein-Russisch. Aus Ilchester Vorle- 
sungen iibersetzt von R. Dielitz, Leipzig, 
1882 (German translation of the fore- 
going); " Koirtische Untersuchungen," 
Berlin, 1878, 2 volumes (grammatical 
and semasiological); " Einleitung in ein 
iigyptisch - indoeuropilisch - semitisches 
Wurzelworterbixch," Leijizig, 1880, 
(Egyptian phonetic and conceptual 
change, with specimen of aj^plication to 
the two other families of speech); Wech- 
selbezichungen der iigyptischen, indo- 
europilischen und semitischen Etymo- 
logie," Theil 1, Leipzig, 1S89 (Compara- 
tive Egyptian and Indo-European analysis 
of the root " ker," crooked, with generic 
conclusions) ; " Agyptisch-Indoeuropii- 


ische Sprachverwandtschaft," Leipzig:, 
1890 (concise summary of the foregoing, 
with amplified general conclusions) ; 
" Agyptisch und Indogermanisch Vor- 
lesung vor den Sprachwissenschaftlichen 
Sectionen des Frankfurter Freien Deut- 
schen Hochstifts, Zweite Auflage," 
Frankfort, 1890 (introductory and 
defensive) ; " Zur Geschichte der Hiero- 
glyphenschrift. Nach dem Holliindischen 
des Dr. W. Pleyte," Leipzig, 1890; 
" Letters on International Relations 
contributed to the Times," London, 1871, 
2 volumes; and "Eussland und die 
Liige," Leipzig, 1S8S (linguistic and 
national psychology applied to history). 

ABEL, Sir Frederick Augustus, C.B., 
D.C.L., F.R.S., was born in London, in 
1H27, and is known principally in connec- 
tion with chemistry and explosives. His 
published works are : — " The Modern 
Histoi-y of Gunpowder," 1866 ; " Gun 
Cotton," 1866; "On Explosive Agents," 
1872 ; " Researches in Explosives," 1875 ; 
and " Electricity Applied to Explosive 
Purposes," 1884. He is also joint-author 
with Colonel Bloxam of a " Handbook 
of Chemistrj'." Sir Frederick Abel has 
been President of the Institute of Chem- 
istry, the Society of Chemical Industry, 
and the Society of Telegraph Engineers 
and Electricians. He was appointed As- 
sociate Member of the Ordnance Com- 
mittee in 1867 ; and is Chemist to the 
War Department and likewise Chemical 
Referee to the Government. In 1883 he 
was one of the Royal Commissioners on 
Accidents in Mines. He has been Organ- 
ising Secretary of the Imperial Institute 
from 1887 ; and was President of the British 
Association at the Leeds meeting, 1S90. 
He was created C.B. in 1877, and Hon. 
D.C.L., Oxford, in 1883, and was knighted 
in the same year. 

ABERDARE (Lord), The Right Hon. 
Henry Austin Bruce Pryce, is the second 
son of the late Mr. John Bruce Pryce, of 
Duffryn St. Nicholas, Glamorganshire, 
who assumed the name of Bruce in lieu of 
his patronymic Knight, in 18U5, and the 
name of Pryce in 1837. He was born at 
Duffryn, Aberdare, on April 16, 1815. At 
the age of six years he was taken hj his 
family to France, where he remained till 
1827. Returning to England in that 
year, he began his regular studies at the 
Swansea Grammar School, and continued 
at that establishment till 1832, when he 
was removed to London, where he read 
for two years in the chambers of his 
uncle, the late liord Justice Knight 
Bruce. He was called to the Bar at 
Ijincolii's Inn in 1837^ but after practisr 

ing for about six years, he withdrew in 
1843 from the working ranks of the pro- 
fession. He was Police-Magistrate of 
Merthyr-Tydvil and Aberdare, Glamor- 
ganshire, from 1847 till 1852, when he 
entered the House of Commons as Mem- 
ber for Merthyr-Tydvil. That borough 
he represented in the Liberal interest till 
the general election of December, 1868, 
when he lost his seat ; but in the follow- 
ing month he Avas returned for Renfrew- 
shire. Mr. Bruce was Under Secretary 
of State for the Home Department from 
Nov. 1S62, to April, 1864 ; and Vice- 
President of the Committee of Council 
on Education from the latter date to 
July, 1866. He was also in 1864 appointed 
a Charity Commissioner for England and 
Wales, and sworn a member of the Privy 
Council. From Nov. 1865, to Aug. 1866, 
he held the post of second Chvirch Estates 
Commissioner. On the formation of Mr. 
Gladstone's cabinet, in Dec. 186S, he took 
office as Secretary of State for the Home 
Department, and the following year he 
was appointed an Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sioner. In Aug. 1873, he was raised to 
the peerage by the title of Lord Aberdare, 
in order to enable him to hold the high 
post of Lord President of the Council, in 
the place of Lord Ripon, resigned. How- 
ever, he was destined to retain that 
exalted position only a very short time, 
as he of course went out of office on the 
defeat of the Liberal party in Feb. 1874. 
He presided over the meeting of the 
Social Science Association held at 
Brighton in 1875, and has also been Pre- 
sident of the Geographical Society. Lord 
Aberdare edited the " Life of General Sir 
Wm. Napier, K.C.B., author of 'History 
of tlie Peninsular War,'" 2 vols., 1864 ; 
and has published "National Education : 
an Address delivered to the National As- 
sociation for the Promotion of Social 
Science," 1866 : and his " Speech on the 
Second Reading of the Education of the 
Poor Bill," 1867. He has been twice 
married : firstly, in 1846, to Annabella, 
daughter of Mr. Richard Beadon (she 
died in 1852) ; and, secondly, in 1851, to 
Norah, daughter of the late Lieiitenant- 
General Sir William P. Napier, K.C.B. 
His son and heir is Mr. Henry Campbell- 
Bruce, who was born in 1851. 

ABERDEEN, The Right Hon. John Camp- 
bell Hamilton Gordon, Seventh Earl of, born 
August 3, 1847, is the grandson of the 
Earl of Aberdeen who was Prime Minister 
in 1854. He was educated at the College 
Hall, in connection with the University 
of St. Andrews, and at University College, 
Oxford, where he graduated M. A. in 1871. 
He succeeded to the title on the 4eath of 


his brother Jan. 27, 1870. He entered 
the House of Lords as a Conservative, but 
in the session of 1876 he disagreed with 
some of the princii^al measures of his 
party, and in 1878, when the Earls of 
Derby and Carnarvon resigned their 
offices. Lord Aberdeen heartily sujiported 
the views of these statesmen. In the 
debate on the Afghan war he voted 
against the government of Lord Beacons- 
field. In 1875 he was a member and sub- 
sequently Chairman of a Koyal Commis- 
sion to enquire into the subject of Rail- 
way Accidents. In 1877-78 he was a 
member of the Committee of the House 
of Lords on Intemperance. In 1880, 
having by that time become a recognised 
member of the Liberal Party, he was ap- 
jDointed Lord-Lieutenant of Aberdeen- 
shire, and High Commissioner to the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scot- 
land in 1881 and four succeeding years. 
In 1886 he was appointed by Mr. Glad- 
stone Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, with 
the mission of carrying oxit the Home Rule 
policy of the Government. In this capa- 
city he was immensely popular in Ireland, 
and the scene in Dublin on the occasion of 
the " leave-taking " after the fall of the 
Gladstone Cabinet is said to have been 
such as had never been witnessed there 
before, at least not since the departure of 
Lord Fitzwilliam in 1795. Lord Aberdeen 
is a member of many religious and philan- 
thropic societies, and contributed .£1,0(J0 
towards General Booth's scheme for 
alleviating distress. He is married to a 
daughter of the first Lord Tweedmouth. 


See Douglas, The Hon. and Rt. Rev. 
Arthuk Gascoigne. 

ABNEY, Captain, 'William de Wiveleslie, 
F.R.S., was born at Derby in 1843, and 
educated at Rossall, and privately, and 
at the Royal Military Academy at 
Woolwich. He was appointed lieutenant 
in the Royal Engineers in 1801, and 
captain in 1873. He was formerly In- 
structor in Chemistry to the Royal 
Engineers, Chatham, and is now Inspector 
for Science in the Science and Ax-t Depart- 
ment. He was one of the scientific 
observers of the transit of Venus in 1874. 
His works are : — " Instrixction in Photo- 
graphy ; " " Emulsion Photography ; " 
and " Thebes and its Five Greater 
Temples." He is the avxthor also of 
many papers in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions, and the Proceedings of the Royal 
Society and the Philosophical Magazine. 
He obtained the Rumford Medal of the 
Royal Society in 1883, for his researches 
in photography and spectrum analysis. 

ACLAND, Sir Henry Wentworth, Bart., 
K.C.B., F.R.S., Regius Professor of 
Medicine in the University of Oxford, 
Hon. D.C.L. of Cambridge, Edinburgh, 
Durham, and Hon. M.D. Dublin, C.R. 
Empire of Brazil, Member of various 
Medical and Scientific Societies in 
Athens, Christiania, and the United 
States, is the fovirth son of the late Sir 
Thomas Dyke Acland, Bart. He was 
born in 1815, and educated at Harrow 
and Christ Church, Oxford, and was 
elected, in 1841, to a fellowship at All 
Souls. He took the degree of M.D. at 
Oxford in 1848, having been appointed 
Lee's Reader in Anatomy in 1S45. In 
that capacity, with several able Assis- 
tants, especially Professors Beale, Victor 
Carus, Melville, and Mr. Charles Robert- 
son, he made the extensive Christ 
Church Physiological Series, on the plan 
of John Hunter, now in the Oxford 
University Museum — an institution to 
the foundation of which Dr. Acland's 
labours contributed not a little, his aim 
being to lay the foundation on the widest 
basis of a complete study of the Kosmos 
in the old classical university. He 
became Regius Professor of Medicine in 
1858, and Radcliffe Librarian, and is 
Curator of the Oxford University Galleries 
and of the Bodleian Libi-ary. He was 
apiDointed a member of Mr. Gathorne 
Hardy's Cubic Space Commission in 1866, 
and of the Royal Sanitary Commission 
from 1869 to 1872. He represented the 
University of Oxford on the Medical 
Coimcil from 1858 to 1875 ; has been 
President of the British Medical Associa- 
tion, of the Physiological section of the 
British Association, and the Public 
Health section of the Social Science 
Association. He published a treatise on 
the "Plains of Troy" in 1839. He 
has written several works on medical, 
scientific and educational subjects, in- 
ckxding an important sanitary work 
under the title of " Memoir on the 
Visitation of Cholera in Oxford in 1854," 
and another called " Village Health," 
in 1884. He accompanied the Prince of 
Wales to America in 1860, and on his 
return was appointed honorary physician 
to his Royal Highness. Sir Henry 
Acland was also Physician to H.R.H. 
Prince Leopold during his Oxford career. 
He was President of the General Medical 
Council from 1874 to 1887, and was made 
K.C.B. in 1884. 

ACLAND, The Right Hon. Sir Thomas 
Dyke, Bart., P.C., M.A., D.C.L., is the 
eldest son of the late Sir Thomas Dyke 
Acland, tenth Baronet, and was born at 
Killerton, Devon, May 25, 1809, He wa,§ 


educated at Harrow and at Christ Church, 
Oxford, where under the tutorship of 
Thomas Vowler Short, afterwards BishoiJ 
of St. Asaph, and Augustus Saunders, 
afterwards Dean of Peterborough, he 
gained a double 1st class. At Christ 
Church his principal friends were Mr. 
Gladstone, Sir Francis Doyle, the late 
Lord Blachford, Professor Austice, and 
the late Lord Elgin, and he also enjoyed 
the friendship of Frederick Denison 
Maurice, then at Exeter College. In 
1837, while reading Law, he was invited 
to stand as a Conservative for West 
Somerset, and on being elected i-etained 
the seat for ten years ; in these first 
years he was chiefly occupied in qiiestions 
connected with the Church of England 
and Education, particularly in carrying 
out the plan of Diocesan Training 
Colleges for Teachers, originated by the 
late Gilbert Mathison. After the General 
Election of 1S41, when Sir Eobert Peel 
began his reform of Tariffs, Sir Thomas 
became much interested in the question 
of Free Trade and Protection ; he steadily 
refused to join the Protectionist Organi- 
sation, and when the crisis of 1846 
arrived, had no hesitation in supporting 
the Eepeal of the Corn Laws, resigning 
his seat for West Somerset at the disso- 
lution, ISiT. He then applied himself 
diligently to the study of Agriculture, 
under Philip Pusey's advice, promoting 
with the help of Lord Portman and Sir 
W. Miles the extension of the Bath and 
West of England Society, the Journal of 
which he personally conducted for seven 
years, retaining his interest in general 
education, and being largely instrumental 
with Bishop Temple in establishing the 
system of Local Examinations. In 1859 
he was invited by the Moderate Liberals 
of Birmingham to stand against Mr. 
Bright, but his candidature was unsuc- 
cessful. In the same year he began to take 
an active part in thelVolunteer movement, 
helping to establish five corps of Mounted 
Rifles in Devonshire. He served on 
the Schools Inquiry Commission, 186-i 
to 1867. In 1865 he entered Parliament 
for the second time as a decided Liberal 
and a follower of Mr. Gladstone. He 
continued to represent North Devon until 
1885, when he was returned for West 
Somerset. He was made Privy Councillor 
in 1883. In 1886 he again stood as a 
Gladstonian Liberal, but was defeated by 
Mr. Charles Elton, Q.C. (Conservative). 
Sir Thomas has two sons in Parliament, 
C. T. Dyke Acland, Liberal Member for 
North-East Cornwall, who was Parlia- 
mentary Secretary to the Board of Trade 
in 1885, and Second Church Estate 
Commissioner ; and Arthur H, Dyk? 

Acland, (Honorary Fellow of Balliol 
College, Oxford), Liberal Member for 
the Rotherham Division of Yorkshire. 
The latter is well known for his exertions 
on behalf of the Co-operative movement 
and Technical Education. 

ACTON (Lord), The Eight Hon. John 
Emerich Edward Dalberg Acton, D.C.L., 
son of Sir Ferdinand Richard Edward 
Acton, Bart., of Aldenham, Shropshire, 
by the only daughter of the Duke of 
Dalberg (afterwards wife of the second 
Lord Granville), was born at Naples, in 
1834, and when about three years of age 
succeeded to the baronetcy on the death 
of his father. For a few years he was a 
student in the Catholic College of St. 
Mary's Oscott, at the time when Dr. (after- 
wards Cai'dinal) Wiseman was at the head 
of that institvition ; but his ediication was 
mainly due to the renowned ecclesiastical 
historian. Dr. DoUinger, of Munich, with 
whom he lived for a considerable time. 
Sir John Acton represented Carlow in the 
House of Commons from 1859 to 1865. 
In the latter year he stood as a candidate 
for the borough of Bridgnorth, when he 
announced in a speech delivered to the 
electors, that he represented, not the 
body, but the spirit, of the Roman Catho- 
lic Church. He was successful at the poll 
by a majority of one, but, on a scrutiny, 
was unseated. In 1869, on the recom- 
mendation of Mr. Gladstone, he was 
created a peer of the United Kingdom by 
the title of Baron Acton of Aldenham. 
In the same year he repaired to Rome, 
on the assembling of the CEcumenical 
Council, and while there rendered himself 
conspicuous by his hostility to the defini- 
tion of the doctrine of Papal Infallibility, 
and by the activity and secrecy with 
which he rallied, combined, and urged on 
those who appeared to be favourable to 
the views entertained by Dr. Dollinger. 
It is believed that he was in relation with 
the Allgeineine Zeitung, and that much of 
the news published by that journal on 
the subject of the Council was communi- 
cated by his lordship. Lord Acton may 
be regarded as the leader of the " Liberal 
Roman Catholics," who are more or less 
out of accord with the traditions of the 
Holy See. He was the editor of the Home 
and Foreign Review, a trimestral periodi- 
cal, commenced in 1862, and carried on 
till 1864, when it ceased to appear, 
having been condemned by the English 
Roman Catholic hierarchy. At a later 
date he edited the Chronicle, a weekly 
newspaper, which for want of adequate sup- 
port had but a brief existence ; and still 
more recently he conducted the North 
Briiish Reviev), formerly an organ of the 


Congregfationalists, which expired under 
his management. His lordshii^ also pub- 
lished, in September, 1870, ' ' A Letter to 
a German Bishop present at the Vatican 
Council " (Sendschreiben an cii/en Deutschen 
Bischof des Vaticanischen Concils, Nordlin- 
gen, September, 1870). This elicited from 
Bishop Ketteler, of Mayence, a spirited 
rejily, which has been translated into Eng- 
lish. His lordship zealously advocated 
the cause of Dr. DoUinger, his former 
l^receptor, and of the " Old Eoman 
Catholic" party; and, conseqiiently, iijjon 
the occasion of the Jubilee of the Univer- 
sity of Munich, in Aiigust, 1872, the 
Philosophical Faculty conferred upon 
him the honorary degxee of Doctor. In 
1874 he rendered himself conspicuous by 
the prominent part he took in the 
controversy which was raised by the 
publication of Mr. Gladstone's pamphlet 
on the Vatican Decrees. His lordship, in 
a series of letters to the Times, brought 
grave charges against several of the Popes, 
although he said that there was nothing 
in life which he valued more than com- 
munion with the Eoman Catholic Church. 
Lord Acton is the author of the article on 
" Wolsey and the Divoice of Henry 
VIII." in the Quarterhj Heview for Jan. 

1877. A French translation of Lord 
Acton's two letters on Liberty was j)\xh- 
lished with a preface by M. de Laveleye, 
under the title of " Histoire de la Liberte 
dans I'Antiqiiitc et le Christianisme," 

1878. In 1S87 Lord Acton was made 
D.C.L. at Oxford, and in 1S90 was elected 
to an honorary fellowshi}) at All Souls' 
College, Oxford — a distinction shared 
only by Mr. Gladstone. 

ADAM, Mme. Edmond, nee Juliette 
lamber, was born at Verberie in 1836. 
She first married M. La Messino, and 
afterwards M. Edmond Adam, deputy for 
the Department of the Seine ; he was 
Prefet de Police at the time of the 
Franco-German war, and during the siege 
of Paris remained in the city ; he was 
created a life Senator, biit died in 1877- 
Mme. Adam was with him, and after- 
wards recorded her experiences in " Le 
Siege de Paris : Journal d'une Parisienne," 
piiblished . 1873. Mme. Adam ' has pub- 
lished a number of works on political and 
social subjects, especially the position of 
women ; amongst her other works are 
•' Garibaldi," 1859 ; " Le Mandarin," 
" Mon Village," 1860 ; " Reeits d'line Pay- 
sanne," 1862 ; " Voyage aiitour du Grand- 
Pore," 1863; "Rocits dii Golfe Juan," 
1865; " Dans les Alpes," 1867; " Saine et 
Sauve," 1870 ; " Laide," 1878 ; "Paienne," 
1879 ; " Poiites Grecs Contemporains," 
1§81 J "La Patrio IJongroise ; Souvenirs 

Personnels," 3rd ed., 1881. In 1879 
Mme. Adam started the Nouvelle Revue, 
which she continues to conduct with great 
ability, and personally contributes the 
fortnightly articles on Foreign politics. 

ADAMS, Charles Francis, great-grand- 
son of the second President of the United 
States, and grandson of the sixth 
President, was born at Boston, May 27, 
1835, graduated at Harvard College in 
1856, and was ad^mitted to the Bar in 1858. 
During the Civil War he was in command 
of a regiment of coloured troops, and was 
brevetted Brigadier-General. He has 
since been identified with railroad de- 
velopment, has served as Railroad Com- 
missioner of Massaclnisetts, and since 
June, 1884, has been President of the 
Union Pacific Railway Co. He has been 
a contribiitor to the North American 
Review, and is the author of " The Rail- 
road Problem," 1875 ; " Railroads, their 
Origin and Problems," 1878 ; " Notes on 
Railroad Accidents," 1879 ; " A College 
Fetich," 1883 ; and, with his brother 
Henry, of "Chapters of Erie," 1871. In 
1882 he was elected a member of the Board 
of Overseers of Harvard University. 

ADAMS, John Quincy, brother of the 
above, was bom in Boston, Sept. 22, 1833, 
graduated at Harvard College in 1853, 
and was admitted to the Bar in 1855. 
During the Civil War he was on the staff 
of Governor Andrew. In 1866 he was 
elected to the State Legislature as a 
Repiiblican, but having favoured the 
"reconstruction" policy of President 
Andrew Johnson, failed of re-election in 
the following year. He has since been a 
prominent leader in the Democratic party, 
by which he was sent to the Massachusetts 
Legislatui-e in 1869 and 1870, and nomi- 
nated for Governor in 1867 and 1871, but 
he was not elected. In 1877 he was 
chosen a member of the corporation of 
Harvard University. 

ADAMS, Charles Kendall, LL.D., was 
born at Derby, Vermont, Jan. 24, 1835. 
A.B. (Univ. of Michigan), 1861. He was 
appointed Assistant Professor of History 
at the University of Michigan in 1863, 
becoming full Professor in 1868. In 1881 
he was made Non-Resident Professor of 
History at Cornell University, Avhere, in 
July, 1885, he succeeded to the Presidency 
on the resignation of President White. 
While at the former university he re., 
organised the methods of instruction in 
history substantially in accordance with 
the German system, and in 1869 — 70 
founded an historical seminai-y, which 
wag very elflcient in promoting the study 



of history and political science. He was 
also made Dean of the School of Political 
Science on its establishment at the 
University of Michigan. He has pub- 
lished " Democracy and Monarchy in 
France," 1874 ; " Manual of Historical 
Literature," 1882, 3rd edit., 1889; "Re- 
presentative British Orations," 3 vols., 
1884 ; be.sides a number of pamphlets and 
papers on historical and educational 

ADAMS, John Couch. M.A., F.E.S., &c., 
was born on June 5, 1819, at Lidcot, near 
Launceston, Cornwall, and was educated 
first at the village school and afterwards 
at Devonijort, where he showed a great 
aptitude for mathematics and astronomy. 
In Octobei', 1839, he entered at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and in the Mathe- 
matical Tripos of 1813 obtained the 
position of Senior Wrangler. He was 
soon after elected to a i'ellowship, and 
became one of the Mathematical Tutors 
of his College. The first great service 
rendered to astronomy by Mr. Adams 
was the discovery of the jDlanet Neptune. 
His attention was first called to the 
existence of unexjilained disturbances in 
the motion of the planet Uranus by read- 
ing Mr. Airy's valuable Report on the 
recent progress of Astronomy, which ap- 
peared in the 1st vol. of the Reports of 
the British Association. According to 
a memorandum dated early in July 1841, 
he had then formed a design of investi- 
gating, as soon as possible after taking 
his degree, " the irregularities in the 
motion of Uranus which are yet unac- 
counted for, in oi-der to find whether they 
may be attributed to the action of an 
undiscovei'ed planet beyond it, and, if 
possible, thence to determine the elements 
of its orbit, which would probably lead to 
its discovery." Accordingly in 1843 he 
began his investigations and calculations, 
and in September, 1845, communicated 
to Professor Challis the values which he 
had obtained for the mass, heliocentric 
longitude, and elements of the orbit of 
the assumed planet. The same results, 
slightly corrected, he communicated, be- 
fore the middle of the following month, 
to the Astronomer Royal. These com- 
munications were made in the hope that 
a search for the planet would be made, 
either at Cambridge or at Greenwich, 
but unfortunately this was not done, in 
consequence of the pressure of other 
work. On Nov. 10, 1845, M. Le Verrier 
presented to the French Academy of 
Sciences a very elaborate investigation 
of the perturbations of Uranus produced 
by Jupiter and Saturn, in which he 
pointed- out several §maU inequalities 

which had previously been neglected. 
After taking these into account and 
correctiag the elements of the orbit, he 
still found that the theory was quite 
incapable of explaining the observed 
irregularities in the motion of Uranus. 
On June 1, 181G, M. Le Verrier presented 
a Second Memoir on the Theory of 
Uranus to the French Academy, in which 
he concludes that the discordances be- 
tween the observations of Uranus and the 
theory are due to the action of a disturb- 
ing planet exterior to Uranus. The place 
assigned by M. Le Verrier to the disturb- 
ing planet was the same, within one 
degree, as that given by Mr. Adams' 
calculations, which had been commu- 
nicated to the Astronomer Royal seven 
months before. This coincidence left no 
doubt in Mr. Airy's mind of the reality 
and general exactness of the prediction 
of the planet's place, and a search was 
immediately undertaken by Professor 
Challis of the Cambridge Observ.atory. 
The star map of the Berlin Academy for 
hoiir xxi. of Right Ascension had lately 
been published, but the English As- 
tronomers were not aware of its exist- 
ence. By the help of this map the search 
would have been extremely easy and 
rapid, as the observations could have 
been compared with the map as fast as 
they were made. On the 2nd Sept., 1846, 
Mr. Adams addressed a letter to the 
Astronomer Royal, in which he communi- 
cated the results of a new solution of the 
problem. The result of this change was 
to produce a better agreement between 
the theory and the latter observations, 
and to give a smaller and therefore a 
more probable value of the eccentricity. 
Meanwhile, on the 31st Aug., 1846, M. 
Le Verrier communicated to the French 
Academy his second paper on the place of 
the disturbing planet, which, however, 
did not reach this country till the third 
or fourth week in September. In this 
paper, which is a very elaborate one, the 
author obtains elements of the orbit of 
the disturbing planet, very similar to 
those found in Mr. Adams' second solution, 
and he also attempts to assign limits of 
distance and longitude within which the 
planet must be found. M. Le Verrier 
communicated his principal conclusions 
to Dr. Galle of the Berlin Observatory on 
Sept. 23, and guided by them, and com- 
paring his observations with the Berlin 
star map, that astronomer found the 
planet on the same evening. The history 
of both the French and English observa- 
tions was published, and although the 
publication of two different investigations 
which had been carried on nearly simul» 
taneously germed likely at ftrgt to giv^ 



rise to controversy respecting priority, 
yet this danger soon passed away, as it 
was evident that the facts of the case 
could not be disputed. It was clear that 
the two researches had been carried on 
quite independently, therefore the honour 
paid to one of the investigators could not 
detract from that due to the other. Soon 
after the discovery of Neptune, several 
members of St. John's College, of which 
Mr. Adams was then a Fellow, raised a 
fund, which was offered to the University 
and accejDted by grace of the senate, for 
the piu'pose of founding a prize to be 
called " The Adams Prize," and to be 
awarded every two years to the author 
of the best essay on some subject of Pure 
Mathematics, Astronomy, or other branch 
of Natural Philosophy. In February, 
1851, Mr. Adams was elected President 
of the Royal Astronomical Society, an 
office which he held for the usual period 
of two years. In May, 1852, Mr. Adams 
communicated to the Koyal Astronomical 
Society new tables of the moon's parallax, 
to be substituted for those of Burckhardt. 
In the Philosophical Transactions for 
1853 there is an important paper by Mr. 
Adams " On the Secular Variation of the 
Moon's Mean Motion." As Mr. Adams 
had not taken Holy Orders, his Fellow- 
ship at St. John's expired in 1852, btit he 
continued to reside in the college until 
the following year, when he was elected 
to a Fellowship at Pembroke College. 
In the autumn of 1858 he obtained the 
Professorship of Mathematics in the 
University of St. Andrew's, and he re- 
sided there and taught the classes until 
the end of the session in May, 1859, 
although in the meantime he had been 
appointed to the Lowndean Professorship 
of Astronomy and Geometry in the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge, in the room of the 
late Professor Peacock, which office he 
still holds. For some years after the 
appearance of Mr. Adams' paper on the 
Lunar Acceleration in 1853, no other in- 
vestigation appears to have turned his 
attention to the subject, but in 1859, M. 
Delaunay, who had invented a new and 
beautiful method of treating the lunar 
theory, found by means of it a result 
entirely confirming that given nearly six 
years before by Mr. Adams. In Feb., 
1866, the Royal Astronomical Society 
awarded the gold medal to Professor 
Adams for his investigations respecting 
the Lunar Parallax and the Secular 
Acceleration of the Moon's Mean Motion. 
In 1861 Professor Challis resigned the 
office of Director of the Cambridge 
Observatory, and Professor Adams was 
appointed to succeed him. Since then 
lie has contributed a number of valuable 

papers to the publications of the Royal 
Astronomical Society and the British 
Association. Professor Adams was one 
of the Delegates for Great Britain at the 
International Prime Meridian Conference, 
■which was held at Washington in October, 
1884, and he is a member of numerous 
distinguished scientific societies, both 
British and foreign. 

ADAMS, William, F.R.C.S., was born 
in London February 1, 1820, his father 
being a surgeon in Finsbury Square. He 
was educated at Mr. W. Simpson's, 
Hackney, and afterwards at King's 
College, London. He was appointed in 
1842 Demonstrator of Morbid Anatomy 
at St. Thomas's Hospital ; in 1851, As- 
sistant Surgeon ; and in 1857 Surgeon to 
the Royal Orthopoedic Hospital ; in 1854 
Lecturer on Surgery at the Grosvenor 
Place School of Medicine ; in 1855 Sui'geon 
to the Great Northern Hospital ; and in 
1874 Surgeon to the National Hospital for 
the Paralysed and Epileptic. Mr. Adams 
was elected vice-president of the Patho- 
logical Society of London in 1867 ; 
president of the Harveian Society of 
London in 1873 ; and president of the 
Medical Society of London in 1876. He 
is the author of "A Sketch of the 
Principles and Practice of Subcutaneous 
Surgery," 1857 ; " On the Reparative 
Process in Human Tendons after Divi- 
sion," 1860 ; " Lectures on Pathology 
and Treatment of Lateral Curvature of 
the Spine," 1865, 2nd edit., 1882; "On 
the Pathology and Treatment of Club- 
foot," 1866 (being the Jacksonian prize 
essay of the Royal College of Surgeons 
for 1861), 2nd edit., 1873 ; " Subcutaneous 
Division of the Neck of the Thigh Bone, 
for Bony Anchylosis of the Hip-Joint," 
1871 ; " On the Treatment of Du- 
puytren's Contraction of the Fingers ; 
and on the Obliteration of Depressed 
Cicatrices by Subcutaneous Operation," 
1879, 2nd edit., 1890 ; and " On Congenital 
Displacement of the Hip-Joint," 1890. 

ADAMS, William Henry Davenport, 

author and journalist, born in 1828, began 
his career as the editor of a provincial 
newspaper, and, removing to London 
at an early age, became connected 
with several influential journals and 
periodicals. In the course of the last 
forty years he has produced a large 
number of books, dealing chiefly with 
historical and biographical subjects. 
His adaptations from the French of Louis 
Figuier, Arthur Mangin, and Michelet 
have passed through several editions. 
Amongst his numerous publications we 
may mention an annotated edition of 



Shakespere, "The Bird World," "The 
Arctic World," "Memorable Battles in 
English History," " Woman's Work and 
Worth," "Heroes of the Cross," "Plain 
Living and High Thinking," " A Con- 
cordance to Shakespere," " The Merry 
Monarch," " Good Queen Anne," " The 
White King," " Witch, Warlock, and 
Magician," " England at Sea," etc. 
Mr. Adams was editor of The Scottish 
Guardian from June, 1870, to Dec, 1877 ; 
and is a frequent contributor to the 
periodical press. His son, W. Davenport 
Adams, has produced a " Dictionary of 
English Literature," and a work on 
" Famous Books," besides publishing 
three collections of annotated poetry, 
entitled "Lyrics of Love from Shakspei-e 
to Tennyson," " The Comic Poets of the 
Nineteenth Century," and ' ' Latter-Day 
Lyrics." He is the author also of " Ram- 
bles in Book-land," and other volumes of 
literary criticism ; and is connected with 
the London press. 

ADAMS-ACTON, John, sculptor, born 
Dec. 11, 1836, at Acton, Middlesex, and 
educated at Ealing Grove School, was 
admitted to the Eoyal Academy in 1855, 
where he gained the first silver medal in 
each school, and also the gold medal for 
an original composition in sculpture, 
subject — " Eve supplicating forgiveness at 
the feet of Adam." He was sent to Rome 
by the Royal Academy as travelling 
student. His principal works in ideal sculp- 
ture produced in Rome and in England are 
" The Lady of the Lake," " The First 
Sacrifice" (Abel), "11 Giuocatore di 
Castelletto," " Pharaoh's Daughter," 
" Zenobia," " Cupid," "Psyche," from 
Morris's " Earthly Paradise." Mr. 
Adams-Acton has executed portrait 
statues or busts of Mr. Gladstone (St. 
George's Hall, Liverpool) , Lord Brougham 
(Reform Club and Fishmongers' Hall), 
Mr. Bright (Seaforth Hall), and the Na- 
tional Liberal Club, the last biist for which 
Mr. Bright gave sittings. Mr. Cobden, 
Sir Wilfred Lawson, George Cruikshank, 
John Gibson (Royal Academy), George 
Moore, Charles Dickens, Dr. Jobson, and 
John Prescott Knight, R. A. ; also the fol- 
lowing statiies and busts for India : — The 
Prince of Wales, Lord Napier of Magdala, 
and E. Powell (for Madras). The most 
important monuments executed by him 
are the Angel of the Resurrection, Mauso- 
leum of Sir Titus Salt at Saltaire, 
Memorial to John and Charles Wesley in 
Westminster Abbey, the Waldegrave 
Memorial in Carlisle Cathedral, Charles 
Prest, Rev. John Farrar, and Sir 
Frances Lycett in the City Road 
Chapel, a bust of Mr. George Eoutledge, 

J.P., and a half - length portrait of 
Mr. John Landseer, A.R.A., reading a 

ADLER. Felix, Ph.D., was born at 
Alzey, Germany, Axigust 13, 1851. He 
went to America when young, and 
graduated at Columbia College (N.Y.), 
in 187U, and subsequently studied at 
Berlin and Heidelberg, where he obtained 
the degree of Ph.D. in 1873. He was 
Professor of Hebrew and Oriental 
Languages and Literature at Cornell 
University from 1874 to 1870, and since 
then has been at the head of the Ethical 
Society of New York, a new religious 
society established by him, which he 
addresses every Sunday and which main- 
tains a number of charities. His prin- 
cipal work is " Creed and Deed," 1877 ; 
in addition to which he has contributed 
many papers to periodical literature. 

ADLER, The Rev. Hermann, Ph.D., 
M.A., son of Dr. Nathan Marcus Adler, 
was bom in Hanover on May 29. 1839, 
and in 1845 accompanied his father to 
London. He studied at University 
College, London, and subsequently at the 
universities of Prague and Leipzig. He 
obtained his B.A. degree at the Univer- 
sity of London in 1859, and that of 
Doctor of Philosophy at Leipzig in 1861. 
In 1862 he was ordained Rabbi by the 
famoxas Rapoport, Chief Rabbi of Prague, 
under whom he had studied Theology. 
In 1863 Dr. Adler was appointed Prin- 
cipal of the Jews' College in London, and 
in the following year Chief Minister of 
the Bayswater Synagogue. When the 
health of his father, the Chief Rabbi, 
began to fail in 1879, he was appointed 
his coadjutor, with the title of Delegate 
Chief Rabbi. He is the joint author of 
" A Jewish Reply to Dr. Colenso's 
Criticism on the Pentateuch," 1865. He 
has published " Sermons on the Passages 
in the Bible adduced by Christian 
Theologians in suppox-t of their faith," 
1869; "The Jews in England," "The 
Chief Rabbis of England," " Ibn Gabii-ol 
the Poet Philosopher," " The Purpose 
and Methods of Charitable Relief," "He- 
brew, the Language of our Prayers," " A 
Pilgrimage to Zion, A Father's Barmitzvah 
Exhortation," " The Sabbath and the 
Synagogvie ; " Sermons in memoriam of Sir 
George Jessel, Master of the Rolls, Sir 
Moses Montefiore, and the Baroness de 
Rothschild ; " Is Judaism a Missionary 
Faith ? " in reply to Professor Max 
Miiller, &c. Dr. Adler has published also 
many lectures and articles which have 
appeared in various periodicals, more 
especially in the Nineteenth Century, in 



which review he conducted a vigorous 
polemic against Professor Goldwin Smith 
on the subject of Jews as Citizens. In 
his article " Recent Phases of Judaeo- 
phobia," in ]881, he drew public atten- 
tion to the persecutions of the Jews in 
Russia. He was apj^ointed a member of 
the Mansion House Committee consti- 
tuted for their relief, and in this capacity 
attended, in conjunction with Sir Julian 
Goldsmid, the Bei'lin Conference of re- 
presentatives of the princij^al European 
Hebrew Congregations, and in 1885 
visited the colonies founded by Russian 
refugees in the Holy Land. In 1887 he 
was elected Chairman of the Council of 
Jews' College, an institution for the 
training of Ministers and Teachers. In 
1888 he gave evidence befoi-e the Select 
Committee of the House of Lords on the 
Sweating System. During his tenure of 
office Dr. Adler has organized a system 
of visitation among the j^oor Jews in the 
East of London, assisted in establishing 
Religious Classes in connection with 
several Board Schools, and started a Fund 
for siibventioning poor Ministers in the 
Provinces. After the death of his father 
in 1890 he was solicited to act provi- 
sionally as Chief Rabbi during the inter- 
val preceding the election. In 18G7 he 
married Rachel, eldest daughter of the 
late S. Joseph, by whom he has issue one 
son and two daughters. 

ADYE, General Sir John Miller, G.C.B., 
son of the late Major James P. Adye, R.A., 
was born on Nov. 1, 1819, at Sevenoaks, 
Kent, and entered the Royal Artillery at 
the close of the year 1836. Throughout 
the Crimean War and the Indian Mutiny 
he was Adjutant-Greneral of the Royal 
Artillery. He also served in the Sitana 
Campaign of 1863-i, for which he received 
a medal ; and he has received, besides, 
the Crimean, Turkish, and Indian Mutiny 
medals, and the 4th Class of theMedjidieh. 
He was created a C.B. in 1855, and a 
K.C.B. in 1873. In Feb. 187I-, the Queen 
granted to Sir J. M. Adye her royal 
licence and authority to accept and wear 
the insignia of Commander of the Order 
of the Legion of Honour conferred upon 
him by the President of the French 
Republic as a promotion from the class 
of Officer of the same order which he 
received for his services during the 
Crimean War. He was Director of 
Artillery from 1870 to 1875, and was 
appointed Governor of the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich, in July, 1875. 
He became a Lieutenant-General in the 
army in 1879. In 1880 he resigned the 
post of Governor of the Royal Military 

Academy at "WgQlwichj Qn being jip- 

pointed Surveyor-General of Ordnance. 
The following year he became Colonel 
Commandant of the Royal Artillery. He 
was Chief of the Staff and second in 
command of the expeditionary force sent 
to Egypt in 1882, and for his services he 
received the Egyptian medal and 
Khedive's star, the thanks of Parliament, 
the Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, 
and the 1st Class of Medjidieh. In January, 
IS'SS, he was appointed Governor of 
Gibraltar, in succession to Lord Napier of 
Magdala, from which appointment he 
retired in November, 1886. Sir John 
Adye is the author of " The Defence of 
Cawnpore by the Troops under the Orders 
of Major-General C. A. Windham in 
Nov., 1857,'' 1858; "A Review of the 
Crimean War to the Winter of 1854- 
55," 1860 ; " Sitana : a Mountain Cam- 
paign on the Borders of Affghanistan in 
1863," 1867. He married, in 1856, Mary 
Cordelia, eldest daughter of the late 
Vice-Admiral the Hon. Sir Montagu 
Stopford, K.C.B. 

AIKINS, The Hon. James Cox, a Cana- 
dian statesman, was born in the township 
of Toronto, county Peel, Ontario, March 
30, 1823. He was educated at Victoria 
College, Cobourg, and entered j^ublic life 
in 1854, by representing his native county 
in the Canadian Assembly, which he con- 
tinued to do until 1861. In the following 
year he was elected a member of the 
Legislative Council for the "Home" 
Division, comprising the counties of Peel 
and Halton. He continued to sit in the 
Council until it was abolished by Con- 
federation, after which he was raised to 
the Senate. In December, 1869, he 
became a member of the Privy Council, 
and entered the Macdonald Government 
as Secretai-y of State, remaining in that 
office iintil the fall of the Government in 
1873. In 1872 he fi-amed and carried 
through Parliament the Public Lands 
Act of that year, and subsequently organ- 
ized the Dominion Lands Bureau, a de- 
partment of government entrusted with 
the management of the lands acquired in 
the North-West, chiefly from the Hud- 
son's Bay Company, a department which 
is now controlled by the Canadian 
Minister of the Interior. On the return 
of the Macdonald Government to power, 
in 1878, Senator Aikins resumed the 
portfolio of Secretary of State, ex- 
changing it two years later for the 
office of Minister of Inland Revenue. 
In 1882 he was ajjpointed Lieutenant- 
Governor of the province of Manitoba 
and district of Keewatin, an office 
which he retained until hig term Q^- 
pired in 188!^, 



AINSWORTH, William Francis, Ph.D., 
L.E.C.S., F.S.A., F.E.G.S., was born in 
1807. Having travelled abroad, he 
became, in 1829, editor of the Journal of 
Natural and Geological Science. On the 
breaking out of cholera in Sunderland, in 
1832, he was one of the first to repair 
thither in order to study the new epi- 
demic, and he published the result of his 
observations in a work " On Pestilential 
Cholera." He was successively ap- 
pointed surgeon to the cholera hospitals 
at St. George's, Hanover Square, and at 
Westport, Ballinrobe, Claremorris, and 
Newport, in Ireland. Whilst in that 
country he lectured on geology in Dublin 
and Limerick. In 1835 he was ajjpointed 
surgeon and geologist to the Euphrates 
Expedition, and published " Eesearches 
in Assyria, Babylonia, and Chaldffia," 
1838, in which year he was also sent by 
the Eoyal Geographical Society, and the 
Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge, to the Nestorian Christians in 
Kurdistan. His " Travels in Asia Minor, 
Mesopotamia, and Armenia," 1842, and 
" Travels in the Track of the Ten Thou- 
sand Greeks," of which an analysis was 
also given in Bohn's edition of Xenophon's 
" Anabasis," were the result of the two 
journeys, extending over a period of 
seven years. Dr. Ainsworth has edited 
" Claims of the Oriental Christians," 
" Lares and Penates ; or, Cilicia and its 
Governors," " The Euphrates Valley 
Eoute to India," " On an Indo-Eiu-opean 
Telegraph by the Valley of the Tigris " 
(since carried out by the Turkish Govern- 
ment), "All Pound the World," "The 
Illustrated Universal Gazetteer," &c. 
Dr. Ainsworth has since published 
" Personal Recollections of the Euphrates 
Expedition," 2 vols., 8vo., and " The River 
Karun an Opening to Commerce," sm. 8vo. 
Dr. Ainsworth is a member of many foreign 
societies. He was one of the founders of 
the " West London Hospital," of which 
he is at present the Treasurer and one of 
the Trustees. 

AIRY, Sir George Bidden, K.C.B.,D.C.L., 

LL.D.,F.R.S., the late Astronomer Royal, a 
native of Alnwick, Northumberland, born 
June 27, 1801, was educated at private 
schools at Hereford and Colchester, and 
at the Colchester Grammar School, 
whence he proceeded to Trinity College, 
Cambridge, in 1819. In 1822 he was 
elected Scholar, and in 1824 Fellow, of 
Trinity, having graduated B.A. in the 
previous year, when he came out Senior 
Wrangler. In 1825 Mr. Airy called at- 
tention to an optical malady of the 
human eye, which has since received the 
name of " Astigmatism," examined its 

nature and provided a remedy for it. 
In 1826 he took his degree of M.A., and 
Avas elected Lvicasian Professor. This 
office, rendered illustrious by having 
been filled by Barrow and Newton, had 
become a sinecure. No sooner was Pro- 
fessor Airy elected, than he resolved to 
turn it to account, and to deliver public 
lectures on Experimental Philosophy. 
He began this good work in 1827, and 
continued it to 1836, the series being 
known as the first in which the Undula- 
tory Theory of Light was efficiently 
illustrated. In 1828 he was elected to 
the Plumian Professorship, and in that 
capacity was intrusted with the entire 
management of the Cambridge Observa- 
tory. On taking charge of this post he 
began a course of observations, and in- 
troduced improvements in the form of 
the calculation and publication of the 
observations, which have served as a 
l^attern at Greenwich and other observa- 
tories. Professor Airy also superintended 
the mounting of the Equatorial, the 
Mural Circle, and the Northiimberland 
Telescope (the last entii-ely from his own 
plans), at the Cambridge Observatory. 
In 1835 he succeeded Mr. Pond as 
Astronomer Eoyal. In this capacity he 
distinguished himself by giving greater 
regularity to the proceedings in the 
Observatory at Greenwich, by main- 
taining the general outline of the plan 
which its essential character and its 
historical associations have imposed upon 
that institvition, while he introduced 
new instruments and new modes of 
calculation and publication, by which the 
value of the Observatory to science is 
much increased. Sir G. B. Airy, who 
computed, edited, and published the 
observations of Groombridge, Catton, 
and Fallows, and reduced the Greenwich 
observations of planets and observations 
of the moon from 1750 down to the 
present time, has also thrown much light 
on ancient chronology, by computing 
several of the most important eclipses of 
former ages. He has illustrated the 
Newtonian theory of gravitation, and 
api^roximated the great object of ascer- 
taining the weight of the earth, by a 
series of experiments on the relative 
vibrations of a pendulum at the top and 
at the bottom of a deep mine (the deep 
Dolcoath Mine, near Camborne, in Corn- 
wall, and at the Harton Colliery, near 
South Shields) ; has paid great attention 
to the testing and improvement of marine 
chronometers, and to the diifusion, by 
galvanic telegraph, of accurate time- 
signals. In 1838 he was consulted by the 
Government respecting the disturbance 
of the compass in iron-built ships, and 



the result of the experiments and theory 
develoiied by him on that occasion was 
the establishment of a system of mechan- 
ical correction by means of magnets and 
iron, which has since been tiniversally 
adopted. He was chairman of the Com- 
mission appointed to consider the general 
question of standards, and of the Com- 
mission inti-usted with the superin- 
tendence of the new Standards of Length 
and Weight, after the great fire which 
destroyed the former national standards 
in the Houses of Parliament in 1834. 
The account of the proceedings on these 
occasions, published in the " Philo- 
sophical Transactions," is from his pen. 
He advocated the establishment of a 
decimal coinage and, acting as one of 
three Royal Commissioners on Railway 
Gauges, recommended the narrow as 
opposed to the broad gauge on our rail- 
ways ; conducted the astronomical opera- 
tions preparatory to the definition of the 
boundary between Canada and the United 
States, and aided in ti-acing the Oregon 
boundary. Sir G. B. Airy contributed 
to the " Cambridge Transactions," " The 
Philosofjliical Transactions," " The Mem- 
oirs of the Eoyal Astronomical Society," 
the Philosophical Magazine, and the 
Athenceiim (often under the signature of 
A.B.G.). In the Athenceum are several 
papers on antiquarian subjects, especially 
British. He also wrote strongly in the 
Athenceum and elsewhere in opposition to 
the legislation proposed by the University 
Commissioners in refei-ence to his own 
university, and more especially to his 
own college. In 1869 he communicated 
a remarkable discovery to the Eoyal 
Astronomical Society, in a " Note on 
Atmospheric Chromatic Dispersion, as 
affecting Telescopic Observation, and on 
the Mode of Correcting it." He was 
intrusted with the entire direction of the 
British portion of the enterj^rise for 
observing the transit of Venus in Dec. 
1874 ; on the results of which a Report 
was communicated to the House of 
Commons in 1877. More recently he 
has suggested a new method of treating 
the Liinar Theory. He added to the 
original course of labours at the Royal 
Observatory a complete system of mag- 
netic, meteorological, photoheliographic, 
and spectroscopic observations. The 
principal works written by Sir. G. B. 
Airy are, " Gravitation," for the Penny 
Cycloiicedia, published separately also ; 
"Mathematical Tracts" (fourth edition) ; 
" Ijaswich Lectures on Astronomy " 
(fourth edition), (adopted as text-book 
in the Australian Universities) ; " Treatise 
on Errors of Observation " (1861) ; 
" Treatise on Sound " (1869) ; " Treatise 

on Magnetism " (1870) ; also " Trigo- 
nometry ; " " Figure of the Earth ; " and 
" Tides and Waves ; " in the Encyclo- 
pmdia Metropolitana, since republished 
separately ; and " Notes on the early 
Hebrew Scriptures." Sir G. B. Airy has 
received the Lalande medal of the French 
Institute, the Copley Medal and the 
Royal Medal of the Eoyal Society ; the 
Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society ; 
the Albert Medal, presented by the 
Prince of Wales ; and the medal of the 
Institution of Civil Engineers for sugges- 
tions on the construction of bridges of 
very wide span. From the Universities 
of Oxford, Cambridge, and Edinburgh 
he has also received the honorary degrees 
of D.C.L. and LL.D. ; he is a F.R.S., a 
Fellow of the Royal Astronomical 
Society, Member of the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society, Honorary Mem- 
ber of the Institution of Civil Engineers ; 
one of the eight Foreign Associates of 
the Institute of France ; and has long 
been connected, as Foreign Corre- 
spondent, with many other foreign 
academies. He was appointed one of the 
first members of the Senate of the Uni- 
versity of London, but soon after resigned 
the office. He was nominated a Com- 
panion (Civil) of the Bath, May 17, 1871 ; 
and created a Knight Commander of 
the same order, July 30, 1872. On Dec. 
1, 1873, Sir G. B. Airy resigned the 
position of President of the Royal Society 
which he had held for two years. He 
was honoured by admission to the free- 
dom of the City of London in 1875 ; and 
he was elected a Foreign Associate of 
the Dutch Academy of Sciences in 1878. 
On his resignation of the post of Astrono- 
mer Royal in 1881 the Treasury awarded 
him a pension of ,£1,100 per annum in 
consideration of his long and valuable 

AITCHISON, George, A.R.A., architect, 
was born at 52, Edgeware Road, London, 
went to Merchant Taylors' School until 
his sixteenth year, was then articled to 
his father, George Aitchison, architect, 
and became student of the Royal 
Academy in 1847, and subsequently 
entered University College, London, 
where he gained prizesTfor mathematics, 
and graduated B.A. at the London Uni- 
versity in 1850. From 1853 to 1855 he 
travelled in France, Switzerland and 
Italy ; was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Institute of British Architects in 1862 ; 
subsequently became a member of the 
Council, and in 1889 was elected Vice- 
President. He was for several years one 
of the examiners for the Voluntary 
Architectural examination, and is also 



examiner for the National Art Prizes at 
South Kensington. Mr. Aitchison gained 
medals at the following exhibitions, viz., 
Philadelphia, 1876 ; Sydney, 1879 ; Ade- 
laide, 1887, and two at Melbourne ; a 
bronze in 1881, and silver in 1888 ; was 
made an officer of Public Instruction by 
the French Government in 1879, having 
designed the fittings and furniture for 
the British Art section of the Paris 
Exhibition, 1878. On June 2, 1881, he 
was elected an Associate of the Royal 
Academy in the place of the late William 
Burges, A.E.A. He gave lectiu-es on 
architecture at the Royal Academy in 
1882, '83, '84, '85, '86 and '87. In 1885 he 
was elected a corresponding member of 
the Societe Centrale des Architectes in 
Paris ; was elected Professor of Architec- 
ture at the Royal Academy in 1887 ; in 

1888 he gave the Cantor Lectures on 
Decoration at the Society of Arts. He 
decorated Kensington Palace for H.R.H. 
the Princess Louise, and the house and 
Arab hall for Sir Fred. Leighton. He 
has added to, altered, and decorated 
houses for the Duke of Montrose, Lord 
Hillingdon, the Duchess of Newcastle, 
Lord Leconfield, Sir "Wilfrid Lawson, 
M.P., Sir S. Waterlow, M.P., and others. 

AITCHISON, Brig. Surgeon James 
Edward Tierney, M.D., CLE., LL.D. 
Edin., F.R.S., son of the late Major 
James Aitchison, H.E.I.C.S.; was born in 
1835; M.D. Edin., 1856; F.R.C.S. Edin., 
1863; M.R.C.P.Edin., 1868; F.R.S.Edin., 
1882 ; F.R.S. London, 1883 ; LL.D. Edin., 

1889 ; entered the Bengal Medical Dept. 
1858 ; became surgeon 1870 ; surgeon- 
major 1873 ; and brig, surgeon 1885 ; re- 
tired 1888. He was British commissioner, 
Laduk, 1872 ; served with Kuram field 
force at the advance on and taking of the 
Pewar Khotal, 1878 {medal with clasp), 
and as botanist to the force 1879-1880. 
He was secretary to the surgeon-general 
H.M. Forces 1883-8, and naturalist with 
the Afghan Delimitation Commission 
1884-85; and was created CLE., 1883. 
His published works are : — " A Catalogue 
of the Plants of the Punjaub and Sindh," 
1869 ; " Handbook of the Trade Products 
of Leh," 1874. In the Linnean Society's 
Journal of Botany, 1864, " Flora of the 
Thelum District;" 1868, "Luhul, its 
Flora and Vegetable Products ; " 1869, 
" Flora of the Hushearpur District ; " 
1880, " Flora of the Kuram Valley, &c., 
Afghanistan ; " 1882, continuation " Flora 
of the Kui'am Valley, Afghanistan." 
In the Transactions of the Linnean 
Society, 1888, "The Botany of the Af- 
ghan Delimitation Commission ; " 1889, 
" The Zoology of the Afghan Delimita- , 

tion Commission." He married in 1862, 
Elean Carmichal, daughter of Robert 
Craig, Esq., Newbattle, N. B. 

AITKEN, Sir William, Knt., M.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S. .Professor of Pathology in 
the Army Medical School at Netley, 
Hants, was born in Dundee, Forfarshire, 
April 23rd, 1825, and was educated at 
the High School there. After serving an 
apprenticeship to his father, a surgeon in 
Dundee, he became Resident Medical 
Officer at the Dundee Infirmary. He 
matriculated as a student in the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh in 1842, attending 
first the Arts Classes, subsequently pass- 
ing through the Medical curiculum, and 
finally proceeding to the Degree of 
Doctor of Medicine in 1848. In the same 
year he became a Licentiate of the Royal 
College of Siu'geons in Edinburgh. In 
the autumn of 1848 he was selected by 
Dr. Allen Thomson, the Professor of 
Anatomy in the University of Glasgow, as 
his Demonstrator of Anatomy in that 
university. He continued to hold this 
office, and also that of Pathologist to the 
Glasgow Royal Infirmary, till April, 1855, 
when he vohmteered for service in the 
Hospitals in Turkey during the Russian 
War. He received an appointment from 
the Right Hon. the Secretary of State for 
War, as one of a special Pathological 
Commission, " to proceed to the seat of 
war in the East, to investigate the nature 
of the diseases from which the ti'oops 
were suffering, and especially at Scutari 
on the Bosphorus." The results of that 
commission of inquiry were published 
(jointly with that of the late Dr. R. D. 
Lyons, Professor of Medicine in the 
Roman Catholic University of Dublin) in 
a Parliamentary Report, at the request 
of the Secretary of State for War, in 1856. 
Diu'inghis service in the East, Dr. Aitken 
had the honour of being elected a corre- 
sponding member of the following foreign 
medical societies : — The Royal Imperial 
Society of Physicians of Vienna ; the 
Society of Medicine and Natural History 
of Dresden ; and the Imperial Society of 
Medicine of Constantinople. He was 
appointed on 28th January and gazetted on 
27th March, 1860,as Professor of Pathology 
in the Army Medical School. On the 
death of his colleague. Dr. Parkes, he was 
appointed his successor as secretary to 
the Senate of the Army Medical School ; 
and also as Examiner in Medicine for the 
Military Medical Services of the Queen at 
the London Examinations which are held 
in February and August of each year. 
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society of London in 1875, and a Mem- 
ber of the Athenajum Club in 1881. He 



had the honour of Knighthood conferred 
tipon him on the occasion of the Queen's 
Jubilee in 1887. He received the hono- 
rary degree of LL.D. from the University 
of Edinburgh on 18th April, 1888; and 
also from the University of Glasgow in 
August of the same year. He was 
President of the section of Pathology at 
the General Annual Meeting of the 
British Medical Association in Glasgow 
in August, 1888. Sir William Aitken has 
been mainly occupied as a teacher, 
investigator and writer on Anatomy and 
Pathology, and esijecially taking an active 
part in the business of the Army Medical 
School, and that of the several official 
positions which he has held, as well as in 
medical education, and the general 
progress of science. He is the author of 
numerous published papers on Pathology 
and the Science of Medicine, of which his 
dissertation " On Inflammatory effusions 
into the substance of the lungs as modified 
by contagious fevers, illustrated with 
drawings of microscopic and ordinary 
ajapearances of the pulmonary lesions," 
gained for him the gold medal on his 
graduation as Doctor of Medicine in the 
University of Edinburgh in 1848, and 
some reputation as a worker in Patholosry. 
This dissertation was published in the 
Ed. Med. and Surgical Journal, 184-9. 
He is the author of "Contributions to 
the Pathology of Acute Chorea and Teta- 
nus ; " of "Acute Hypertrophy of the 
Mamma terminating fatally:" of "Cir- 
coid Aneurism;" of "Thoracic Aneu- 
rism ; " of " The Specific Gravity of the 
Brain and Nervous Centres, and of the 
Spinal Cord in Health and Disease," in 
the first volume of the Glasgow Medical 
Journal ; of a joint report with Dr. Lyons 
" On the Pathology of the Diseases of the 
Troops in the East during the Russian 
War of 1855-56 ; " " On the Diseases of 
the Troops and on the Climate of Scutari 
on the Bosphorus," published in the 
Glasgow Medical Journal, April, 1857 ; " 
" Medical History of the War with 
Russia," in the Glasgow Medical Journal, 
July, 1857 ; " On the Persistent Pernicious 
influence of the residence in Bulgaria on 
the subsequent Health of the British 
Troops in the Crimea," communicated to 
the Royal Medico-Chirurgical Society of 
London and joublished in their Transac- 
tions, Vol. XL. ; " On conducting Post- 
mortem Examinations at Coroners' In- 
quests," Glasgow Med. Journal, 1857 ; " On 
the Pathological Connections and Rela- 
tions of EiDidemic Disorders in Man and 
the Lower Animals, with special reference 
to the relationship between the health of 
man and the condition of his food," Med. 
Times and Gazette, Ai^ril, 1857 j "Analy- 

tical Review of Royal Med. Ch. Society 
of London's Transactions, Vol. XLI., in 
Med. Ch. Review, 1859 ; " Critical and 
Analytical Review of recent Works on the 
Pathology of Vaccination, and its Pro- 
tective Influence from Small-jjox," in 
Med. Ch. Review, Oct. 1857 ; " Analytical 
and Critical Review of the first Decen- 
nium of the Pathological Society of 
London," in Med. Ch. Review, 1858 ; 
" Handbook of Science and Practice of 
Medicine," 1858. In the 2nd. edit, 
published in 1861, the use of the 
thermometer was for the first time 
expounded in any English text book 
of medicine as a means of determining 
the temperature of the body in cases of 
fever, and charts were given character- 
istic of the ranges of temperature in 
specific febrile diseases. This work has 
now (1890) reached its 7th edit. "The 
Growth of the Recruit and Young 
Soldier," 2nd edit. ; " On the Doctrine of 
Evolution in its application to Patho- 
logy," in Glasgow Med. Journal, 1885-86 ; 
" Diseases of Spleen," in Quain' s Dictionary 
of Medicine ; " On the Animal Alkaloids," 
2nd edit., 1889. 

AITKEN, The Eev. William Hay 
Macdowall Hunter, is the youngest son of 
the late Rev. Robert Aitken by his 
second wife Wilhelmina, daughter of the 
late Col. Macdowall Grant, of Arndilly, 
Banffshire, N.B. He was born at Liver- 
pool, educated at his home in Pendeen, 
Cornwall, matriculated in 1859 at 
Wadham College, Oxford, and graduated 
in honours (2nd class Lit. Hum.), taking 
his degree B.A. in 1865. Hewas ordained 
at Christmas, 1865, on his nomination by 
the late Rev. W. Pennefather to the 
curacy of St. Jude's, Mildmay Park, N., 
where he continued until the year 1871, 
when he accepted the incumbency of 
Christ Church, Everton, Liverpool. Here 
he worked for more than four years. In 
the year 1869 the " twelve days' mission " 
was held in London, and Mr. Aitken took 
a prominent part in it. From that time 
forward his services were in great request 
for this kind of work, and in the year 
1875, finding that mission work, in addition 
to the care of a large parish, entailed too 
severe a strain, he i-esigned his living 
and gave himself up to the work of a 
mission preacher. As such he has con- 
ducted mission services in several 
of our cathedrals, e.g., in Canterbury, 
York, Bristol, and Manchester, and in 
most of the old parish churches of our 
large towns. A few years ago he visited 
the United States at the request of the 
bishop and clergy of New York, to assist 
in the general New York mission., and 



in furthering the mission movement 
throughout the States. Mr. Hay Aitken 
has been chiefly instrumental in founding 
the " Church Parochial Mission Society," 
which has for its object the supply of 
mission preachers to carry on this work. 
The society was organised as a memorial 
to Mr. Aitken's father, and bore the name 
at fii-st of the Aitken Memorial Mission 
Fund. He is the author of the following 
works : — " Mission Sermons," 3 vols. ; 
" Newness of Life ; " " What is your Life ? " 
"God's Everlasting Yea;" "The Glory 
of the Gospel ; " " The Highway of 
Holiness ; " " Around the Cross ; " " The 
Kevealer Eevealed ; " " The Love of the 
Father;" "Eastertide;" "The School 
of Grace ; " and " The Difficulties of the 

AKERS-DOUGLAS, Aretas, M.P., eldest 
son of the late Rev. Aretas Akers, of 
Mailing Abbey, Kent, was born in 1851, 
and educated at Eton and at University 
College, Oxford. He was called to the 
Bar at the Inner Temple in 1874, and in 
1875 assumed the additional name of 
Douglas. In 1880 he entered Parliament 
as Conservative member for the East 
Kent Division, and now represents the 
new St. Augustine's Division. In both 
Lord Salisbury's administrations he has 
held the post of Political Secretary to the 
Treasury, or " Whip." 

ALBANI, Madame. See Gye, Madame. 

A. K. H. B. iSecBoTD,THEEEV.A.K.H. 

ALBANS, St., Bishop of. See Festing, 
The Rt. Rev. John W. 

ALBANY (Duchets o;), H.E.H. Helene 
Fredrica Augusta, the daughter of 
the Prince and Princess of Waldeck- 
Pyrmont, and sister of the Queen of the 
Netherlands, was born on Feb. 17, 1861. 
She married H.E.H. the late Prince 
Leopold, Her Majesty's youngest son, on 
April 27, 1882, and became a widow by 
his sudden death at Cannes, on March 
28, 188 1. The Princess lost her mother 
in 1888. She has two children, one of 
whom was born after the Prince's death ; 
the Princess Alice Mary Victoria Augusta 
Pauline, born at Windsor Castle, Feb. 25, 
1883 ; and the Prince Leopold Charles 
Edward George Albert, Duke of Albany, 
born at Claremont, July 19, 18S4. The 
Princess receives a pension of ^66,000 a 
year from the British Government. 

ALBERT, King of Saxony, K.G., born 
April 23, 1828 ; succeeded his father Oct. 
29, 1873, . He received a thorough military 

education, and took part in the Danish 
war of 1848. He fought also on the 
side of the Austrians in the disastrous 
b-:'ttle of Sadowa in 18GG, and likewise in 
the Franco-German war in the operations 
before Metz, and in the operations which 
terminated in the surrender of Napoleon 
at Sedan, and the siege of Paris, when 
he held the right bank of the Seine. 
On the conclusion of the war he 
was made Field-Marshal and Inspector- 
General of the German Army. He 
married Caroline, the daughter of Px'ince 
Gustavus Vasa of Sweden. His heir is 
his brother. Prince George. 

ALBERT (Archduke of Austria), Frede- 
rick Rodolph, born August 3, 1817, is the 
son of the late Archdvike Charles and the 
Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg. 
He married, in 1841, the Princess Hilde- 
garde, of Bavaria, who died April 2, 1864, 
leaving two daughters. At an early age 
he entered the army, commanded a 
division in Italy in 1819, took an impor- 
tant part in the battle of Novara, received 
at the end of the campaign the command 
of the 3rd Corps d'Ariiiee, and was after- 
wards appointed Governor-General of Hun- 
gary. During a leave of absence accorded 
to Field-Marshal Benedek, in 1861, he 
was appointed to the command of the 
Austrian troops in Lombardy and Venetia. 
During the campaign of 1866 he gained a 
victory over the Italian army at Custozza, 
and, after the battle of Sadowa, he was 
made (July 13, 1866) Commander-in-Chief 
of the Austrian army, which title he re- 
tained till March, 1869, when he ex- 
changed it for that of Inspector-General 
of the army. He published, in 1869, a 
work on " Responsibility in War " ( Ueher 
die Verantwortlichkeit ini Kriege). This 
has been translated into French by 
L. Dufour, captain of artillery, and an 
English translation of it is given in 
Capt. W. J. Wyatt's " Reflections on the 
Formation of Armies, with a View to the 
Reorganization of the English Army," 

ALBERT VICTOR, H.R.H. Prinse. See 
Clarence and Avondale, Duke of. 

ALBONI, Madame. See Petolo. Madame. 

ALCESTER (Baron), The Right Hon. 
Frederick Beauchamp Paget Seymour, 
G.C.B., is the only surviving son of the 
late Sir Horace Beauchamp Seymour, 
M.P.,by his first wife, Elizabeth Mallett, 
daiaghter of the late Sir Lawrence Palk, 
Bart. ; and a grandson of Vice-Admiral 
Lord Hugh Seymour. He was born in 
Bruton Street, London, on April 12, 1821^ 



was educcated at Eton, and entered the 
Eoyal Navy in Jan., 1834, receiving his 
lieutenant's commission in March, 1842. 
He became a captain in 1851, rear- 
admiral in 1870, vice-admiral in 1876, 
and admiral in 1882. He served as a 
volunteer in the Burmese war of 1852-3 
as aide-de-camp to General Godwin, and 
led the storming j^arty of Fusiliers at the 
capture of the works and pagoda of Pegu. 
He was also present in niimeroiis other 
engagements on land and water, was 
four times gazetted, and awarded the 
Burmese medal with the clasp for Pegu, 
at the close of the campaign. In 1854 he 
served against the Russians in the opera- 
tions in the White Sea, and is in receipt 
of the Baltic medal. A few years later, 
viz., 1860-1, as commodore in command of 
the Al^stralian station, he took jjart in 
the operations of the Naval Brigade in 
New Zealand, again distinguishing him- 
self, and receiving a severe wound on 
June 27, 1860. In 1861 he was awarded 
the Companionship of the Bath, and sub- 
sequently the New Zealand medal. In 
1866 he was appointed an aide-de-camp 
to the Queen. From 1868 till 1870 he was 
private secretary to the First Lord of the 
Admiralty, and he commanded the De- 
tached Squadron from December, 1870, 
till May, 1872, from which date till 
March, 1874, he was one of the Lords of 
the Admiralty. From October, 1874, till 
November, 1877, when he was made a 
K.C.B., he commanded the Channel 
Squadron, and he was aj^pointed Com- 
mander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean in 
February, 18S0. In September of the 
same year he assumed the supreme com- 
mand of the Allied Fleet of the European 
Powers, which made a naval demonstra- 
tion off the Albanian coast in consequence 
of the refusal of the Porte to agree to the 
cession of Dulcigno to Montenegro. 
Eventually the Turks consented to the 
cession, and the object for which the 
European fleet had been assembled in the 
Adriatic having thus been achieved, it 
dispersed on Dec. 5. Sir Beauchamp 
Seymour received the thanks of Her 
Majesty's Government for the manner in 
which he performed his duty on this 
occasion, and he was created a Grand 
Cross of the Bath in the following year 
(1881). In the warlike operations in 
Egypt, in 1882^ he took a conspicuous part 
as Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterra- 
nean Fleet. On the 6th of July he 
demanded of Arabi Pasha the instant 
cessation of the works on the forts at 
Alexandria, under penalty of bom- 
bardment ; and on the 10th he dis- 
patched an ultimatum to the Egyptian 
Ministry, demanding, not only the cessa- 

tion of all defensive works, but also 
the surrender of the forts at the mouth 
of the harbour. This being refused, 
early on the morning of the 11th, 
eight British ironclads and five gun- 
boats advanced to the attack, and 
although the Egyptian gunners fought 
their guns exceedingly well, the forts 
were, in a few hours, laid in ruins or 
silenced, with slight loss on the British 
side, and with trifling damage to the ships . 
For his services he received the thanks 
of Pai-liament, was voted the sum of 
^20,000, and was elevated to the peerage 
by the title of Baron Alcester of Alcester, 
in the coimty of Warwick. 

ALCOCK, Sir Eutherford, K.C.B., D.C.L., 
F.E.C.S., is the son of Dr. Thomas 
Alcock, and was born in 1809, and 
educated for the medical profession. 
He was on the medical staif of the 
British Auxiliary Forces in Spain in sup- 
port of Isabella II., against the Carlists, 
and in Portugal in suj^port of Maria II., 
against the Miguelists ; and for his 
services in the Peninsula received 
honours and decorations from the English, 
the Si^anish, and the Portuguese Govern- 
ments. Subsequently he was consul at 
Foo-chow (1844); at Shanghai (184(J) ; 
and at Canton (1858). Thence he was 
transferred to the diplomatic service, and 
became envoy extraordinary, minister 
plenipotentiary, and consul-general in 
Japan. Sir Kiitherford Alcock was created 
K.C.B. in 1862; and in 1865 was trans- 
ferred to Pekin as Chief Superintendent 
of Trade in China, and remained there 
till 1870. He is the author of "Notes on 
the Medical History of the British Legion 
in Spain," 1838 ; " Elements of Japanese 
Grammar," 1861 ; " The Capital of the 
Tycoon," 1863 ; and " Familiar Dialogues 
in Japanese," 1878. In 1876 he was Pre- 
sident of the Royal Geograjihical Society, 
and in 1882 presided over the health de- 
partment of the Social Science Congress. 

ALDBICH, Thomas Bailey, an American 
author, was born at Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, Nov. 11, 1836. He has con- 
tributed prose and verse to various peri- 
odicals, most of which has subsequently 
been published separately. Among the 
collected volumes of verse are " The 
Bells," 1855 ; " The Ballad of Baby 
Bell and other Poems," 1856 ; " The 
Course of True Love never did Run 
Smooth," 1858 ; " Pampinea and other 
Poems," 1861 ; a volume of " Poems," 
1865; "Cloth of Gold and other 
Poems," 1874; "Flower and Thorn," 
1876; "Lyrics and Sonnets," 1880; "Friar 
Jerome's Beautiful Book," 1881 ; " From 



Ponkapog to Pesth," 1883 ; " Mercedes 
and Later Lyrics," 1884 ; " Wyndham 
Towers," 1889; and "TheSisters'Tragedj"- 
and other Poems." Among his prose 
tales ai"e " Daisy's Necklace and What 
Came of It," 1857 ; " Out of his Head : a 
Komance in Prose." 1862 ; " The Story of 
a Bad Boy," 1809 ; "Margery Daw," 1873 ; 
" Prudence Palfrey," 1871 ; " The Queen 
of Sheba," 1877: and ' ' Stillwater Tragedy," 
1880. From 18S1 to the present year 
(1890) he has been the editor of the 
Atlantic Monthly, Boston, but he recently 
resigned that position in order to devote 
himself entirely to writing. 

ALEXANDEE I. (Obrenovitch), King 
OF Servia, was born on Aug. 1-4, 187G, 
and succeeded his father, the ex-King 
Milan, who abdicated in favour of his son, 
March G, 1889, after divorcing his con- 
sort. Queen Natalie (q. v.). He is under 
the guardianship of two Regents. When 
Crown Prince he accompanied his mother. 
Queen Natalie, into exile after her sepa- 
ration from the King, but was forcibly 
removed from her at Berlin, and con- 
veyed back to Belgrade. 

AIEXANDER III. (Alexandrovitch), 
Emperor of All the Eussias, who suc- 
ceeded to the throne on the murder of his 
father by Nihilist conspirators on March 
13 (N. S.), 1881, was born March 10, 1845. 
For some time after his elevation to the 
throne he seldom appeared in public, but 
lived in the closest retirement at Gatchina, 
being in constant dread of the machina- 
tions of the secret societies of Socialists. 
His coronation took place at Moscow, 
May 27, 1883. He married, in 1866, Mary- 
Fcodorovna (formerly Mary Sophia Fre- 
derica Dagmar), daughter of Christian 
IX., King of Denmark, and sister of the 
Princess of Wales and the King of Greece. 
The principal concern of the Czar has 
been to put down Nihilism ; to develop 
the military power of Russia ; to organise 
her Asiatic and Caucasian provinces ; and 
to keep a steady eye upon Constantinople. 
By means of the ability and watchfulness 
of Prince Bismarck, the Breikaiserbund 
(League of the Three Emperors) has been 
consolidated, as was shown by the meet- 
ings at Skiernivice (Poland) in 1884 ; and 
more especially by the recent action of 
Russia in Bulgaria. The Czar never for- 
gave his cousin Alexander Joseph of Bat- 
tenberg for acting independently of 
Russia in the crisis of 1885 ; and lately 
his vengeance has been consummated (see 
next Memoir). In October, 1888, the Czar 
with his family narrowly escaped death 
by a railway accident on the Transcasj^ian 

ALEXANDER, Joseph, of Battenberg, 

recently Prince of Bulgaria, is the son of 
Prince Alexander of Battenberg (Hesse), 
who died Dec. 15, 1888, brother of the late 
Empress of Rvissia, and was born April 5, 
1857. His mother, born Countess von 
Kauck, was the daughter of a former 
Polish Minister of War, and was raised 
to the rank of Princess on her morganatic 
marriage with the rviler of Hesse. The 
ex-Prince of Bulgaria is a second son of 
this union, an elder brother is serving in 
the English Navy. Prince Alexander 
served with the Russian army during the 
war with Turkey. Part of the time he 
rode in tlie ranks of the 8th Regiment of 
Uhlans, and he was also attached to the 
staff of Prince Charles of Rouraania, as 
well as to the Russian head-quarters. He 
was jjresent with Prince Charles at the 
siege of Plevna, and crossed the Balkans 
with General Gourko. Soon after return- 
ing to Germany from the Russo-Tiirkish 
campaign he was transferi-ed from the 
Hessian Regiment of Dragoons, to which 
he had belonged, to the Prussian Life 
Guards, and did garrison duty in Potsdam. 
He was elected hereditary Prince of 
Bulgaria by the Assembly of Notables at 
Til-nova, April 29, 1879, and by a vote of 
the Grand National Assembly on July 13, 
1881, he was invested with extraordinary 
legislative powers for seven years. He 
was appointed an honorary Knight Com- 
panion of the Order of the Bath in June, 
1879. Prince Alexander's decision on the 
revolution of Philippopolis led to the 
declaration of war against Bulgaria by 
King Milan, of Servia, in 1885, when the 
Prince at once proved himself more than 
equal to his neighbour. Although the 
Bulgarian army was the smaller and 
quite inexperienced, Pi-ince Alexander, by 
his personal bravery and strategic skill, 
obtained several victories, and on the 
intervention of the European Powers, 
King Milan was obliged to consent to a 
Treaty of Peace, which was signed at 
Bucharest. By consenting to the tinion 
of the two Bulgarias, Prince Alexander 
incurred the jealousy and displeasure of 
the Czar, who struck his name off the 
Russian army list. The position of the 
Prince continued exceedingly difficult 
until on Friday, Aug. 20, 1SS6, part 
of his army, influenced by Russian in- 
trigue, revolted and forced him to sign 
his abdication. He was taken prisoner 
and carried down the Danube to Russian 
territory, but the outbiirst of popiilar 
indignation in Bulgaria secured h.s 
liberation, and he returned a few days 
later to his country, meeting with an 
enthiisiastic reception at Rustchi'k, 
Philippopolis, and Sofia. I': was all, 

C 2 



however, of no avail ; for, the Prince 
decided that he could not make head 
against his Russian enemies, and he 
formally abdicated, his place being tem- 
porarily taken by a Council of Eegency, 
and afterwards by Prince Ferdinand of 
Coburg. Prince Alexander's engagement 
to the Princess Victoria of Germany 
caused much excitement in 1888, and the 
match being opposed by the Czar, was 
broken off. On January 11, 1889, the 
Prince took the name of " Comte de 
Hartenau ; " and, in the month following, 
married the Frilulein Amalia Loisinger, a 
celebrated actress, and retired to his 
estate at Gratz, in Styria. 

ALEXANDER, The Right Rev. William, 
D. D., D.C.L., Bishop of Derry and Eaphoe, 
son of a clergyman beneficed in the north 
of Ireland, and nephew of Dr. Alexander, 
late Bislioi^ of Meath, and cousin of the 
Earl of Caledon,was born at Londonderry, 
April 13, 1824. He was educated at 
Tunbridge School, and at Exeter 
and Brasenose Colleges, Oxford, where 
he graduated B.A. and M.A. He 
graduated in classical honours (Honorary 
4th, 1847). He won the Theological 
Prize Essay in 1850, and the Sacred Prize 
Poem in 1860, and was selected to recite 
a congratulatory ode to Lord Derby in 
the Sheldonian Theatre, 1853. Having 
entered holy orders, he served a curacy 
in the north of Ireland, and was pre- 
ferred to one or two livings in the gift of 
the Bishop of Derry. He was formerly 
Kector of Camus-juxta-Morne, co. Tyrone, 
and Chaplain to the Marquis of Abercorn, 
Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. In 1S64 he 
was nominated to the Deanery of Emly, 
and in 18G7 was an unsuccessful candidate 
for the chair of poetry at Oxford. He 
was appointed to the Bishopric of Derry 
and Eaphoe, rendered vacant by the 
death of Dr. Higgin, July 12, 1807, being 
consecrated in Armagh Cathedral, Oct. 
13 following. Before his elevation to the 
episcopal bench he wa,s created D.D., by 
diploma, and subsequently D.C.L. at 
the Encsnia, 1876, at Oxford. The 
Bishop has been Select Preacher before 
the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, 
and Dublin. He is author of Commen- 
taries on Colossians, 1st and 2nd Thes- 
rialonians, Philemon, and the three 
Epistles of St. John, vols, iii., iv. 
"Speaker's Commentaries;" of "The 
Witness of the Psalms, Bampton Lec- 
tures," 187G ; of " The Great Question 
and other Sermons,'" 1885. In 1887 he 
published a volume of poems. He is also 
the author of a large series of single 
Sermons, Charges, and Reviews. Essays, 
find PoeaiSj in periodicals of the day. 

The Bishop has endowed his See per- 
manently with ,£2000 a year and the See 
House, for which he has received the 
thanks of the Diocesan Synod of Derry 
and Eaphoe, and a recognition from the 
Diocesan Council of "gi-atitude for his 
large sacrifice of income." He is married 
to Miss Cecil Frances Humphreys, who 
is herself well known as the author of 
" Moral Songs," " Hymns for Children," 
and " Poems on Old Testament Subjects." 

ALEXANDRA, Princess of Wales. 6'ee 
Wales, Pkincess of. 

ALFONZO XIII., King of Spain, was 
born (posthumously) May 17, 188G ; his 
mother, Maria Christina, being ap^iointed 
Queen Eegent. 

ALFORD, The Right Rev. Charles 
Richard, D.D., formerly BishoiJ of Victoria, 
Hong Kong, was born in 181G at West 
Qnantoxhead, Somersetshire, of which 
parish his father was rector. From St. 
Panl's School he was sent to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, with a Camden Ex- 
hibition (B.A., 1839 ; M.A., 1842 ; D.D., 
1867). After taking orders he became 
incumbent of St. Matthew's, Eugby, in 
1841 ; incumbent of Christ Church, Don- 
caster, in 1840 ; Principal of the Metro- 
politan Training Institution at Highbury, 
in 1854 ; and incumbent of Holy Trinity, 
Islington, in 1865, where he had a high 
repntation as an Evangelical ^^I'eacher. 
He was consecrated BishoiD of Victoria, 
Hong Kong, Feb. 2, 1867, in place of Dr. 
George Smith, who had resigned that See 
in the previous year. He himself re- 
signed the See of Victoria in 1872. He 
was vicar of Christ Church, Claughton, 
near Birkenhead, from June, 1874, till 
Sept., 1877, when he accepted the in- 
cnmbency of the new district of St. Mary, 
Sevenoaks, Kent. He was appointed 
Commissary of the diocese of Hiiron, 
Canada, in 1880. Dr. Alford is the 
author of " First Principles of the Oracles 
of God ; " a "' Charge " on China and 
Japan ; and various sermons and pam- 

ALGER, William Rounseville, was born 
at Fx-eetown, Massachusetts, Dec. 28, 1S22. 
He graduated at the Cambridge Divinity 
School, 1847, and became pastor of a 
Unitarian Church at Eoxbury, near 
Boston. In 1855 he succeeded Theodore 
Parker as minister of the Society of 
" Liberal Christians " in Boston ; and in 
1874 became minister of the Unitarian 
Church of the Messiah in New York, 
where he remained until 1879. He then 
pi-eached for a year at Denver, and after 


a few weets' stay in Chicago went to 
Portland, Maine, but returned to Boston 
in 1882. He lias published " A Symbolic 
History of the Cross of Christ," 1851 ; 
" The Poetry of the Orient," 1856 (new 
edition, 1883) ; "A Critical History of the 
Doctrine of a Future Life," 18(jl ; " The 
Genius of Solitude," ISGG ; " Friendships 
of Women," 1807 ; " Prayers Offered in 
the Massachusetts House of Represen- 
tatives," 18(;8 ; " Life of Edwin For- 
rest," 1877 ; and " The School of Life," 

ALI PACHA, a Turkish diplomatist, 
commenced his political career by belnijf 
one of the referendaries of the Imi^erial 
Divan. In 1858, when Fuad Pacha went 
to Paris as Plenipotentiary representing 
the Porte at the Conference which had 
assembled to draw up the conventions 
respecting the Ll^nited Pi-incii^alities, he 
attached Ali Bey to his naission, and the 
latter rendered himself conspicuous by 
his genei-al intelligence and a^Dtitude for 
diplomacy. In 1861 he was appointed 
First Secretary to the Ottoman Embassy 
in Paris, and when in 1862 he went on 
leave of absence to Constantinople, the 
Government entrusted him with the 
delicate mission of Commissioner to 
Servia after the bombardment of Bel- 
grade. Owing to his address and tact he 
succeeded in settling nearly all the 
difficulties. Whilst performing these 
functions, he was in 1865 placed in charge 
of the political direction of the province 
of Bosnia. In 1868 he was appointed 
member of the Council of State, and 
afterwards undertook several other mis- 
sions. In 1869 he was nominated to the 
post of Under-Secretary of State at the 
Ministry of Public Works. He remained 
in that office until 1870, when he was 
made governor of Erzei^oum, and after- 
wa.rds of Trebizond, on which occasion he 
was raised to the dignity of Pacha. In 
1872 he became Prefect of Constantinople, 
where he introduced several reforms, and 
in Sept., 1873, he was sent as ambassador 
from the Ottoman Porte to the French 
Kepublic. He was recalled in Jan., 1876, 
and appointed Governoi'-General of the 
Herzegovina. A few days before his 
deposition by the Sottas (May 30, 1876), 
the late Sultan Abdul-Aziz api^ointed Ali 
Pacha Governor-General of S'-utari, in 
Northern Albania. 

ALISON, General Sir Archibald, Bart., 
K.C.B., son of Sir Archibald Alison, the 
first baronet, author of " The History 
of Europe," was born at Edinburgh, 
Jan. 21, 1826. and received his educa- 
tion in the Universities of Glasgow 

and Edinburgh. Entering the military 
service of his country in 1846, he became 
a captiiin in the 72nd Highlanders in 
1853 ; brevet-major in 1856 ; lieutenant- 
colonel in 1858 ; and colonel in 1867. In 
the latter year he succeeded to the 
Vjaronetcy on the death of his father. 
He served in the Crimea at the siege and 
fall of Sebastopol ; in India, during the 
mutiny, as Military Secretary on the 
staff of the late Lord Clyde ; and on tha 
Gold Coast as Brigadier-General of the 
European Brigade, and second in com- 
mand of the Ashantee Expedition in 
1S73 1. He commanded his brigade at 
the battle of Ainoaful, the cai)ture of 
Baquah, the action of Ordahsu, and th 
fall of Coomassie. He lost an arm at the 
relief of Lucknow. Sir Archibald was 
Assistant Adjutant-General at Aldershot 
from Oct., 1870, to Oct., 1871, and Deputy 
Adjutant-General in Ireland from Oct., 
1874, to Oct., 1877, when he was j^romoted 
to the rank of major-general. Subse- 
quently he was appointed Commandant 
of the Staff College in Jan., 1878, and 
Chief of the Intelligence Department at 
the War Office in May, 1878. He com- 
manded the 1st brigade, 2nd division, in 
the military expedition dispatched to 
Egypt in 1882. A few days after the 
bombardment of Alexandria by Sir Beau- 
chami) Seymour (now the Et. Hon. 
Baron Alcester), a small body of British 
troops was landed (July 17), under the 
command of Sir Archibald Alison, who 
was, however, neither able nor aiithorized 
to strike a blow at Arabi's army. He 
confined his proceedings at first to 
secux-ing a position covering Alexandria, 
and occiipying the line of railway which 
connected Alexandria with the suburb of 
Ramleh. At the decisive battle of Tel- 
el-Kebir he led the Highland brigade 
which fought so gallantly on that memor- 
able occasion ; and after Arabi's surrender, 
a British army of occui:)ation, consisting 
of 12,000 men, iinder the command of Sir 
Archibald Alison, was left in Egypt to 
restore order and to protect the Khedive. 
Sir Archibald was included in the thanks 
of Parliament for his energy and gal- 
lantry, and was i^romoted to the rank of 
lieutenant-general (Nov., 1882). In May, 
1883, he relinquished the command of 
the army of occupation in Egypt, and 
returned home. In Aug., 1883, he was 
apiDointed to the command at Aldershot. 
and in Feb., 1885, he became adjixtant- 
general. In Oct., 1885, he resumed the 
command at Aldershot on the return of 
Lord Wolseley from Egypt. He was pro- 
moted to the rank of General, Feb. 20, 
1889. He i^ublished an able treatise, " Ou 
Ar;uy Organi::r.tion," in ISCO. 



ALLBTJTT, Thomas Clifford, M.A.,LL.D., 
M.D.. F.E.C.P., F.R.S., F.L.S., J.P., D.L., 
is the son of the Eev. Thomas Allbutt, 
sometime Vicar of Dewsbury in York- 
shire, and afterwards Eector of Debach- 
cum-Boulge in Suffolk. He was born at 
Dewsbury in 1836, and was educated by 
a private tutor at Eyde in the Isle of 
Wight, and afterwards under Archdeacon 
Hey at St. Peter's School, York. He 
went up to Caius College in 1856, took a 
scholarship in his first year, and subse- 
quently three other scholarships in the 
college. Soon afterwards, however, he 
decided to enter the medical profession, 
and after a pass degree in Arts, went out 
in the Natural Science Tripos in the 
first class, with distinctions in chemistry 
and geology. On leaving Cambridge he 
entered at St. George's Hospital, and 
afterwards spent some time in the 
hospitals of Paris, and graduated in due 
course as M.A. and M.I), of Cambridge. 
After a brief stay in London, Dr. Allbutt 
removed to Leeds, where he was soon 
after elected physician to the Leeds 
Infirmary, and rapidly obtained a large 
consulting practice in medicine, and for 
the last afteen years of his residence in 
Yorkshire had perhaps the largest purely 
consulting physician 's practice ever carried 
on in the provinces. During the same 
time he contributed largely both to 
medical and general literature. His 
earliest works were concerned with the 
bodily temperature in health and disease, 
and by devising the " Short Clinical 
Thermometer/' did much to forward 
clinical thermometry in hospital and 
general practice. His friendship with 
U. H. Lewes and Lockhart-Clarke engaged 
him in the study of the pathology of the 
nervous system, and in the Pathological 
Transactions and elsewhere he published 
researches on this subject, among which 
his demonstrations of the pathology of 
tetanus and hydrophobia are best known, 
the latter being the first observations of 
the kind. Dr. Clifford Allbutt was also 
an early worker in the field of medical 
ophthalmoscopy, and published a work 
on that subject in 1868, which included 
investigations on insanity, and the first 
demonstration of atrophy of the optic 
nerve in general paralysis. Other re- 
searches were published at varioiis dates 
on diseases of the nervous system, of the 
stomach and kidneys, and on the nature 
and treatment of consumption, in which 
latter attention was drawn to the value 
of the climate of the high Alps in the 
cure of phthisis, then little recognized in 
England. In 1881. Dr. Clifford Allbutt 
delivered the Gulstonian Lectures at the 
Eoyal College of Physicians on Visceral 

Neuroses, which were published in 
the same year ; and in 1885, in con- 
junction with Mr. Teale, he pub- 
lished a volume on the " Treatment of 
Scrofulous Neck." In 1888 he delivered 
the Address on Medicine to the British 
Medical Association at Glasgow, his 
subject being the Classification of Disease, 
and received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
of that University. In 1889 he retired 
from practice, and was appointed a Com- 
missioner in Lunacy. He was elected a 
Fellow of the Linnean Society, and of 
the Society of Antiquaries, in 1867, and 
a Fellow of the Eoyal Society in 1880. 
He also acted for some years as a Justice 
of the Peace for the West Eiding of 
Yorkshire, and is a Deputy-Lieutenant 
for the West Eiding and the city and 
county of York. 

ALLEN, Charles Grant Blairfindie, B.A., 

best known as Grant Allen, the second 
son of Joseph Antisell Allen, was born at 
Kingston, Canada, Feb. 24, 1848, and 
educated at Merton College, Oxford ; 
matriculated Oct. 19, 1867 ; B.A. 1871. 
Mr. Allen began to write early, and 
soon established a reputation as one 
of the most popular of scientific 
authors. He has been called " The 
Darwinian St. Paul ; " his expositions 
of the Da.rwinian theory being par- 
ticularly vivid, clear, and captivating. 
Besides a multitude of contributions to 
periodical literature, he has written the 
following books on more or less serious 
subjects : — " Physiological Esthetics," 
1877 ; " The Colour Sense," 1879 ; " The 
Evolutionist at Large," 1881; "Anglo- 
Saxon Britain," 1881 ; " Vignettes from 
Nature," 1881 : " Colours of Flowers," 
1882 ; " Colin Clout's Calendar," 1883 ; 
" Flowers and their Pedigrees," 1884 ; 
and "Charles Darwin" (in Mr. Andrew 
Lang's series of "English Worthies"), 
1885. In 1883, Mr. Allen began to 
attempt fiction, his first attempt in which 
line was " Stx-ange Stories." Since that 
date he has produced the following- 
novels : — " Philistia," 1884 ; " Babylon," 
1885; "For Maimie's Sake," 1886; "In 
All Shades," 1887; "The Devil's Die," 
1888; "This Mortal Coil," 1888; "The 
Tents of Sheni," 1889 ; and several 

ALLIES, Thomas William, the son of a 
gentleman of Bristol, was born in 1813, 
and educated at Eton, where he obtained 
the Newcastle Scholarshi}). He after- 
wards became in succession Scholar and 
Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford, 
where he graduated B.A. in 1832, taking 
a first-class in classics. He became ex- 



amining chaplain to Dr. Blonifield, 
Bishop of London, who appointed him, 
in 18-12, to the rectory of Launton, Ox- 
fordshire, which he resigned in 1850, on 
becoming a Roman Catholic. He had 
previously published a volume of sermons, 
a work, entitled, "The Church of England 
cleared from the charge of Schism, upon 
the testimonies of Councils and Fathers 
of the first six centuries," 181G, 2nd edit., 
1818 ; and " Journal in France in 1845 
and 18-48," with " Letters from Italy in 
18-17 — of Things and Persons concerning 
the Church and Education," 18-19. To 
give the grounds of his conversion he 
wi-ote, •• The See of St. Peter, the Eock 
of the Chiu-ch, the Soxu-ce of Jurisdiction 
and the Centre of Unity," 1850 ; preceded 
by, " The Eoyal Supremacy viewed in 
reference to the two Spiritual Powers of 
Order and Jurisdiction," 1850. He has 
since written " St. Peter, his Name and 
Office as set forth in Holy Scripture," 
1852, 2nd edit., 1871 ; " The Formation 
of Christendom," 3 parts, 1865-75 ; " Dr. 
Pusey and the Ancient Church," 1866 ; 
" Per Crucem ad Lucem, the Eesult of a 
Life," 1879 ; and several other works. 
Mr. Allies was apijointed Secretary to the 
.Catholic Poor School Committee for Great 
Britain in 1853. 

ALLINGHAM, Mrs. Helen, eldest child 
of Alexander Heni-y Paterson, M.D., was 
born near Burton-on-Trent, Sept. 26, 
1S-4S. The family removed to Altrincham, 
Cheshire, and after Dr. Paterson's death, 
to Birmingham. At the beginning of 
1867, Miss Paterson came to reside in 
London under the care of her aunt. Miss 
Laura Herford, who was an artist, and 
who, about five years previous, had 
practically oi^ened the schools of the 
Eoyal Academy to women. Miss Pater- 
son herself entered the Eoyal Academy 
schools in April, 1867. She afterwards 
drew on wood for several illustrated 
periodicals, and eventually became one of 
the regular staff of the Grraphic. She also 
furnished ilhistrations to novels running 
in the Cornhill Magazine — " Far from the 
Madding Crowd," and " Miss Angel." In 
the intervals of drawing on wood she 
produced several water-colour drawings. 
" May," " Dangerous Ground," &c., were 
exhibited at the Dudley Gallery ; " The 
Milkmaid" and "Wait for Me," at the 
Eoyal Academy, 1871. " Young Custo- 
mers," 1875, attracted much attention ; 
as did also " Old Men's Gardens, Chelsea 
Hospital," at the Old Water-colour Ex- 
hibition, 1877. In 1875 she was elected an 
Associate of the Eoyal Society of Painters 
in Watei'-Colour, and in 1890 to the 
honour qf full membership. Mrs. AUing- 

, ham has also exhibited " The Harvest 
i Moon," " The Clothes-Line," " The Con- 
valescent," "The Lady of the Manor," 
"The Childi-en's Tea," "The Well," 
" Lessons," and many scenes of English 
rural life. Among her later works are 
several portraits of Thomas Carlyle. 
Special exhibitions of Mrs. Allingham's 
drawings were held in 1886, 1887, and 
1889, at the rooms of the Fine Art 
Society, and had great success. Miss 
Paterson was married, Aug. 22, 1874, to 
the late Mr. William AUingham, the poet. 

ALLMAN, Professor George James, 
M.E.I. A., F.L.S., Corr. M.Z.S.L., Hon. 
F.E.M.S., member of the Eoyal Dublin 
Society, and honorary member of vai-ious 
British and foreign societies, was born at 
Cork in 1812, and educated at the Belfast 
Academic Institution. He graduated in 
Arts and Medicine in the University of 
Dublin in 1844 ; and in the same year 
was appointed to the Eegius Professor- 
ship of Botany in that iiniversit}^, when 
he relinquished all further thoiaght of 
medical practice. In 1854 he was elected 
a Fellow of the Eoyal Society, and in 1855 
he resigned his professorship in the Uni- 
versity of Dublin on his appointment to 
the Eegius Professorship of Xatural His- 
tory and Eegius Keeper of the Natural 
History Museum in the University of 
Edinburgh, which he held until 1870. 
Shortly after this the honorary degree of 
LL.D. was conferred on him by the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh. His chief scien- 
tific labours have been among the lower 
organisations of the animal kingdom, to 
the investigation of whose structure and 
development he has specially devoted him- 
self. For his reseai'ches in this depart- 
ment of biology the Eoyal Society of 
Edinburgh awarded to him in 1872 the 
Brisbane Prize ; in the following year a 
Eoyal Medal was awarded to him by the 
Eoyal Society of London ; and in 1878 he 
received the Cunningham Gold Medal 
from the Eoyal Irish Academy. He was 
one of the Commissioners appointed by 
Government in 1876 to inquire into the 
state of the Queen's Colleges in Ireland. 
Soon after his election to the Edinburgh 
chaii- he was nominated one of the Com- 
missioners of Fisheries, an 
honorary post which he continued to hold 
until the abolition of the Board in 1881. 
On the resignation of Mr. Bentham, he 
was elected to the presidency of the Lin- 
nean Society, a post which he held until 
1883, when he resigned it in favour of 
Sir J. Lubbock. In 1879 he was Presi- 
dent of the Bi'itish Association for the 
Advancement of Science. On the com- 



pletion of the exploring voyage of the 
" Challenger/' the large collection of 
Hydroida made during that great expedi- 
tion was assigned to him for detei'mina- 
tion and description — a service which he 
had already performed for the Hydroida 
collected during the exploration of the 
Gulf Stream under the direction of the 
United States Government. He has 
served on the council of the Eoyal Society 
of London and on those of the Eoyal 
Society of Edinburgh and of the Eoyal 
Irish Academy, and has filled the post of 
Examiner in Natural History for the 
Queen's University in Ireland, for the 
University of London, for Her Majesty's 
Army, Navy and Indian Medical Services, 
and for the Civil Service of India. Ee- 
sults of his original investigations are 
contained in memoirs published in the 
Philosophical Transactions, the Transac- 
tions of the Eoyal Society of Edinburgh, 
the Transactions of the Eoyal Irish Aca- 
demy, and the Transactions of the Lin- 
nean and Zoological Societies of London ; 
as well as in Eeports presented to the 
Bi'itish Association for the Advancement 
of Science, to the Mus. Comp. Zool. Har- 
vard University, and to the Commission 
of the " Challenger " Exploration ; and 
in communications to the Annals of 
Natural History, the Quarterly Journal of 
Microscopic Science, and other scientific 
journals. His more elaborate works are 
"A Monograph of the Freshwater Poly- 
zoa," fol. 185G, and " A Monograjih of the 
Gymnoblastic Hydroids," fol. 1871-72, 
both published by the Eay Society, and 
largely illustrated with coloured plates. 
Dr. Allman is a member of the AthenaBum 
Club. He married Hannah Louisa, third 
daughter of Samuel Shaen, Esq., of 
Crix, J. P. and D.L. for the county of 

ALLMAN, Professor Georg? Johnston, 
LL.D., D.Sc, F.E.S., younger son of 
"William Allnian, M.D., Professor of 
Botany in the University of Dublin (1809 
— ISIJ), born in Dublin Sept. 28, 1821, 
was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
where he graduated B.A. in 184 i, and 
LL.D. in 1853. In the same year he was 
appointed Professor of Mathematics in 
Queen's College, Galway, and still occu- 
pies that post ; he was also appointed 
Bursar of the Queen's College in 1804, 
member of the Senate of the Queen's 
University in Ireland in 1877, and in 
1880 ho was nominated by the Crown one 
of the first Senators of the Eoyal Uni- 
versity of Ireland. In 18G3 he was elected 
by the Corporate Body of the Queen's 
College, Galway, a member of the College 
Council and has been re-elected on each 

exjjiration of his term of office since that 
date ; and in 1888 he was sent by it as 
Delegate to the University of Bologna on 
the occasion of the celebration of the 
Octocentenary of that University. He 
is LL.D. ad eundem of the Queen's Uni- 
versity (1863), D.Sc. honoris causil (1882), 
and F.E.S. (1884). In 1853, Dr. Allman 
communicated to the Eoyal Irish Aca- 
demy " An Account of the late Professor 
MacCullagh's Lectiires on the Attraction 
of Ellipsoids," which he compiled from 
his notes of the lectures (Transactions 
of the Eoyal Irish Academy, vol. xxii). 
He has since published " Some Properties 
of the Paraboloids " ( Quarterly Journal of 
Mathematics, 1S74), and "Greek Geome- 
try from Thales to Euclid" (Hermathena, 
vol. iii.. No. v., 1877 ; vol. iv.. No. VII., 
1881 ; vol. v.. No. X., 1884, No. XL, 1885 ; 
vol. vi.. No. XII., 1886, No. XIII., 1887), 
and has collected these articles, made 
some additions, and published them in 
1889 in a volume with the same title. He 
has also contributed "Ptolemy" (Clau- 
dius Ptolemaeus) and some other articles 
to the last edition of the " Encyclopaedia 

ALLON, The Eev. Henry, D.D., Congre- 
gational minister, was born on the 13th 
of Oct. 1818, at Welton, near Hull, York- 
shire, and ediTcated for the ministry at 
Cheshunt College, Hertfordshire. In 
Jan., 1844, he was appointed minister of 
Union Chapel, Islington, officiating at 
first as co-pastor with the Eev. Thomas 
Lewis, on whose death, in 1852, he be- 
came sole pastor. He was Chairman of 
the Congregational Union in 1864-5. 
Although for the space of forty-six years 
he has been actively engaged in the pas- 
toi-al and public duties of his ministry, 
he has found time to contribute largely 
to periodical literature, including the Con- 
temporary and other Reviews, CasscU's 
Biblical Educator, &c. He also contri- 
buted an essay on Worship to " Ecclesia," 
a volume of Essays edited by Dr. Eey- 
nolds. He wrote a " Memoir of the Eev. 
J. Sherman," which was originally piib- 
lished in 1863, and has passed through 
three editions ; also a critical biography 
of the Eev. Dr. Binney, prefixed to a 
posthumous volume of his sermons, which 
Dr. Allon edited. In 1876 he published 
a volume of sermons, entitled " The 
Vision of God," which has gone through 
three editions. He has done much to 
promote church music in the Noncon- 
formist churches, and compiled the 
" Congregational Psalmist," which is very 
extensively used. For twenty-two years 
he was editor of the British Quarterly Ee- 
rieic. In 1871 he received the honorary 



degree of D.D. from Yale College, New 
Haven, Connecticut ; and in 1885 the 
same degree was conferred by the Uni- 
versity of St. Andrew's. A new church, 
or "Congregational Cathedral," erected 
for him in Compton Terrace, Islington, 
the total cost of which was nearly 
i- 50,000, was opened Dec, 1877. In 1881, 
the Jubilee year of the Congregational 
Union, he was for the second time elected 

ALMA-TADEMA, Lawrence, E.A., a dis- 
tinguished i^ainter, was born at Droni-yp, 
in tlie Netherlands, Jan. 8, 183G. He 
was intended for one of the learned pro- 
fessions, and in training for it the works 
of the ancient classical writers of coiirse 
engrossed much of his attention. In 
1852 he went to Antweri^, and entered 
the Academy there as a student. After- 
wards he placed himself with the late 
Baron Henry Leys, whom he assisted in 
painting several of the large pictures 
with which the Baron's name is associated. 
Subsequently he came to London, where 
he has resided for many years. He ob- 
tained a gold medal at Paris in 1S64 ; a 
second-class medal at the International 
Exhibition at Paris in 1867 ; a gold medal 
at Berlin in 1872, and the grand medal 
in 1874. Mr. Alma-Tadema became a 
member of the Academy of Fine Arts at 
Amsterdam in 1802 ; Knight of the 
Order of Leopold (Belgium) in 1866 ; 
Knight of the Dutch Lion in 1868 ; 
Knight First Class of the Order of St. 
Michael of Bavaria in 1869 ; member of 
the Eoyal Academy of Munich in 1871 ; 
Knight of the Legion of Honour (France) 
in 1873 ; member of the Society of 
Painters in Water Colours in 1873 ; and 
member of the Eoyal Academy of Berlin 
in 1874. In Jan., 1S73, he received letters 
of denization from the Queen of England, 
liaving resolved to reside permanently in 
this country. He was nominated a 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honoiir in 
1873, and elected an Associate of the 
Eoyal Academy of London, Jan. 26, 1876. 
In the latter year, he was also elected a 
Knight of the Third Class of the Golden 
Lion of Nassau ; in 1877, a Knight of the 
Third Class of the Crown of Prussia, and 
an honorary member of the Eoyal Scot- 
tish Academy ; in 1878 he obtained a 
first-class medal at the Paris Interna- 
tional Exhibition, and he was nominated 
an Officer of the Legion of Honoiir in the 
same year. Mr. Alma-Tadema was 
elected a Eoyal Academician June 19, 
1879. He is an honorary member of the 
Eoyal Academies of Madrid, Vienna. 
Stockholm, and Naples. The Emperor of 
Germany, in Jan., 1881, appointed him a 

foreign Knight of the Order Pour le 
Mt'rite (Art and Sciences Division) ; and 
in the following month the French 
Academy of Fine Arts elected him its 
London correspondent in the section of 
Painting. His principal paintings are : — 
" Entrance to a Eoman Theatre," 1866 ; 
" Agrippina Visiting the Ashes of Ger- 
manicus," 1866 ; " A Eoman Dance," 
1866 ; " The Mummy," 1867 ; " Tar- 
quinius Superbus," 1867 ; "The Siesta," 
1868 ; " Phidias and the Elgin Marbles, ' 

1868 ; " Flowers," 1868 ; " Flower Mar- 
ket," 1868 : " A Eoman Amateur," 1868 ; 
"Pyrrhic Dance," 1869; "A Negro," 

1869 ; '• The Convalescent," 1869 ; " A 
Wine Shop," 1869 ; " A Juggler," 1870 ; 
" A Eoman Amateur," lS7o'; " The Vin- 
tage," 1870 ; " A Eoman Emperor," 1871 ; 
" Une Fete intinie," 1871; "The Greek 
Pottery," 1871 ; " Eeproaches," 1872 ; 
" The Mummy " (Eoman period), 1872 ; 
"The Improvisatore," 1872 ; "A Halt," 
1872; "Death of the Firstborn," 1872; 
"Greek Wine," 1872; "The Dinner," 
1873; "The Siesta," 1873; "The Cher- 
ries," 1873; "Fishing," 1873: "Joseph 
Overseer of Pharaoh's Granaries," 1874; 
"A Sculptiu-e Gallery," 1874; "A Pic- 
ture Gallery," 1874; "Autumn," 1874; 
"Good Friends," 1874; "On the Steps 
of the Capitol," 1874; "Water Pets," 
1875; "The Sculpture Gallery," 1875; 
" An Audience at Agrippa's," 1876 ; 
"After the Dance," 1876; "Cleopatra," 
1876 ; " The Seasons " (4 pictures), 1877 ; 
" Between Hope and Fear," 1877 ; " A 
Sculpture's Model " (Venus Esquilina), 
" A Love Missile," 1878 ; " A Hearty 
Welcome," " Down to the Eiver," 
" Pomona Festival," " In the Time of 
Constantino," 1879; "Spring Festival," 
"Not at Home," " Fredegonda," 1880; 
" Sai^pho," 1881 ; " An Orleander," and 
" The Way to the Temple " (his diploma 
work), 1883; "The Emperor Hadrian 
visiting a British Pottery," 1884; "A 
Eeading from Homer," 1885 ; " An 
Apodyterium," 1886 ; " At the Shrine of 
Venus," and "A Dedication to Bacchus," 
1889. At the Grosvenor Gallery in 1876 
he exhibited a series of three pictures — 
" Architecture," " Sculpture," and 
" Painting," also " Cherries." A special 
exhibition of his pictures was held at the 
Grosvenor Gallery in 1883. He received 
the Fine Art Medal of Honour at the 
Paris Exhibition, 1889. By his first wife 
he had two daughters, one of whom is 
the author of " Love's Martyr "and the 
other has lately made a brilliant debut as 
a water-colour painter. His second wife, 
whom he married in 1871, is Laura, 
youngest daughter of Dr. George Epps. 
This lady is an accomplished artist and 



has exhibited several pictures at the 
Eoyal Academy, at the Society of 
French Artists and at the Grosvenor 

ALMAVIVA. Bee Scott, Clement. 

ANDERSON, Mrs. Elizabeth Garrett-, 
M.D., eldest daughter of Newson Garrett, 
Esq., of Aldeburgh, Suffolk, was born in 
London in 183G, and educated at home, 
and at a i^rivate school. Miss Elizabeth 
Garrett began to study medicine at 
Middlesex Hospital in 1860 ; completed 
the medical curriculum at St. Andrew's, 
Edinburgh, and the London Hospital ; 
and passed the examination at Apothe- 
caries' Hall, receiving the diploma of 
L.S.A. in Oct., 1865. She was appointed 
General Medical Attendant to St. Mary's 
Dispensary in June, 1866 ; obtained the 
degree of M.D. from the University of 
Paris in 1S70, and in the same year was 
appointed one of the visiting physicians 
to the East London HosjDital for Children 
and Dispensary for Women. On Nov. 
29, 1870, Miss Garrett was elected a 
member of the London School Board, 
being returned by a large majority at 
the head of the poll for Marylebone. 
She was married Feb. 9, 1871, to Mr. J. 
G. S. Anderson, of the Orient line of 
steamships to Australia. In 1872, Mrs. 
Anderson aided in the establishment and 
organisation of the New Hospital for 
Women, then at 222, Marylebone Road, 
and now at 144, Euston Koad, of which 
the acting medical staff is composed en- 
tirely of women. Mrs. Anderson has 
been for some years its Senior Visiting 
Physician. She is also Dean and Lec- 
turer on Medicine at the London School 
of Medicine for Women, Brunswick 
Sqviare. She is on the Councils of Bed- 
ford College, and of the North London 
Collegiate School for Girls. In 1885 she 
visited Australia and spent several 
months in New South Wales. Mrs. Gar- 
rett-Anderson continues to practise in 
London as a physician for women and 
children. She has written various papers 
on medical and social questions, and is a 
member of the British Medical Associa- 

ANDERSON. Dr. John, LL.D., F.E.S., 
F.R.S.E., F.R.G.S., &c., son of the late 
Mr. Thomas Anderson, Secretary to the 
National Bank of Scotland, Edinburgh, 
was born in that city on Oct. 4, 
1833 ; educated at the George Square 
Academy and the Hill Street Institution, 
and finally at the Edinburgh University. 
He took the degree of M.D. in 1862, and 
received a gold medal for his thesis 

entitled " Observations in Zoology." 
Immediately after his graduation he was 
appointed Professor of Natural Science 
in the Free Church College, Edinburgh ; 
but he resigned the office in 1864, having 
been offered the Curatorshii> of a Museum 
which the Goverment of India intended 
to found in Calcutta, and of which the 
Collections of the Asiatic Society of Ben- 
gal were to form the nucleus. He arrived 
in India in July, 1861, and in the follow- 
ing year was appointed Superintendent 
of the Indian Museum, and two or three 
years afterwards he was also given the 
Chair of Comparative Anatomy in the 
Medical College, Calcutta. In 1868 he 
was selected by the Government of India 
to accompany an expedition to Western 
China vvl British and Independent 
Burmah, in the capacity of Scientific 
Officer. Again, in 1874, he was chosen 
by the Government of India to proceed 
once more to Western China in the same 
capacity as on the former expedition and 
with instructions to advance from Bhamo 
to Shanghai. This expedition, was at- 
tacked by the Chinese and was obliged to 
retreat to Burmah ; Augustvis Eaymond 
Margary having been treacherously mur- 
dered at Manwyne. In 1881, Dr. Ander- 
son was sent by the Trustees of the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta, to investigate the 
Marine Zoology of the Mergui Archi- 
pelago, off the coast of Tenasserim. In 
1887 he retired from the service of the 
Government of India. Besides numerous 
papers on Zoologj^ a list of which is to be 
found in the Koyal Society's Catalogue 
of scientific papers, Dr. Anderson is the 
author of the following independent 
works : — "A Eeport on the Expedition to 
Western China vvl Bhamo," published by 
the Government of India, 1871 ; " Man- 
dalay to Momien," an account of the 
two expeditions to Westei-n China, the 
first under Major (afterwards Colonel Sir 
Edward) Sladen, and the second under 
the command of Colonel Horace Browne, 
1875; "Anatomical and Zoological Re- 
searches," including an accoimt of the 
Zoological Results of the two expeditions 
to Western China, 1868-9 and 1875 ; 4to 
with 1 vol. plates, 1878. " Catalogue of the 
Mammalia in the Indian Musetim," Part 
I. iKiblished by the Trustees of the Indian 
Museum, 8vo, 1879. " Handbook to the 
Archaeological Collections of the Indian 
Museum, Calcutta," 2 Vols., 8vo, pub- 
lished by the Trustees, 1881 and 1882. 
The scientific results of his researches in 
the Mergvii Archii^elago were published 
by the Linnean Society of London in 
Vols. 21 and 22 of their Journal, which 
were devoted exclusively to the subject ; 
the various animal groups having been 


M'orked out by specialists. Dr. Anderson 
described the Mammals, Birds, Reptiles 
and Batrachia, and gave an exhaustive 
account of the Selungs, the human in- 
habitants of the islands, adding a vocabu- 
lary of their language. And in connec- 
tion with the same Expedition to Mergui, 
a town which was once in Siamese 
Teiritory, he published, in 1890, in 
Triibner's Oriental Sei'ies, a full account 
of " English Intercourse with Siam in the 
Seventeenth Centuiy." Dr. Anderson is 
a Fellow of the Koyal Societies of London 
and Edinburgh, of the Linnesan Society, 
and the Zoological Society of London, of 
the Royal Geographical Society of Lon- 
don, of the Society of Antiquaries of 
London and of Edinburgh, of the Royal 
Physical and Botanical Societies of 
Edinburgh, and of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal. He is also a Fellow of the 
Calcutta University, and is a Correspond- 
ing Fellow of the Ethnological Society of 
Italy. In 1885 the University of Edin- 
burgh conferred on him the honorary 
dearree of LL.D. 

Madame Antonio. 

See Navarro, 

ANDERSON, General William Warden, 

second son of the late Sir George 
Anderson, K.C.B., Governor of the 
Mauritius and of Ceylon, was born at 
Surat, in India, 1824, and appointed 
cornet in the 2nd Bombay Lancers in 
1810. He served through the Punjaub 
campaign of 1848 ; and was present at 
the seige and capture of Mooltan, as well 
as the seige of Awah and of Kotah, 1857. 
He served throughout the Indian Mutiny, 
1857, and was severely wounded in the 
engagement with the rebels at Gwalior. 
From 1858 to 1867, he acted as Assistant- 
Political Resident, and Superintendent 
of the Guicowar's contingent of horse, in 
Katywar. From 1867 to 1874 he was 
Political Agent in that province. He 
was promoted to brevet-major for ser- 
vices at Gwalior, against the rebels, 1857 
(Medal with Clasps), Major - General, 
1878 ; Lieut. - General, 1882 ; General, 
1888. He more than once received the 
thanks of the Governor-General of India 
for the efficient manner in which he had 
discharged the duties of Political Agent 
in Katywar. 

ANDERSON, William, D.C.L., Director- 
General of Ordnance Factories, was born 
at St. Petersburg on Jan. 5, 18.35. He 
obtained his early education at the High 
Commercial School in his native city, 
and when he left in 1849 he was head of 
the school', silver medallist, and, although 

a British subject, he had conferred upon 
him the freedom of the city of St. Peters- 
burg. In 1849 Mr. Anderson became a 
matriculated student in the Api^lied 
Sciences Department of King's College, 
London, and went through the complete 
three years' course, taking many prizes, 
and leaving in 1851 with the degree of 
Associate, to become a pupil of the late 
Sir William Fairbairn at Manchester. He 
remained with Messrs. William Fairbairn 
& Sons for three years, and during that 
time was much employed in looking after 
important outwork. In 1855 Mr. Ander- 
son entered into partnership with Messrs. 
Courtney & Stephens, of Dublin, and 
remained with them till 1864, being 
engaged chiefly in the construction of 
bridges, cranes, signals, and other fittings 
for railways. He devoted much atten- 
tion to the theory of diagonally braced 
girders then but little understood, and 
contributed several imjjers to the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers of Ireland, of 
which body he became president in 1863. 
In the autumn of 1864 Mr. Anderson 
removed to London, joining the old- 
established firm of Easton & Amos, with 
the object of building new works on the 
Thames at Erith, the old premises in 
South wark Street having been found in- 
convenient for large and heavy work. 
Mr. Anderson, under whose direct 
management the Erith works have been 
since their erection, became eventually 
the head of the firm of Easton & Ander- 
son. He is a member of Council of 
the Institute of Civil Engineers, a vice- 
president of the Institute of Mechanical 
Engineers, a visitor of the Royal Institu- 
tion, a vice-president of the Society of 
Arts, and has contributed ntmierous 
papers on a variety of subjects to these 
bodies. His knowledge of the Russian 
language has enabled him to abstract 
many interesting papers for the " Foreign 
Abstracts" puVjlished by the Institution 
of Civil Engineers. He has also ti-ans- 
lated the remarkable works of Chernoff 
on steel, and the i-esearches of the late 
General Kalakontsky, on the internal 
stresses in cast-iron and steel. He was 
selected by the Institute of Civil 
Engineers to deliver one of the heat 
series of lectures, namely, that on the 
" Generation of Steam ; " by the School 
of Military Engineering at Chatham, to 
lecture on " Hydraulic Machinery and 
on Hydro-pneumatic Moncrieff Gun- 
carriage ; " and delivered for the Society 
of Arts, under the Howard Trust, a 
course of lectures on the " Conversion of 
Heat into Work." In August, 1889, he 
was ajjijointed by Mr. Stanhope (Secre- 
tary of State for War) Director-General 



of the Eoyal Ordnance Factories, which 
comprise the laboratory, the carrian^e 
dei^artments, and tlie gim factory at the 
Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, the Eoyal 
Gunpowder Factory at Waltham Abbey, 
and the small-arms factories at Enfield 
and Birmini^ham. The University of 
Durham has conferred on him the 
honorary degree of D.C.L., and he was 
in 1889 elected president of section G of 
the British Association. 

ANDREWS, St., Bishop of. See Woeds- 
woRTH, The Rt. Eev. Chakles. 

ANDREWS, Thomas, F.E.S., F.E.S.E., 

M.I.C.E., F.C.S., lie, was born in 1847 
in Sheffield, and is the only son of the 
late Mr. Thos. Andrews of the same 
town. He was educated at Broomhank 
School by the late Eev. Thos. Howarth, 
M.A., and subsequently by jjrivate 
tuition, and was carefully trained in 
metallurgy, mining, and engineering by 
his father. On the death of his 
father, in 1871, he succeeded him as 
proprietor of the Wortley Iron Works 
(one of the oldest-established iron works 
in England), and the Wortley Silkstone 
Colliery. In addition to conducting and 
managing the iron-works, Mr. Andrews 
has rendered excellent service to metal- 
lurgical, physical, and engineering- 
science, by a series of original researches, 
extending over many years, and con- 
nected with various branches of the 
above sciences. He has determined the 
relative corrosibility of wrought-iron and 
modern steels in sea water and in tidal 
streams, and shown that iron corrodes 
much less than steels. He has made 
elaborate researches, published by the 
Institute of Civil Engineers, on the 
" Effects of Temperature on the Strength 
of Eailway Axles, in an Investigation 
extending over Seven Years," and has 
therein determined, on a large experi- 
mental scale, the resistance of metals to 
sudden concussion at varying tempera- 
tures down to zero Fahrenheit ; and in- 
dicated the influence of climatic tempera- 
ture changes on the strength of railway 
material, and at the same time has 
ascertained some of the causes leading to 
accidental fractures on railways. He 
has also studied the influence of sudden 
chilling on the physical properties of 
metals. He has conducted numeroiis 
other original investigations on the 
electro-motive force between metals at 
high temperatures, &.c., and also an 
intricate research on " Electro-chemical 
Effects on Magnetising Iron," Parts 
I., II., III. ; the results of the latter 
research have shown that magnetised 

iron or steel is electro-positive to unmag- 
netised in certain chemical solutions. 
In another jjart of this research Mr. 
Andrews observed that a current was 
prodiiced when the opposite poles of 
two electrically connected magnets of 
approximately equal strength were im- 
mersed in solutions of various chemical 
substances, the north pole being generally 
positive to the south pole. Mr. Andrews 
has written papers on the " Passive State 
of Iron and Steel," discovering in these 
researches that the passive state of iron 
was influenced by magnetism ; and he 
also determined the relative i^assivity of 
the various modern steels, and the in- 
fluence of chemical composition, physical 
structure, &c., on the passivity of the 
metals. Mr. Andrews has also experi- 
mented on the " Heat Dilatation of 
Metals from very Low Temperatures." 
In the course of another research he has 
made determinations of the plasticity of 
ice, and also on the relative conductivity 
of ice and snow, and on the contracti- 
bility of ice at low temperatiires. He 
has also contributed various articles to 
Iron, The Engineer, Chemical News, Nature, 
Poggendorff's Annalen, and other perio- 
dicals. The results of these numerous 
researches are embodied in about thirty- 
three pajDers, published in the " Pro- 
ceedings" of the Eoyal Society, London; 
"Transactions and Proceedings" of the 
Eoyal Society, Edinburgh ; " Proceed- 
ings" of the Institvite of Civil Engineers; 
" Transactions " of the Society of En- 
gineers ; " Transactions " of the Midland 
Mining Institute; "British Association 
Eeports ; " " Transactions" of the Institute 
of Marine Engineers ; " &c. For some of 
these papers Mr. Andrews was awarded at 
diii'erent times by the Institute of Civil 
Engineers, a Telford Medal and three 
Telford Premivims sxiccessively, and also 
a premiiim by the Society of Engineers. 
He was, in 1888, elected a Fellow of the 
Eoyal Society, London, and has also been 
elected Fellow of the Eoyal Society of 
Edinburgh, Member of the Institute of 
Civil Engineers, Fellow of the Chemical 
Society, &c. Numerous quotations are 
made from his metalkirgical researches 
in the recent valuable standard work on 
the " Metalhirgy of Steel," by Henry M. 
Howe, Boston, U.S.A. He is patentee of 
an invention for hydraulic machinery in 
connection with the manufacture of iron. 
Mr. Andrews had recently the honour of 
being requested to furnish a report to 
His Majesty the King of the Netherlands 
on matters relating to the metallurgy of 
iron and modern steels, receiving a 
gracious acknowledgment of thanks from 
His Majesty in connection therewith. 



Mr. Andrews takes a practical interest in 
all Christian and educational labour, and 
has conducted large night-schools. Fo:' 
some years he served as a Guardian of 
the Poor for Wortley Union. He dwells 
among his workmen at Wortley, and 
some years ago built a handsome stone 
building, fvirnishiHl with free sittings, 
for the benefit of the workpeople, and on 
Lord's Day evenings humbly endeavours 
to expound the Holy Scriptures ; on a 
weekday evening he presides over a Bible 
class and jjrayer meeting held there. He 
is also on the committee of the Sheffield 
Technical School. In 1870 he married 
Mary Hannah, eldest daughter of the 
late Mr. Charles Stanley, of Kotherham. 

ANGUS, Joseph, D.D., was born Jan. 16, 
181(3, at Balam, Northumberland, and 
educated at King's College, Stepney 
College, and Edinburgh, where he 
graduated in 183(5, taking the first prizes 
in nearly all his classes. He was 
appointed Secretary of the Baptist 
Missionary Society in ISiO, and Presi- 
dent of Stepney College in 1849, which 
college was removed to Regent's Park in 
1857. Dr. Angus, who was for several 
years English Examiner to the University 
of London, and to the Indian Civil Ser- 
vice, is the author of the " Handbook of 
the Bible," " Handbook of the English 
Tongue," "English Literature," "Christ 
our Life," and several other woi'ks. He 
has also edited Butler's "Analogy and 
Sermons," with notes, and Dr. Wayland's 
" Moral Science." He was a member of 
the New Testament Company for the 
E.3vision of the Scriptures, and for ten 
years a member of the London School 
Board. In recent years the college at 
Regent's Park has made provisions for 
largely extending its work ; and, in 
addition to the foundation of several 
scholarships, the sum of ,£30,000 has jiist 
been contributed to it through Dr. Angus, 
for increasing its efficiency. Special 
chairs are founded, and more than one 
lectureship has been established. 

ANNAN DALE. Professor Thomas, 
F.R.S.E., M.D., P.R.C.S. London and 
Edinburgh, and member of many Foreign 
Societies, was bornatNewcastle-on-Tyne, 
Feb. 2, 183S, and educated at the New- 
castle Infirmary, and the University of 
Edinburgh. He became private assist- 
ant to the late Professor Syme, Demon- 
strator of Anatomy in the University of 
Edinburgh, and Sui-geon and Lecturer on 
Surgery to the Edinburgh Royal Infirm- 
ary. Dr. Annandale's high reputation 
as a practical and operating surgeon and 
teacher of surgery led to his appointment 

in Oct., 1877, as Regius Professor of 
Clinical Surgery in the University of 
Edinburgh. He is Senior Surgeon to the 
Royal Infirmary, Consiilting Surgeon to 
the Royal Sick Children's Hospital, and 
to the Royal Maternity Hospital ; and is 
the author of " The Malformations, 
Diseases, and Injuries of the Fingers and 
Toes, and their Surgical Treatment," 
1865, being the Jacksonian Prize Essay 
of the Royal College of Surgeons of 
London for 1861; "Abstracts of Surgical 
Principles," 1868-70, 2nd edit., 1876; 
"Clinical Surgical Lectures," 1871-75, 
rei^orted in the Medical Times and British 
Medical Journal ; " On the Pathology and 
Operative Treatment of Hip Disease," 
1876 ; author of articles " Diseases of 
the Breast," " Internal derangements of 
the knee-joint, and their treatment by 
operation," "On the removal of bone to 
promote healing of wounds," and numer- 
ous contributions to professional perio- 

ANNENKOW, General Michael, son of 
General Michael Annenkow, constructor 
of the Russian Central Asian railroad, 
was born in 183S, and educated in St. 
Petersburgh. He received his first com- 
mission in 1863 in the mounted pioneers 
of the guard. He afterwards entered 
the Russian Staff College, and served as 
a staff-captain during the Polish insur- 
rection ; at the end of which he became 
colonel, though only twenty-eight years 
of age. He spent four years in Poland, 
in police service, and in 1870 was attached 
to the German armies during the cam- 
paign in France ; and was afterwards 
given the chief direction of troops in 
Russia, and created the railway battal- 
ions. Not only the Samarcand lina, but 
several other Russian strategic lines are 
due to him. 

AJJSTEY, F. See Guthsie, Thomas 


AB. ABI, Ahmed, the leader of the military 
insurrection in Egypt, 1882, was born of 
a fellah family, resident in a small village 
in the province of Charkieh, in the east- 
ern portion of Lower Egypt, nearly on 
the borders of the desert. He was en- 
listed in the army during the reign of 
Said Pacha, who initiated the system of 
replacing the foreign officers by native 
Egj'ptians. Ai'abi was one of those thus 
selected, and he rose rapidly in rank ; 
but the Viceroy was capricious, and one 
day he had Arabi punished with some 
hundred blows of a stick, and relegated 
him to half -pay. Arabi, who had learned 
to read and write, »ad had compatriots 



at Ezher, the religious university of 
Cairo, went thither to study science, and 
althoiigh he could not complete a course 
which requires about twenty years to ac- 
complish, he learnt sufficient to enable 
him to pass for a savant among his col- 
leagiies in the army. Ismail Pacha re- 
stored him to the army, and from this 
time Arabi was regarded by his Egypt- 
ian colleagues as a pious and learned 
man, his conduct being, according to 
Mussulman morality, irrej^roachable. He 
married the datighter of the nurse of El 
Hami Pacha, son of Abbas Pacha, who 
had been brought up in the Prince's 
palace : this afforded him somewhat of a 
competence. During the Abyssinian 
campaign he managed to have the charge 
of the transport, and remained at Mas- 
sama to forward the convoys. After the 
campaign he was employed in the trans- 
port of sugar from the Khedive's factories 
in Upper Egypt, and having a quarrel 
with the manager of the Khedive's pro- 
l^erty, he returned to Cairo, and was 
again replaced in the army, being at the 
time lieutenant-colonel. He became the 
intimate counsellor of Ali Bey El Eoubi, 
who was the means of raising Arabi from 
his obscurity. During the years 1876-8 
he organized a sort of secret society 
among the fellah officers, which was not 
noticed, in consequence of the events 
that were then engaging the attention of 
the Khedive and tlie State. Some weeks 
previous to the coup d'etat of Ismail 
Pacha against the European Ministry, 
several officers, among whom were Arabi 
and El Eoubi, went to Ali Pacha Moii- 
barek, a fellah of Charkieh, and proposed 
to place him at their head to overthrow 
the Khedive, and the European Ministry. 
Ali Pacha Moubarek, who was a member 
of the Ministry of Wilson and Blignieres, 
related the whole to the Khedive, who 
had an interview with the society of El 
Eoubi and Arabi, and with their aid 
made the famous revolution which 
Ijrought about the fall of the European 
Ministry of 1879. Ismail Pacha would 
doubtless have suppressed the society had 
he remained a week or a fortnight longer 
in Egypt. At the accession of Tewlik, 
the bulk of the public were yet ignorant 
of the name of Arabi. In a short time 
afterwards the Khedive made him colonel 
and entrusted him with a regiment. Ali 
Bey El Eoubi was sent to Mansourah as 
President of the Tribunal of First In- 
stance ; but the conspiracy could not be de- 
stroyed, especially because no one in the 
Government, except perhaps the Khedive 
himself, considered that it had any real im- 
portance. At this time began the intrigues 
of the ex-Khedive, of Halim Pacha, and 

the Porte, and each party endeavoured to 
get hold of the only power that appeared 
to remain in Egypt, that is to say, this 
conspiracy of oflttcers, which had drawn 
to it a large number of non-commissioned 
officers, and even of soldiei's, by promis- 
ing them an increase of pay, with better 
clothing and rations. The tactics of Arabi 
were to awaken the interest of the people 
in the movement which he was preparing, 
and to which he gave the name of " The 
Awakening of the National Party." In 
Sept., 1881, Arabi appeared at the head of 
a military and popular revolt, compelling 
the Khedive, Tewfik Pacha, to dismiss 
his former Ministry, and to convene a 
sort of Parliament called the Assembly 
of Notables, which met about the begin- 
ning of 1882. The affair of Sept. 8 re- 
sulted in the overthrow of Eiaz Pacha's 
Administration, which was unpopular 
because it was supposed to be too defer- 
ential to certain foreign interests. Sheriff 
Pacha, who was thereupon appointed 
Prime Minister, pledged the Khedive to 
establish a Parliamentary Government. 
A manifesto was issued by the " National 
Party" on Dec. 18, 1881, containing an 
exposition of their views and puriDoses. 
They professed loyalty to the Sultan both 
as Imperial Suzerain and as Califjli of the 
Mussulman community, but would never 
suffer Egypt to be reduced to a Turkish 
Pachalic, and they claimed the guarantee 
of England and of Europe for the admin- 
istrative independence of Egypt. They 
also professed loyalty to the Khedive, 
but would not acquiesce in a despotic 
rule, and they insisted upon his promise 
to govern by the advice of a representa- 
tive assembly. At the beginning of 1882 
the Khedive and Sheriff Pacha called to- 
gether the Assembly of Notables. Arabi 
was then appointed Under-Secretary for 
the War Department, and was raised to 
the rank of Pacha. The Assembly of 
Notables wanted to vote the budget. 
This claim was refused by the Khedive's 
Government on account of the financial 
Controllers, and hence ai-ose the Egyp- 
tian crisis. Arabi and the army had, 
however, a monopoly of power. The 
Khedive was forced to accept a National 
Ministry, and the Organic Law, adojated 
in defiance of the protests of the Con- 
trollers, placed the budgets in the hands 
of the Notables, thus subverting the 
authority of England and France em- 
bodied in the Control. Arabi, now sub- 
stantially Dictator, and supported almost 
undisguisedly by the Sultan, proceeded 
to more daring measures. Eventually 
the English Government felt obliged to 
intervene by armed force. Then followed 
the bombardment of Alexandria by the 



fleet under the command of Sir Beau- 
champ Seymour (July llj 1882), and 
subsequently (Sept. 13), the decisive 
defeat of Arabi and his army at Tel-el- 
Kebir by the British troops under Sir 
Garnet Wolseley. Arabi and his lieu- 
tenant, Toxilba Pacha, fled to Cairo, 
whei'e they surrendered to General 
Di'ury Lowe. It was intended at first to 
charge Arabi with murder and incen- 
diarism, but he was actually brought to 
trial on the simple charge of rebellion 
(Dec. 3). He pleaded guilty, and was 
condemned to death, but immediately 
afterwai'ds the sentence was commuted 
by the Khedive to jjerpetiial exile from 
Egypt and its dependencies. Ceylon 
having been chosen as the place of 
banishment, Arabi, with other leaders in 
the rebellion, were landed at Colombo, 
Jan. 16, 1883. 

ARCH, Joseph, leader of the agricul- 
tural labourers' movement, was born at 
Barford, Warwickshire, on Nov. 10, 1826. 
His father was a laboui-er, and he himself 
had, fi-om an early age, to work in the 
fields for his living. He married the 
daughter of a mechanic, and at her sxig- 
gestion he added to his slender stock of 
book learning. He used often to sit up 
late at night reading books, whilst smok- 
ing his pijDe by the kitchen fire. In this 
way he contrived to acquire some know- 
ledge of logic, mensuration, and survey- 
ing. He likewise perused a large number 
of religious works, and for some years he 
occupied a good deal of his spare time in 
preaching among the Primitive Metho- 
dists. When the movement arose among 
the agricultural labourers, he became its 
recognised leader. In 1872 he foimded 
the National Agricultui-al Labourers' 
Union, of which he became president. He 
went through the principal agricultural 
districts of England, addressing crowded 
meetings of the labouring classes, and 
afterwards he visited Canada to inquire 
into the questions of labour and emigra- 
tion. Having once or twice offered him- 
self unsuccessfully as a candidate for a 
seat in Parliament, Mr. Arch was elected 
in 1885 Liberal member for North-west 
Norfolk, but after the dissolution of 1886, 
he was defeated by his former Conserva- 
tive opponent. Lord Henry Bentinck. 

AKCHEB, James, R.S.A., was born in 
Edinburgh, June 10, 182-J-, and educated 
at the High School in that city. He re- 
ceived his art education in the school 
founded by the Honourable Board of 
Trustees for Manufactures in Scotland, 
and was appointed an Associate of the 
Royal Scottish Academy in 1850, and a 

full Academician in 1858. Mr. Archer, 
who left Scotland for London in 1862, 
first exhibited in the Eoyal Academy a 
cartoon of a design of the Last Supper, 
followed by an oil pictiire of the same the 
year after. He made a series of pictures 
from the " Morte d'Arthiu-," of which one 
was exhibited in the Eoyal Academy — 
" The Mystic Sword Excalibur." He 
painted a series of pictures of children 
in costume, exhibited in the Eoyal Aca- 
demy, of which " Maggie, you're Cheat- 
ing" is the chief. He became a portrait 
painter in 1871, exhibiting a portrait of 
Col. Sykes, M.P., from which time he 
painted many portraits, one of the prin- 
cipal being that of Professor Blackie. 
Since that he has painted four lai'ge sub- 
ject pictures, the first " The Worship of 
Dionysius," " Dieu le ve%dt, Peter the 
Hermit preaching the first Crusade ; " 
" In the Second Century. You ! a Chris- 
tian ? " and the fourth, " St. Agnes, a 
Christian Martyr." In 188i he went for 
a few months to the United States, where 
he painted James G. Blaine, who that 
year was the defeated candidate for the 
Presidency ; among others Andrew Car- 
negie, the well-known Pittsburg Mil- 
lionaire. In 1886 he went to India, where 
he remained for three years, spending the 
Avinters always in Calcutta. There he 
painted several of the Native Rajahs, 
chiefly members of the well-known family 
of Ragore, one branch of which is an ad- 
herent to the reformed i-eligious move- 
ment of the Brahmo Somaj. In Simla he 
painted Lady Dufferin in her silver-wed- 
ding dress, as well as her son, then Lord 
Clandeboye : there he also painted a post- 
humous portrait of Sir Charles Mac- 
gregor, and designed his commemorative 
medal. He returned to London in 1889. 

ARCHIBALD, The Hon, Sir Adams 
George, D.C.L., K.C.M.G., Q.C., P.C, a 
Canadian statesman, was born at Truro, 
N.S., May 18, 1814. He was educated at 
Pictou Academy, and called to the Bar in 
1839. He became Solicitor-General in 
the government of Nova Scotia in 1856, 
and Attorney-General four years later. 
He was a delegate to England in 1857 on 
the subject of the Mines and Minerals of 
Nova Scotia, and also to ascertain the 
views of the British Government on the 
question of the Union of the North 
American Provinces, and took an active 
part in the subsequent conferences on 
that subject in Canada, being present in 
London with the delegation which in 
1866 arranged the terms of Confedera- 
tion. He was made a member of the 
Canadian Privy Council in 1867, and the 
same year served as Secretary of State 


for the Provinces. From May, 1870, 
until Dec, 1872, he was Lient. -Governor 
of Manitoba and the North-west Terri- 
tories, a7id upon resigning that position 
was appointed Judge in Equity in his 
native province. Upon the death of the 
Hon. Josej^h Howe, he was ajipointed his 
successor in the Lieut. -Governorship of 
Nova Scotia, and was created a Companion 
of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. 
His second term as Lieut. -Governor ex- 
pired in 1883. In 1881? he received the 
degree of D.C.L. from King's College, 
Windsor, and in 18S5 was made K.C.M.G. 
In the latter year he became a Governor 
of Dalhousie University, and was chosen 
Chairman of the Board of Governors. 
Since 1880 he has been President of the 
Nova Scotia Historical Society, and since 
1888 a member of the House of Commons 
of the Dominion. 

ARDITI, Luigi, a musical composer, 
born July 22, 1822, at Crescentino, Pied- 
mont, was educated as a violinist at the 
Conservatoire at Milan. After filling the 
post of musical conductor in various 
places in Italy and America, where he 
remained ten years, he came to London 
in 1857, and was appointed musical 
director at Her Majesty's Theatre. Since 
that time he has conducted Italian opera 
and other music at other great theatres 
and concert-rooms up to the present day. 
Whilst in Constantinople he received from 
the Sultan the Order of the Medjidieh in 
acknowledgment of his talent as a com- 
poser. In addition to numerous songs 
composed by Signor Arditi, may be men- 
tioned the opera " La Spia," written in 
New York in 185G ; " II Bacio," written 
in London ; and various pieces for the 

ARGYLL (Duke of), His Grace George 
Douglas Campbell, K.G., K.T., P.C, only 
suiviving son of the seventh duke, was 
born at Ardincaple Castle, Dumbarton- 
shire, in 1823, and, before he had suc- 
ceeded his father, in April, 1847, had 
become known as an author, politician, 
and public speaker. As Marqviis of Lome 
he took an active part in the controversy 
in the Presbyterian Church of Scotland 
relating to patronage, and was looked 
upon by Dr. Chalmers as an important 
and valuable adherent. As early as 1812 
lie published a pamphlet which exhibited 
considerable literary ability, under the 
title of "A Letter to the Peers from a 
Peer's Son." His brochure, " On the Duty 
and Necessity of Immediate Legislative 
Interposition in behalf of the Church of 
Scotland, as determined by Considerations 
pf Constitiitioual Law," was an historical 

view of that Church, particularly in 
reference to its constitutional power in 
ecclesiastical matters. In the coui-se of 
the same year he published "A Letter to 
the Rev. Thomas Chalmers, D.D., on the 
Present Position of Church Affairs in 
Scotland, and the which have led 
to it." In this pamphlet he vindicated 
the i-ight of the Church to legislate for 
itself ; but condemned the Free Church, 
movement then in agitation among cer- 
tain members of the General Assembly ; 
maintaining the position taken up in his 
" Letter to the Peers," and expressing 
his dissent from the extreme view em- 
bodied in the statement of Dr. Chalmers, 
that " lay patronage and the integrity of 
the spiritual inde23endence of the Church 
has been proved to be, like oil and water, 
immiscible." In 1848 the Duke published 
an essay, critical and historical, on the 
ecclesiastical history of Scotland since the 
Reformation, entitled " Presbytery Ex- 
amined." It was a careful expansion of 
his earlier writings, and was favourably 
received. His Grace was a frequent 
speaker in the House of Peers on such, 
subjects as Jewish Emancipation, the 
Scottish Marriage Bill, the Corrupt Prac- 
tices at Elections Bill, the Sugar Duties, 
Foreign Aifairs, the Ecclesiastical Titles 
Bill, tlie Scottisli Law of Entail, and the 
Repeal of the Paper Duties. During the 
administi-ation of Lord John Russell he 
gave the government a general support, 
at the same time identifying his political 
views with those of the Liberal Conser- 
vatives. His Grace actively interested 
himself in all questions affecting Scottish 
interests brought before the Legislature, 
especially in the affairs of the Church of 
Scotland. In 1851 he was elected Chan- 
cellor of the University of St. Andrews. 
In 1852 he accepted office in the Cabinet 
of the Earl of Aberdeen, as Lord Privy 
Seal. On thebreaking-up of that ministry, 
in February, 1855, in consequence of the 
secession of Lord John Russell, and the 
appointment of Mr. Roebuck's Committee 
of Inquiry into the state of the British 
Army before Sebastopol, his Grace retained 
the same office under the Premiership of 
Lord Palmerston. In the latter part of 
1855 he resigned the Privy Seal, and 
became Postmaster-General. In Lord 
Palmerston's Cabinet of 1859 the Duke 
resumed the office of Lord Privy Seal, 
which be exchanged for that of Post- 
master-General on Lord Elgin being sent, 
in 1860, on his second special mission to 
China. He was re-appointed Lord Privy 
Seal in 1860, was elected Rector of the 
University of Glasgow in Nov., 1854 ; pre- 
sided over the twenty-fifth annual meet- 
ing of the British Association for the 



Advancement of Science, held at Glasgow, 
in Sept. 1855 ; and was elected President 
of the Royal Society of Edinbiu-gh in 1861. 
On the formation of Mr. Gladstone's 
Cabinet, in Dec. 18G8, he was appointed 
Secretary of State for India, and he held 
that position till the downfall of the 
Liberal Government in Feb. 1871. In 
the ensuing session he warmly supported 
the measure introduced and carried by 
the Conservative Government for the 
transfer of the patronage in the Church of 
Scotland from individuals to congrega- 
tions. He was appointed Lord Privy Seal 
for the third time in May, 1880, on Mr. 
Gladstone returning to power. That post 
he held till April, 18S1, when he resigned 
it, in consequence of a difference with his 
colleagues in the Cabinet concerning 
some of the provisions of the Irish Land 
Bill. In announcing the circumstance to 
the House of Lords (April 8) he stated 
that in consequence of certain pi'ovisions 
of the Bill which, in his view, put the 
ownership of Irish proj^erty in commission 
and abeyance, he had felt obliged to 
resign his office in the Government, and 
his resignation had been accepted by Her 
Majesty. Since that time the Duke has 
taken an important part, by speech and 
pen, in political controversy, taking the 
Whig side ; especially on the questions of 
Home Kule and those arising out of the 
Crofter agitation. His Grace is Hereditary 
Master of the Queen's Household in 
Scotland, Chancellor of the University of 
St. Andrews, a Trxistee of the British 
Museum, and Hereditary Sheriff and 
Lord-Lieutenant of Argyllshire. In 1866 
His Grace published " The Eeign of Law," 
which has passed through numerous 
editions ; in 1869 " Primeval Man ; an 
Examination of some Recent Specula- 
tions ; " in 1870, a small work on the 
History and Antiquities of lona, of which 
island his Grace is proprietor; in 1874 
" The Patronage Act of 187-1 all that was 
asked in 1843, being a Reply to Mr. 
Taylor Innes ; " in 1877 (for the Cobden 
Club) observations " On the Important 
Question Involved in the Relation of 
Landlord and Tenant ; " in 1879 " The 
Eastern Question, from the Treaty of 
Paris to the Treaty of Berlin, and to the 
second Afghan War," 2 vols. ; and in 
1884 " The Unity of Nature," a work on 
the Philosophy of Religion ; being a sequel 
to the " Reign of Law/' and " An Eco- 
nomic History of Scotland." He is a 
frequent contributor to scientific jour- 
nals, chiefly on Geology, the Darwinian 
Theory, &c. He married first, in 1844, 
the eldest daughter of the second Duke 
of Sutherland (she died May 25, 1878) ; 
aoid secondly, in 1881, Amelia Maxia, 

eldest daughter of Dr, Claughton, Bishop 
of St. Alban's, and widow of Col. 
Augustus Henry Archibald Anson, His 
Grace's eldest son, the Marquis of Lorne, 
married, in 1871, the Princess Louise. 
(See LoKNE,) 


8ee Chinnekt-Haldane, The Rt. Rev. 
James Robert Alexandeb. 

ARMAGH, Archbishop of. See Knox, 
The Most Rev. Robert Bent. 

ARMITAGE, Professor Edward, R.A., 

an historical and mural painter, de- 
scended from a Yorkshire family, was 
born in London, May 20, 1817, and 
educated in France and Germany. In 
1837 he entered the studio of Paul Dela- 
roche at Paris, and, in 1839, he was 
selected by that master to assist him in 
the decoration of the " Hemicycle " at 
the School of Fine Arts. To the Cartoon 
Exhibition at Westminster Hall, in 1813, 
Mr. Armitage sent " The Landing of 
Julius Cffisar in Bx-itain," which took a 
first-class prize of .£300. In 1844 he was 
a contributor to the Westminster Hall 
Exhibition of works in fresco, but not 
with similar success, receiving no prize. 
At the third competition in 1845 he was 
again successful, taking a .£2 lO i^rize for 
a cartoon and coloured design, " The 
Spirit of Religion ; " and, finally, in 1817, 
another first prize of £500 was awarded 
to him for an oil picture, " The Battle of 
Meanee," now the property of the Queen. 
After this, Mr. Armitage went to Rome, 
where he remained one year. During the 
war with Russia he visited the Crimea, 
and the result was two pictures, "The 
Heavy Cavalry Charge of Balaklava," 
and " The Stand of the Guards at Inker- 
mann." In 1858 he jDroduced a colossal 
figure entitled " Retribution," allegorical 
of the suppression and punishment of the 
Indian Mutiny. In the Roman Catholic 
Church of St. John at Islington, he 
painted " St. Francis and his early 
followers before Pope Innocent III.," and 
decorated the apsis with figures of Christ 
and the twelve Apostles. In 1869 he was 
engaged upon the moiiochrome series of 
wall-paintings in University Hall, Gor- 
don Square. Mr. Armitage was elected 
A.R.A. in 1867, R.A. in Dec, 1872 ; and 
was appointed Professor and Lecturer on 
Painting to the Royal Academy in 1875. 
To the annual exhibitions of that body he 
has been a regular contributor since 1848. 

ARMSTEAD, Henry Hugh, R.A., ^o^^^r. 
tor, was born in London, June 1?, 1S28, 
and received his artistic education at lu^ 



School of Design, Somerset House, 
Leigh's School, Maddox Street, Mr. 
Carey's School, and the Koyal Academy. 
Among his masters were Mr. McManus, 
Mr. Herbert, E.A., Mr. Bailey, E.A., Mr. 
Leigh, and Mr. Carey. Asa designer, 
modeller, and chaser for silver, gold, and 
jewellery, and a dravightsman on wood, 
he has executed a large number of works. 
Among those in silver, the most import- 
ant are the " Charles Kean Testimonial," 
the " St. George's Vase," " Doncaster Race 
Plate," the "Tennyson Vase" (Silver 
Medal obtained for that and other works 
in Paris, 1855), and the " Packington 
Shield." His last important work in 
silver (for which the Medal from the 1862 
Exhibition was obtained) was the "Out- 
ram Shield," always on view at the South 
Kensington Mviseum. His works in 
marble, bronze, stone, and wood, include 
the South and East sides of the podium 
of the " Albert Memorial," Hyde Park, 
representing the musicians and jDainters 
of the Italian, G-erman, French, and 
English Schools, and some of the greatest 
poets. There are also four large bronze 
figures on the Albert Memoi'ial by Mr. 
Armstead, viz.. Chemistry, Astronomy, 
Medicine, and Rhetoric. He also de- 
signed the external sculptural decora- 
tions of the new Colonial Offices — reliefs 
of Government, Europe, Asia, Africa, 
America, Australasia, and Education, 
statues of Earl Grey, Lord Lytton, Duke 
of Newcastle, Earl of Derby, Lord Ripon, 
Sir W. Molesworth, Lord Glenelg, and 
on the fa9ade, reliefs of Truth, Forti- 
tude, Temperance, and Obedience. Mr. 
Armstead designed the whole of the 
carved oak panels (beneath Dyce's Fres- 
coes) in Her Majesty's Robing Room in 
New Palace, "Westminster, illustrating 
the life of King Arthur, and the history 
of Sir Galahad ; also the external sculp- 
ture of Eatington Park, Warwickshire, 
the large Fountain in the fore court of 
King's College, Cambridge, the marble 
reredos of the "Entombment of ovirLord," 
at Hythe Church, Kent, and other works, 
including the effigies of the late Bishop 
of Winchester in Winchester Cathedral, 
of Dean Howard and Archdeacon Moore 
in Lichfield Cathedral, of Dean Close in 
Carlisle Cathedral, and of Lord Thynne 
in Westminster Abbey. The marble door- 
way in the crush-room of the Holborn 
Restaurant, including the wrought-iron 
screens for the fireplaces, &c., are also by 
him, as well as the exterior stone doorway 
and corbel of the Hotel Metropole. One 
of his most impoi'tant works is the " Street 
Memorial," now in the central hall of the 
Law Courts, inchiding life-size marble 
statue and alto relievo of the " Arts and 

Crafts required for the erection and due 
enrichment of a great public building." 
The following works also have been 
executed by him : — The effigy of Bishop 
Ollivant, now in Llandaff Cathedral, in 
marble, the bronze statue of Lieutenant 
Waghorn, R.N., the " Overland Route," 
erected at Chatham, and the memorial to 
Mrs. Craik, which is about to be placed in 
Tewkesbury Abbey, also the marble monu- 
ment in St. Paul's Cathedral (in the crypt) 
containing the effigy of the late Rev. B. 
Webb, and a reredos for the St. Mary's 
Church, Aberavon, containing statuettes 
of our Lord and the four Evangelists, 
erected in memory of the late Mr. 
Llewellyn of Baglau Hall. Mr. Arm- 
stead was elected an Associate of the 
Royal Academy, Jan. IG, 1875, and an 
Academician, Dec. 18, 1879. 

ARMSTKONG, Sir Alexander, K.C.B., 
F.R.S., LL.D., J.P., is a son of the late 
A. Armsti'ong, Esq., of Crahan, co. Fer- 
managh, Ireland. He was educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin, and at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, where he gradu- 
ated. Having entered the Royal Navy, 
he served in various parts of the world, 
including the Mediterranean, South 
America, North America, West Indies, 
Pacific stations, Africa, Asia Minor, in 
the exploring expedition to Xanthus in 
Lycia, and elsewhere, and for five years 
continuously in the Arctic regions. He 
is one of the few surviving officers who 
circumnavigated the continent of 
America, and was frequently mentioned 
in the despatches connected therewith. 
He was present in H.M.S. Investigator at 
the discovery of the North-West Passage, 
having entered the Polar Sea via Beh- 
ring's Strait, and returned t© England 
through Baffin's Bay, with the surviving 
officer and crew of H.M.S. Investigator. 
During the Russian War he served in the 
Baltic, was present at the bombardment 
of Sweaborg, and also in two night at- 
tacks with a flotilla of rocket-boats, for 
which he was gazetted. He has been 
Deputy Inspector-General of the Mediter- 
ranean fleet and the naval hospitals at 
Malta, Haslar, and Chatham ; and he 
was promoted to be Inspector-General for 
special services in 18G6. Three years 
later he became Director-General of the 
Medical Department of the Navy, from 
which office he retired in 1880. He was 
created a Knight Commander of the Order 
of the Bath, Military Division, in 1871, 
for his services. Sir Alexander Arm- 
strong has received the Arctic, Baltic, and 
Jubilee medals ; also Sir Gilbert Blane's 
gold medal. He is a Justice of the Peace 
i.^ r Middlesex, City and Liberties of Westr 



minster, and County of London ; and is 
the author of " A Personal Narrative of 
the Discovery of the North- West Pas- 
sage," 1857 ; and " Observations on Naval 
Hygiene, particularly in connection with 
Polar Service." 

ARMSTRONG, Professor George 
Francis, M.A., D.Lit., born in the county 
of Dublin, May 5, 181-5, is the third and 
only surviving son of the late E. J. Arm- 
strong, Esq., and Jane, daughter of the 
late Kev. Henry Savage, of Glastry, J. P., 
Incumbent of Ardkeen, co. Down. He 
received his early education partly in 
Dublin and partly in Jersey. In 1862 he 
made a long pedestrian tour in France 
with his elder brother, the poet, Edmund 
Armstrong. In the same year he obtained 
a civil appointment in Dublin, and matri- 
culated in Dublin University. In 1864 
he won the First Composition prize and 
the medal for oratory in the University 
Philosophical Society. In 1865 he gained 
the Vice-Chancellor's Prize for a poem on 
the subject of "Circassia;" and in the 
same year, on the death of his brother 
Edmund, he was elected his successor in 
the Presidential Chair of the Philosophi- 
cal Society, and he brought out the tirst 
edition of his brother's " Poem." In 1866 
he won the gold medal for composition in 
the Historical Society. In 1867 he was 
re-elected President of the Philosophical 
Society, and won its Gold Medal for 
essay writing. In 1869 he published a 
volume of " Poems, Lyrical and Dra- 
matic." In 1870 appeared " Ugone : a 
Tragedy," written for the most part 
during his residence in Italy. In 1871 he 
was appointed Professor of History and 
English Literature in Queen's College, 
Cork, and a Professor of the Queen's 
University in Ireland ; and the next year 
he was presented with the degi-ee of M. A. 
by Trinity College, Dublin, in recogni- 
tion of his " high literary character and 
attainments." In 1872 he published 
" King Saul " (the first part of the 
"Tragedy of Israel"), and new editions 
of " Poems, Lyrical and Dramatic " and 
" Ugone." In 1874 these were followed 
by " King David " (the second part of the 
"Tragedy of Israel"), and in 1876 by 
" King Solomon,'' which completed the 
Trilogy. In 1877 he published the 
" Life and Letters " of his brother 
Edmund, together with a volume of 
his "Essays," and a new and enlarged 
edition of his " Poetical Works." In 
1882 he was presented with the degree of 
Doctor of Literature, honoris causa, by the 
Queen's University, and was elected a 
Fellow of the Royal University of Ireland ; 
and in the spring of the same year he 

published a volume of poems, under the 
title of "A Garland from Greece," sug- 
gested by travels in Greece and Turkey 
a year or two before. In 1886 Mr. Arm- 
strong piiblished a new volume of poems 
entitled " Stories of Wicklow ; " in 1887 
" Victoria Regina et Imperatrix : A 
Jubilee song from Ireland ; " and in 1888 
" Mephistopheles in Broadcloth: A satire 
in verse." In 1879 Mr. Armstrong married 
Marie Elizabeth, younger daughter of 
the late Rev. John Wrixon, M.A., Vicar 
of Malone, co. Antrim. 

ARMSTRONG, Professor George 
Frederick, M.A., C.E., F.R.S.E., F.G.S., 
is the elder son of Mr. George Armstrong 
and of Mary Ann, daughter of Thomas 
and Phoebe Knowles, of Doncaster, York- 
shire, and was born May 15, 1842. He 
received his general education at private 
schools and at Jesiis College, Cambridge. 
Having from an early age developed a 
strong taste for mechanical pursuits and 
a more than ordinary skill in construc- 
tive art, it was naturally thought that 
engineering would afford him a suitable 
career. He was accordingly educated 
professionally in the Engineering Depart- 
ment of King's College London ; in the 
Plant Works and Locomotive Shops of 
the Great Northern Railway ; and in the 
office of the Engineer -in -Chief, Mr. R. 
Johnson, M. Inst. C.E., on whose staff he 
was subsequently employed for several 
years in the design and execution of 
many important works, and generally in 
the maintenance of the line. He was 
afterwards engaged in private practice in 
London, and in 1869 became Engineer to 
the promoters of the Isle of Man Rail- 
ways, for whom he made all the requisite 
plans and surveys, and prepared designs 
for way and works, and for the necessary 
rolling stock in connection with the lines 
then projected. In 1871 he was appointed 
first Professor of Engineering in the new 
Applied Science School at McGill Uni- 
versity, Montreal ; five years later he 
was offered and accepted the correspond- 
ing chair in the newly established 
Yorkshire College of Science at Leeds ; 
and in 1885 was selected by the Crown 
to succeed the late Professor Fleming 
Jenkin, F.R.S., as Regius Professor of 
Engineering in the University of Edin- 
burgh ; which appointment he still holds. 
For many years Professor Armstrong has 
taken an active part in the promotion of 
technical education at home and in the 
colonies, and has been closely identified 
with its progress. His Inaugural Ad- 
dress at EdinVjurgh (which is published) 
was devoted to a consideration of the 
question in special relation to the educa- 

D 2 



tion of engineers, and attracted consider- 
able attention at the time of its delivery. 
He has at other times publicly dealt with 
the question in lectures, and in the 
columns of the Times. By intimately 
associating himself with the work of each 
of the International Exhibitions held in 
Edinburgh since 1885 ; filling, in the Ex- 
hibition of 1890, the positions of Convener 
of the Engineering and Machinery Com- 
mittee, and vice-chairman of the Execu- 
tive Councils, he has rendered acceptable 
service in the cause of industrial entei-prise. 
Professor Armstrong is the author of a 
number of papers on professional as well 
as on general science subjects which have 
been read before varioiis learned societies, 
or contributed to scientific publications. 
During the summer and autumn of 1879 
he undertook an extensive series of ob- 
servations and experiments with a view 
of determining the diurnal variation in 
the amount of carbon dioxide in the air, 
the results of which were communicated 
in a paper to the Eoyal Society, and have 
since been accepted as a standard of 
reference on the continent as well as in 
this country. In 1889, the Council of 
King's College, London, elected Professor 
Armstrong to the Eellowship of the 
College ; the highest distinction the 
College is empowered to bestow on its 
Alumni. He is an Examiner for Science 
Degrees in the Departments of Engineer- 
ing, Public Health and Agriculture in 
the University of Edinbiirgh ; Hon. Presi- 
dent of the East of Scotland Engineering 
Association ; and member of most of the 
professional institutes and societies. 

ARMSTRONG, Lord, formerly Sir 
•William George, C.B., LL.D., D.C.L., 
r.K.S.. son of the late Mr. William 
Armstrong, a merchant and alderman of 
Newcastle-ui3on-Tyne, by the daughter 
of Mr. William Potter, formerly of Wal- 
bottle Hall, Northumberland, was born 
in 1810. He was educated at the school 
of Bishop Auckland, and aftei-wards 
articled to an eminent solicitor at New- 
castle, who subsequently adopted him as 
a partner; but a strong bent for scientific 
pursuits eventually diverted him from 
the law. Early in life he began investi- 
gations on the subject of electricity, 
which resulted in the invention of the 
hydro-electric machine, the most power- 
ful means of developing frictional 
electricity yet devised. For this he was 
elected, whilst a very young man, a 
Fellow of the Eoyal Society. He then 
invented the hydraulic crane, and, 
between IBIS and 1850, the " accumu- 
lator," by which an artificial head is 
substituted for the natuxal head gained 

only by altitude ; and he extended the 
application of hydraulic power to hoists 
of every kind, machines for opening and 
closing dock gates and spring biidges, 
capstans, turntables, waggon-lifts, and a 
variety of other jmrposes. For the 
manufacture of this machinery he and a 
small circle of friends founded the Els- 
wick Engine Works, near Newcastle. 
There, in December, 1854, he constructed 
the rifled ordnance gun that bears his 
name. In 1858 the Kifle Cannon Com- 
mittee recommended the adoption of the 
Armstrong gun for s^Decial service in the 
field, and Mr. Armstrong, on presenting 
his patents to the Government, was 
knighted, made a C.B., and appointed 
Engineer of Rifled Ordnance, with a 
salary of ^2,000 a year. Between the 
years 1858 and 1870 the Armstrong gun 
and the position of Sir W. G. Armstrong 
in reference to the Government under- 
went many changes ; but the leading 
feature of the gun, whether rifled or 
smooth, muzzle-loading or breech-loading, 
is in the coiling of one wrought-iron tube 
over another until a sufficient thickness 
is built uj). The Armstrong gun has been 
largely adopted by foreign Governments. 
Sir William Armstrong extended the 
system to guns of all sizes, from the 
G-pounder to the 600-pounder, weighing 
ui:)wards of 20 tons, and within three 
years introduced three thousand guns 
into the service. The Committee of 
Ordnance of the House of Commons, in 
their report, July, 1863, state that they 
" have had no practical evidence before 
them that even at this moment any other 
system of constructing rifled ordnance 
exists which can be compared to that of 
Sir W. Armstrong." In February, 1863, 
Sir William resigned his appointment, 
and rejoined the Elswick manufacturing 
company, which has since expanded to 
one of the largest and most important 
manufacturing establishments in Europe, 
and has taken a leading part in the 
further development of artillery and 
other implements of war. In the same 
year he acted as President of the British 
Association meeting held at Newcastle- 
on-Tyne. In that capacity he drew at- 
tention to the gradiial lessening of our 
supply of coal, and the probability of 
actual exhaustion at some future time. 
The discvission suggested by this im- 
portant address led to the appointment 
of a Eoyal Commission to inquire into all 
the circumstances connected with our 
national coal supply, and he was nomi- 
nated a member of this Commission. He 
received the honorary degree of LL.D. 
from the University of Cambridge in 
lb62j and the honorary degree of D.C.L. 



from the University of Oxford in 1870. 
Lord Armstrong is a Knight Commander 
of the Danish Order of the Dannebrog, of 
the Austrian Order of Francis Joseph, 
and of the Brazilian Order of the Rose. 
He was nominated a Grand Oificer of the 
Italian Order of SS. Maurice and Lazarus 
in 187G. Lord Armstrong has taken an 
active part in the inquiries concerning 
the operation of the Patent Laws, he 
being very hostile to them in their present 
forms. He has been President of the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, and 
also of the Newcastle Literary and Phi- 
losophical Society. At the general 
election of 188G, Sir W. Armstrong stood 
as a Unionist Liberal candidate for New- 
castle, in opposition to Mr. John Morley, 
but was defeated. He was raised to the 
Peerage under the title of Baron Arm- 
strong in 18S7, the year of the Queen's 

ARNOLD, Arthur, third son of Eobert 
Coles Arnold, Esq., of Whartons, Fram- 
field, Sussex, and Heath Hoiise, Maid- 
stone, was born May 28, 1833 . On the pass- 
ing of the Public Works (Manufacturing- 
Districts) Act, 18G3, to meet the necessi- 
ties of the cotton famine, Mr. Arnold was 
appointed Assistant-Commissioner, and 
in that caiDacity resided in Lancashire till 
18GG, during which time he wrote " The 
History of the Cotton Famine," of which 
the original edition was published in 
18G4, followed by a cheaper one in 18G5. 
After two years of subsequent travel in 
the south and east of Europe and in 
Africa, Mr. Arnold returned to England 
in 18G8, when he published " From the 
Levant," in two vols., containing letters 
descriptive of his tour. He then became 
the first editor of the Echo, which, under 
his direction and control, attained a great 
success. In 1873, the King of Greece 
conferred the Golden Cross of the Ox'der 
of the Redeemer u^Don Mr. Arnold, with 
special reference to his work, " From the 
Levant." In the same year, upon the 
death of Mr. Baring, Mr. Arnold was an 
unsuccessful candidate for the represen- 
tation of Huntingdon. He resigned his 
connection with the Echo in 1875, and 
passed a year in travelling through 
Russia and Persia. The notes of this 
journey appeared in 1877 under the title 
of " Through Persia by Caravan." In 
1879-80 he issued two works ; one entitled 
" Social Politics," and the other " Free 
Land." At the general election of 1880, 
he was returned to Parliament for Salford. 
In the same year, in succession to Sir 
Charles Dilke, Mr. Arnold was elected 
Chairman of the Greek Committee which 
was actively concerned in promoting the 

enlargement of the Hellenic kingdom in 
accordance with the suggestions of the 
Treaty of Berlin. In 1882, Mr. Arnold 
proposed in the House of Commons 
resolutions in favour of uniformity of 
franchise throughout the United King- 
dom, and redistribution of political 
power, and upon a motion tor adjourn- 
ment, the policy of the resolutions was, 
for the first time, sanctioned by a large 
majority. In 1883, he moved for an 
elaborate return of electoral statistics 
which the Government adopted in con- 
nection with the Reform Bill of 1884. 
In 1885, Mr. Arnold established and was 
elected President of the Free Land 
League, which quickly obtained the 
support of a large number of members of 
Parliament. At the general election of 
that year and of 188G, he unsuccessfully 
contested the Northern Division of 
Salford. Upon the formation of the 
London Council in 1889, Mr. Arnold was 
elected a County Alderman for the double 
term of six years. In May, 1890, he 
accepted an invitation from the North 
Dorset Liberal Association to contest 
that division at the next election. In 
18G7, Mr. Arnold married Amelia, only 
daughter of Captain H. B. Hyde, 96th 

ARNOLD, Sir Edwin, K.C.I.E., C.S.I., 
second son of Robert Coles Arnold, Esq., 
J. P. for the counties of Sussex and Kent, 
and brother of the above, born June 10, 
1832, was educated at the King's School, 
Rochester, and King's College, London, 
and was elected to a scholarship at 
University College, Oxford. In 1852 he 
obtained the Newdigate prize for his 
English poem on the " Feast of Bel- 
shazzar," and was selected in 1853 to 
address the late Earl of Derby on his 
installation as Chancellor of the Uni- 
versity. He graduated in honours in 
1854. Upon quitting college, he was 
elected Second Master in the English 
Division of King Edward the Sixth's 
School, Birmingham, and subsequently 
appointed Principal of the Government 
Sanskrit College at Poona, in the Bombay 
Presidency, and Fellow of the University 
of Bombay, which oifices he held during 
the Mutiny, and resigned in 18G1, after 
having twice received the thanks of the 
Governor in Council. He has contributed 
largely to critical and literary journals, 
and is the author of " Griselda, a Drama," 
and "Poems, Narrative and Lyrical;" 
with some prose works, among which are 
"Education in India," "The Exiterpe of 
Herodotiis," — a translation from the 
Greek text, with notes — " The Hito- 
pades'a," with vocabulary in Sanskrit, 



English, and Murathi. The last two 
•were published in India. Sir Edwin 
Arnold has published also a metrical 
translation of the classical Sanskrit work 
" Hitopades'a," under the title of "The 
Book of Good Counsels," a " History of 
the Administration of India under the 
late Marquis of Dalhouise," 1862-4, as 
well as a popular account, with translated 
passages, of " The Poets of Greece." 
Since 1861 he has been upon the editorial 
staff of the Daily Telegraph. On behalf 
of the proprietors of that journal he 
arranged the first expedition of Mr. 
George Smith to Assyria, as well as that 
of Mr. Henry Stanley, who was sent by 
the same journal in conjunction with the 
Neiv York Herald, to complete the dis- 
coveries of Livingstone in Africa. He is 
a Fellow of the Royal Asiatic and the 
Boyal Geographical Societies of London, 
and Hon. Correspondent of that of 
Marseilles. He published in 1874 " Hero 
and Leander," a translation in heroic 
verse from the Greek of Musseus ; and in 
the following year '• The Indian Song of 
Songs," being a metrical paraphrase from 
the Sanskrit of the Gita Govinda of Jaya- 
deva. Ui^on the occasion of the procla- 
mation of the Queen as Empress of India, 
on Jan. 1, 1877, he was named a Com- 
panion of the Star of India. In 1879 he 
produced " The Light of Asia," an Epic 
poem upon the Life and Teaching of 
Buddha, which has since passed through 
more than forty editions in England, and 
eighty in America. For this work the 
King of Siam decorated him with the 
Order of the White Elephant. In 1881 
he published a volume of oriental verse 
under the title of " Indian Poetry," and 
he has printed several translations from 
the Sanskrit Epic the Mahiibhcirata, and 
in 1883 " Pearls of the Faith, or Islam's 
Rosary ; being the ninety-nine beautiful 
names of Allah, with comments in verse." 
Sir Edwin received the Second Class of 
the Imperial Order of the Medjidieh from 
the Sultan in 1876, and the Imperial 
Order of Osmanie in 188G. In January, 
1888, he was created Knight Commander 
of the Indian Empire by the Queen, and 
in October of the same year published 
" With a Sa'di in the Garden," or " The 
Book of Love," a poem founded on the 
3rd chapter of the Bostan of the Persian 
poet Sa'di, for which he subsequently 
received from the Shah of Persia the 
Order of the Lion and Sun. He also 
published in 1888 a volume comprising 
most of his previous English poems and 
some new ones, under the title of " Poems, 
National and Non-Oriental." 

ARNOLD, Thomas, M.A., is the second 

son of the late Dr. Arnold, of Rugby, and 
was born at Laleham, Staines, Nov. 30, 
1823. Educated at Winchester, Rugby, 
and University College, Oxford, he took 
his degree (First Class Classics) in 1845. 
After serving for some time in the 
Colonial Ofifice he went to New Zealand ; 
passed thence to Tasmania in 1850, with 
the appointment of Inspector of Schools ; 
and, on becoming a Roman Catholic, re- 
turned to this country in 1856. He be- 
came a Professor in the Roman Catholic 
University at Dublin, thence moved to the 
Oratory School, Birmingham, and thence 
to Oxford. He is the author of several 
works on English Literature, and editions 
of old texts, among them, " A Maniial of 
English Literature " (now in a sixth 
edition) ; an edition of " Select English 
Works of Wyclif," 3 vols., 1869 ; " Selec- 
tions from the Spectator" ; "Clarendon, 
Book 6 " ; " Beowulf," text, translation, 
and notes ; and, for the Master of the 
Rolls' Series, editions of "Henry of Hun- 
tingdon," and " Symeon of Durham." 
He is now engaged upon the "Chronicles 
of the Abbey of Bury St. Edmimds." 
On the establishment of the Royal Uni- 
versity of Ireland Mr. Arnold was ap- 
pointed a Fellow. He married in Tas- 
mania Julia Sorell, granddaughter of a 
former Governor of the Colony. She 
died in 1888, and he has since married 
Josephine, daughter of the late James 
Benison, of Slieve Rassell, co. Cavan. 

ASAPH, St,, Bishop of. See Edwards, 
The Right Rev. Alfred George. 

ASHBOURNE, Lord. The Right Hon. 
Edward Gibson, P.C., Lord Chancellor of 
Ireland, was born in Dublin in 1838, and 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin. In 
1875 he entered Parliament as member 
for Dublin University, and in 1877 was 
made Attorney-General for Ireland. He 
held his post until 1880, when he went 
out of office with his party, but continued 
to sit for Dxiblin University. During the 
Liberal rule from 1880 to 1885, Mr. Gibson 
was the chief si^okesman of the Opposi- 
tion on Irish qviestions, and the chief 
critic of the Irish Land Bill of 1881. On 
the accession of Lord Salisbury to office 
in 1885 Mr. Gibson was raised to the 
peerage with the title of Baron Ash- 
bourne, and was made Lord Chancellor of 
Ireland, a jDost which he again filled 
under Lord Salisbury's second adminis- 
tration in 1886. He is responsible for 
Lord Ashboi\rne's Act (1885), for 
facilitating the sale of Irish holdings 
to tenants. 

ASHBURNHAM, Bertram, 5th Earl of. 



Viscount St. Asaph, and Baron of Ash- 
burnham, F.S.A., was born at Ashburn- 
ham, Oct. 28, 1840, being the son of 
Bertram, 4th Earl, by his wife Katherine 
Charlotte, daughter of George Baillie, 
Esq., of Millerstain and Jerviswoode, 
and sister of George, 10th Earl of Had- 
dington. He was educated at West- 
minster School, and at Fontainebleau in 
France, and was attached to the Marquis 
of Bath's special embassy to convey the 
Order of the Garter to the Emperor of 
Austria in 1867. He succeeded his father 
as 5th Earl in 1878. He presided over 
the first meeting held in England to 
advocate " Home Rule " for Ireland, and 
was elected Chairman of the British Home 
Kule Association in 1S86. Lord Ash- 
burnham is the chief representative of 
the Asburnham family, which, in a direct 
male line, has continued at Ashburnham 
in Sussex from before the Norman Con- 
quest, and is desci'ibed by Fuller in the 
early part of the 17th century, as a 
" family of stupendous antiquity wherein 
the eminence hath equalled the anti- 
quity." Lord Ashbui-nham is the owner 
of the collection of MSS. and printed 
books formed by the late Earl, some 
portions of which have recently been sold 
to the Bi-itish and Italian Governments. 

ASHLEY, The Hon. Evelyn, son of the 
late Earl of Shaftesbury by his marriage 
with Lady Emily Cowper, eldest daughter 
of the 4th Earl Cowper, was born in July, 
183G, and educated at Harrow and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, graduating 
M.A. in 1858. He was called to the Bar at 
Lincoln's Inn in Trinity Term, 1863, and 
joined the Oxford Circuit. Mr. Ashley, 
who is a magistrate for Dorset, for Hamp- 
shire, and for the county of Sligo, un- 
successfully contested the Isle of Wight 
in February, 1874 ; he was, however, 
elected for Poole in May of the same 
year, and continiied to represent that 
borough down to 1880, when he was 
elected for the Isle of Wight. Mr. Ashley 
was formerly private secretary to the late 
Lord Palmerston, and from 1863 to 1874 
he was a Treasurer of County Courts. 
When the Liberals returned to power in 
April, 1880, Mr. Ashley was appointed 
Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of 
Trade, and in May, 18S2, he was chosen 
by Mr. Gladstone to succeed Mr. Courtney 
in the office of Under-Secretary of State 
for the Colonies. He was also second 
Church Estates Commissioner. At the 
general election of 1885 Mr. Ashley was 
defeated in the Isle of Wight contest by 
Sir Eichard Webster, Conservative. Mr. 
Ashley is the author of " The Life of 
Henry John Temple, Viscount Palmers- 

ton." He married in 1866 Sybella Char- 
lotte, daughter of Sir Walter Eockliffe 
Farquhar, Bart. 

ASHME AD - B AETLETT, Ellis , M . P. , 
eldest son of the late Mr. Ellis Bartlett, 
a Dissenting Minister, was born at 
Brooklyn in 1849, and educated at 
Torquay and at Christ Church, Oxford, 
where he took a first-class in the final 
schools, and was President of the Oxford 
Union. He was called to the Bar at the 
Inner Temple in 1877, and was for some 
time an examiner in the Education 
Department. In 1880 he entered Parlia- 
ment as member for Eye; and in 1885, 
and again in 1886, was returned for the 
Eccleshall Division of Sheffield. In both 
Lord Salisbury's administrations Mr. 
Ashmead-Bartlett has held the post of 
Civil Lord of the Admiralty. He has 
been a frequent and copious speaker in 
the House and on public platforms, 
especially on questions of foreign policy, 
and his antipathy to Russia is inveterate. 
He is understood to write for the weekly 
journal England, in which he is interested. 
His brother is married to Baroness Bur- 

ASftUITH, Herbert Henry, Q.C., M.P., 
second son of the late J. Dixon Asquith, 
Esq., of Croft House, Morley, Yorks, was 
born at Morley Sept. 12, 1852, and was 
educated at the City of London School and 
Balliol College, Oxford, of which he was 
Scholar, and afterwards Fellow. B.A. 
1874 ; 1st class classics, and Craven 
Scholar. He was called to the Bar at 
Lincoln's Inn, June, 1876 ; appointed a 
Queen's Coiinsel, Feb. 1890 ; elected M.P. 
for East Fife in July, 1886. He marriei, 
in 1877, Helen, daughter of F. Melland, 
Esq., of Manchester. 

ATKINSON. The Rev. John Christopher, 
D.C.L., was born at Goldhauger, in Essex, 
in 1814, and received his education at 
Kelvedon, in that county, and at St. 
John's College, Cambridge (B.A. 1838). 
He was appointed vicar of Danby, in the 
North Riding of Yorkshii-e, and Domestic 
Chaplain to the late Viscount Downe in 
1847, and Chaplain to the High Sheriff of 
Yorkshire in 1851. Dr. Atkinson is the 
author of " Walks, Talks, &c., of Two 
Schoolboys," 1859; " Playhoui's and Half - 
holidays," 1860 ; " Sketches in Natural 
History," 1861 ; " Eggs and Nests of 
British Birds," 1861 ; " Stanton Grange ; 
or. Life at a Px'ivate Tutor's," 1864 ; 
" A Glossary of the Cleveland Dialect," 
1868 ; " Lost ; or what Came of a Slip 
from Honour Bright," 1869 ; besides 
many papers on archaeological and philo- 



logical subjects in the "Proceedings" 
of various learned societies. For some 
time he was er gaged on " The History of 
Cleveland, Ancient and Modern," partly- 
published, and he has since edited the 
Chartularies of Whitby, in two volumes, 
for the Surtees Society, the Chartulary 
of Eievaulx Abbey, for the same series, 
and the Furness Coucher Book, in three 
volumes. Previous to the completion of 
the Furness and Eievaulx Chartularies, 
he had issued " A Handbook of Ancient 
Whitby and its Abbey." In the year 
1887 he had the honorary degree of 
D.C.L. conferred upon him by the 
University of Durham " in recognition of 
his many services to literature." 

ATLAY, The Eight Eev. James, D.D., 

Bishop of Hereford, was born at Wakerley, 
Northamptonshire, in 1817, and after a 
preliminary training at Grantham and 
Oakham Schools, entered St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he obtained a 
fellowship. He was vicar of Madingley, 
near Cambridge, from 1847 to 1852, and 
Queen's Preacher at the Chapel Eoyal, 
Whitehall, from 1856 to 1858. He occu- 
pied the position of a senior tiitor in his 
college at the time he was elected to the 
vicarage of Leeds out of 38 candidates, 
by the trustees of the vicarage, who are 
25 in number. This was in 1859, when 
the Eev. Dr. Hook, the former vicar of 
Leeds, was appointed to the deanery of 
Chichester. Dr. Atlay was appointed a 
Canon of Eipon in 1861 ; and in 1868 was 
nominated by the Crown to the See of 
Hereford, in succession to Dr. Haminden. 
He married in 1859 Frances Tixrner, 
younger daughter of Major William 
Martin, of the Bengal army. 

ATTFIELD, Professor John, M.A. and 
Ph.D. of the University of Tubingen, 
F.E.S. , Professor of Pi-actical Chemistry to 
the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Bri- 
tain was born near Barnet, Hertfordshire, 
on Aug. 28, 1835. His first taste for science 
was given by the physical and chemical 
lectures of his schoolmaster, the Eev. 
Alex. Stewart, at Barnet. In 1850 he 
was articled to Mi-. W. F. Smith, manufac- 
turing pharmaceutical chemist, London. 
In 1S53-4 he was a student in the Pharma- 
ceutical Society's School, and First Prize- 
man in all subjects — chemistry, botany, 
pharmacy, and materia medica. From 1854 
to 1862 he was Demonstrator of Chemis- 
try at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and 
lecture-assistant and research-assistant 
to the Professors of Chemistry there. Dr. 
Stenhouse, F.E.S. , and afterwards Dr. 
Fraukland, F.E.S., at the hospital, at the 
Addiscombe Military College, and at the 

Eoyal Institution. During the same 
period he wrote most of the chemical 
articles in " Brande's Dictionary of Art, 
Science, and Literatui-e," and in the Arts 
and Sciences Division of the " English 
Cyclopredia," besides being a frequent 
scientific contributor to several journals 
and newspapers. In 1862 he took his Uni- 
versity degrees, his thesis being an 
account of an original research " On the 
Spectrum of Carbon," a paper read before 
the Eoyal Society, and published in the 
" Philosophical Transactions." In the 
same year he was appointed to the Chair of 
Practical Chemistry in the Pharmaceutical 
Society's Schoo], where he is now (1890) 
senior professor and dean. He is a fellow, 
and was for several years on the Council, 
of the Chemical Society ; is a Fellow, was 
one of the founders, and was for several 
years on the Council of the Institute of 
Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland ; 
is a Life Member, and on the General 
Committee, of the British Association for 
the Advancement of Science ; is a Fellow 
of the Society of Chemical Industry ; 
was for two years President of the 
Hertfordshire Natural History Society; 
was one of the five founders, for seventeen 
years Senior Secretary, and for two years 
President, of the British Pharmaceutical 
Conference, an organization for the 
encouragement of original research in 
pharmacy, each of his presidential ad- 
dresses " On the Eolations of Pharmacy 
and the State " drawing supporting lead- 
ing articles from the Times and other 
chief newspapers ; the members, on his 
retirement, presenting him with an 
illuminated vellum and five hundred 
specially bound volumes of general 
literature. He was Secretary of the 
Food Jury at the International Health 
Exhibition. He also wrote the Exhibi- 
tion Handbook on " Water and Water 
Supplies," which has reached a third 
edition. He has written largely on 
pharmaceutical education, and the rela- 
tion of education to examination, his 
views, especially as regards compulsory 
public curricula, having gradually won 
the support of all leading pharmacists. 
The present chemical nomenclature of 
the Pharmacopoeias of Great Britain and 
the United States was adopted on his 
recommendation and long advocacy. His 
great work is " A Manual of Chemistry : 
General, Medical and Pharmaceutical," 
of which there have been published 
thirteen large editions in twenty-three 
years, seven being adapted to British 
and six to American medical and pharma 
ceutical requirements. For tliis book he 
was awarded a gold medal at the exhibi- 
tion in Vienna in 1883. He was appointed 



by the General Council of Medical 
Education and Eegistration of the 
United Kingdom to be one of the three 
editors of the " British Pharmacopoeia 
of 1885," has since been Annual Reporter 
on the " Pharmacopoeia " to the Council, 
and has been appointed by the Coxincil 
Editor of an Addendum to the "Pharma- 
copoeia/' In the production of the latter 
he has successfully brought about the 
recognised co-operation of the two lead- 
ing representative bodies of medicine on 
the one hand and pharmacy on the other ; 
co-operation that will, doubtless, be 
maintained in the compilation of future 
editions of the great medicine-book of 
the empire. In the Royal Society's Cata- 
logue he appears as author of thirty-seven 
original scientific papers, mostly of 
pharmaceutical interest, published in 
the " Transactions of the Royal, Chemi- 
cal, and Pharmaceutical Societies." His 
scientific and educational work has gained 
for him not only the much coveted 
honour of being a Fellow of the Royal 
Society, but also the following twenty hon- 
orary distinctions : — Honorary Member 
of the Pharmaceutical Societies of Great 
Britain, Paris, St. Petersbiu-g, Austria, 
Denmark, East Flanders, Australasia, and 
New South Wales ; of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association ; of the Colleges 
of Pharmacy of Philadelphia, New York, 
Massachusetts, Chicago, and Ontario ; 
and of the Pharmaceutical Associations 
of New Hampshire, Virginia, Liverpool, 
Manchester, Georgia, and the Province 
of Quebec. At the Chicago College the 
chief lecture theatre is named "Attfield 
Hall," and his portrait in oils is hung on 
the College walls " in recognition of his 
aid in raising the College from its ashes 
after the great fire of 1871, and of his 
devotion to the cause of education." 
Professor Attfield is a chemical analyst, 
and consultant, as well as teacher. Re- 
sides at " Ashlands," Watford, Hertford- 
shire, and is a namesake and probable 
descendant of the John Attfield who 
flourished in " the Ville of Staundon " 
(now Standon), Hertfordshire, in the 
fourteenth century. 

Gaston, Due d', a French politician, was 
born in 1823. His father, the Comte 
d'Audiffret, under the Restoration, was 
Director of Customs, Director of the 
National Debt, Councillor of State, and 
afterwards Receiver-General. His uncle, 
the Marquis d'Audiffret, was a Peer of 
France, and President of the Cour des 
Comptes. The name of d'Audiffret is 
that of an old family of Dauphine, and 
their armorial bearings were to be seen 

in the Crusades. The Comte d'Audiffret, 
father of the present Duke, married the 
daughter of M. Pasqviier, Director- 
General to the Tobacco Manufactories, 
and brother of the Chancellor Pas- 
quier. It is from the latter, who died 
without issue, and who had adopted him 
in 1844, that the subject of this memoir 
derives his ducal title. In 18i5 young 
d'Audiffret, scarcely 22 years old, entered 
the Council of State as Auditor, 
and married Mademoiselle Fontenilliat, 
daughter of the Receiver-General of the 
Gironde. Successive family afflictions 
deprived him of his children and induced 
him to wish for a retired life ; and M. 
d'Audiffret went to live in Normandy on 
an estate which belonged to him. Here 
he passed 20 years of his life, occupied 
with agriculture and with political 
studies, in the midst of his books, the 
old library of the d'Audiffret family 
being one of the most ample literary 
collections which any individual could 
possess. In 1858 he presented himself 
for election to the Council-General, and 
in 1866 and 1869 to the Corps Legislatif. 
On every occasion the battle was strongly 
contested. Victorious the first time, the 
candidate was beaten on the two other 
occasions by the efforts of official pressure. 
After the fall of the Empire he was 
elected to the National Assembly in the 
Conservative interest by the Department 
of the Orne (Feb. 8, 1871), and voted 
with the Right Centre. He was nomi- 
nated president of the commission on 
purchases, and in this capacity acquired 
sudden renown by the masterly way in 
which he encountered in debate M. 
Rouher, the champion of the fallen 
dynasty. By his eloquence he soon ac- 
quired a great and strong position in the 
Assembly. He was one of the principal 
originators of the do^\'nfall of M. Thiers, 
but he had assumed an attitude which 
would not permit of his being included 
in a ministry of which Bonapartists were 
members. After the check given to the 
proposed Monarchical Restoration, the 
Duke, as president of the Right Centre, 
was among those who supported the 
Septennate, and who powerfully con- 
tributed, in conjunction with his brother- 
in-law, M. Casimir Perier, to the solution 
of Feb. 25, 1875. On the formation of 
the Buffet Ministry, he was elected 
President of the National Assembly. On 
Dec. 9, 1875, the Due d'Audifl'ret-Pasquier 
who, a few days previous, had joined the 
Left Centre, was the first person who was 
elected a Life Senator by the Assembly, 
by a majority amounting to four-fifths of 
all the votes recorded. In the sitting of 
March 13^ 1876, he was elected President 



of the Senate. He continued to hold 
that office till Jan. 1879, after the 
Senatorial elections, which gave the 
Republicans a majority in the Upper 
Chamber. On Dec. 26, 1878, he was 
elected to the seat in the French 
Academy lately filled by Mgr. Dupan- 
loup. Of the 27 members present 22 voted 
for him, and 5 abstained from voting. 

AITFRECHT, Professor Theodor, 
LL.D., M.A., an orientalist, was born at 
Leschnitz,- Silesia, Jan. 7, 1822, and edu- 
cated in the University of Berlin. He 
was appointed Professor of Sanskrit and 
Comparative Philology in the University of 
Edinburghin 1862. On April21, 1875, that 
university conferred on him the degree 
of LL.D., and shortly afterwards he left 
Scotland for Bonn, where he had been 
appointed Professor of Sanskrit. Pro- 
fessor Aufrecht has published "A Com- 
plete Glossary to the Rig Veda, with 
constant reference to the Atharva 
Veda;" "De Accentu Compositorum 
Sanskritorvim," 1847; " Halayudha's 
Abhidhanaratnamala ; a Sanskrit Voca- 
bulary, edited with a Complete Sanskrit- 
English Glossary ; " " The Hymns of the 
Eig Veda, transcribed into English 
letters," 2 vols. ; and " Ujjvaladatta's 
Commentary, the Unadistras," from a 
manuscript in the Library of the East 
India House, 1859. 

AUMALE, (Due d'), Henri-Eugene- 
Philippe-Louis d'Orleans, prince of the 
family of Orleans, born in Paris, Jan 16, 
1822, the fourth son of the late king 
Louis-Philippe and his queen Marie- 
Amelie, was educated, like his brothers, 
in the College Henri IV., and at the age 
of seventeen entered the army. In 1840 
he accompanied his brother, the Duke of 
Orleans, to Algeria, took part in the 
campaign which followed, returning to 
France in 1841, and he comjileted his 
military education at Courbevoie. From 
1842 to 1843 he was again in Algeria, 
where, at the head of the subdivision of 
Medeah, he conducted one of the most 
brilliant campaigns of the war, capturing 
the camp and all the correspondence of 
Abd - el - Kader, together with 3,600 
prisoners and an immense treasure, for 
which service he was made a lieutenant- 
general, and appointed to the command 
of the province of Constantino. In 1844 
he directed the expedition against 
Biskarah, and in the same year married 
Marie Caroline Auguste de Bourbon, 
daughter of Prince Leopold of Salerno, 
who was born April 26, 1822. She died 
at Twickenham, Dec. 6, 1869. In 1847 
the dxike succeeded Marshal Bugeaud as 

Governor-General of Algeria, which posi- 
tion he filled upon the surrender of Abd- 
el-Kader to the French authorities. On 
receiving the news of the revolution of 
Feb., 1848, he resigned his command to 
General Cavaignac, and joined the ex- 
royal family in England. With his 
brother, the Prince de Joinville, he 
protested against the decree banishing 
his family from France, and afterwards 
resided chiefly in England, devoting 
himself to literary pursuits. At the 
beginning of 1861, a pamphlet, 
addressed by him to Prince Jerome 
Napoleon Bonaparte, excited great 
sensation, and led to a species of political 
persecution by the French authorities, 
who condemned the printer and publisher 
of it to fine and inprisonment. The 
duke challenged Prince Napoleon, whose 
refusal to meet him excited great indig- 
nation in France. The same year the 
Literary Fund of London invited the 
duke to preside at their annual dinner, 
on which occasion his speech also excited 
attention. The Due d'Aumale, who, as 
heir of the great house of Conde, pos- 
sesses an ample fortune, owns a beautiful 
seat on the banks of the Thames, near 
Twickenham, and a fine estate in 
Worcestershire, where he formerly 
occupied his time as a practical agri- 
culturist. He is also the owner of a 
superb collection of works of art, and 
lately bought from the family of Lord 
Dudley " The Three Graces," a little 
picture by Raphael, for the enormous 
price of 25,000 guineas. Shortly before 
the elections for the National Assembly on 
Feb. 8, 1871, the Due d'Aiimale, who, dur- 
ing the Franco-German war, had in vain 
sought jjermission to serve in the French 
army, addressed from London a procla- 
mation to the electors of the Department 
of the Oise, in which, while declaring his 
preference for a constitutional monarchy, 
he stated his willingness to bow to the 
national will, if a Liberal Republic were 
adopted as the form of government. 
His candidature was successful, btit he did 
not return to France until after the law 
banishing the members of the Orleans 
family was repealed on Jime 8. He did 
not take his seat in the Assembly iintil 
Dec. 19, 1871. Previous to this, in Oct., 
1871, he had been chosen President of the 
Council-General of the Oise. He was 
elected a member of the French Academy, 
Dec. 30, 1871, by 27 votes against 1, in 
succession to the illustrious Montalem- 
bert. The Due d'Aumale was nominated 
a General of Division, Mar. 10, 1872, and 
in this capacity he presided over the 
Council of War before which Marshal 
Bazaine was arraigned. At the elections 



for the Assembly in Feb., 1876, the Due 
d'Aumale declined to come forward 
again as a candidate in order that he 
might devote his undivided attention to 
his military command. The first two 
volumes of his " Histoire des Princes de 
la Maison de Conde," appeared in 1869, 
and were translated into English by Mr. 
Robert Brown - Borthwick. The Due 
d'Aumale was elected a member of the 
Academy of Fine Arts, Feb. 14, 1880. 
His eldest son, Louis - Philippe - Marie- 
Leopold D'Orleans Prince de Conde, born 
in 1S45, died in June, 1806. His second 
son, Fran(,-ois - Louis - Marie - Philippe 
d'Orleans, Duke of Guise, was born at 
Twickenham, Jan. 5, 1854, and died in 
France, July 25, 1872. Recently, after 
the passing of the Bill of Expulsion 
against the head of his family, the Due 
d'Aumale was struck off the French Army 
List by the Minister of "War, General 
Boulanger, and withdrew from France. 
Much sensation was caused soon afterward s 
by the publication of some letters in which 
the same General, on his promotion, had 
effusively thanked " Monseigneur " for 
his good offices. Soon after he had left 
France, it was discovered that he had 
given his chateau of Chantilly, with all 
the priceless treasures it contained, to 
the Institute, in trust for the French 
nation. The decree banishing the duke 
from France was revoked in March, 1889. 
The same month he was elected President 
of the French Academy for three 

AUSTIN, Alfred, poet, critic, and 
journalist, was born at Headingley, near 
Leeds, May 30, 1835. His father was a 
merchant and magistrate of the borough 
of Leeds, and his mother was the sister 
of Joseph Locke, the eminent civil 
engineer, and M.P. for the borovigh of 
Honiton, of which he was lord of the 
manor. Both his parents being Roman 
Catholics, he was sent to Stonyhurst 
College, and afterwards to St. Mary's 
College, Oscott. From Oscott he took his 
degree at the University of London in 
1853, and in 1857 he was called to the Bar 
of the Inner Temple. But the publica- 
tion, though anonymously, of a poem 
called " Randolph," at the age of eighteen, 
showed the bent of his disposition ; and it 
may be stated, on the authority of Mr. 
Austin himself, that he ostensibly em- 
braced the study of the law only in 
deference to the wishes of his parents. 
and from his earliest years was imbued 
with the desire, and the determination, to 
devote his life mainly to literature. The 
expression of this resolve may be found 
in a novel written and published while 

he was yet a minor. On the death of his 
father in 1801, he quitted the Northern 
Circuit, and went to Italy. His first 
acknowledged volume of verse, " The 
Season, a Satire," appeared in 1861. A 
third and revised edition of "The 
Season " appeared in 1869. His other 
poetical productions are : — " The Human 
Tragedy : a Poem," 1802, republished in 
an amended form 1870, and again finally 
revised in 1889; "The Golden Age: a 
Satire," 1871; "Interludes," 1872; 
" Rome or Death ! " 1873 ; " Madonna's 
Child," 1873 ; " The Tower of Babel," a 
drama, 1874 ; " Leszko the Bastard : a 
Tale of Polish Grief," 1877; "Savo- 
narola," a tragedy, 1881 ; " Soliloquies in 
Song," " At the Gate of the Convent," 
" Love's "Widowhood and other Poems," 
" Prince Lucifer," and " English Lyrics," 
all published between the years 1881 
and 1890. He has published three 
novels : — " Five Years of it," 1858 ; " An 
Artist's Proof," 1804 ; and " "Won by a 
Head," 1866 ; also " The Poetry of the 
Period," reprinted from Temple Bar, 
1870: and "A Vindication of Lord 
Byron," 1869, occasioned by Mrs. Stowe's 
article ' • The True Story of Lord Byron's 
Life." He has written much for the 
Standard newspaper and for the Quarterly 
Review. During the sittings of the 
(Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, he 
represented the Standard at Rome, and 
he was a special correspondent of that 
journal at the headquarters of the King 
of Prussia in the Franco-German war. 
His political writings include " Russia 
before Europe," 1870 ; " Tory Horrors," 
1876, a reply to Mr. Gladstone's •' Bulgarian 
Horrors ; " and " England's Policy and 
Peril ; a letter to the Earl of Beacons- 
field," 1877. Messrs. Macmillan have 
announced for publication a collected 
edition of his " Poetical "W"orks," in six 

AUSTRIA, Emperor of. See Francis 
Joseph I. 

AUTOCRAT of the Breakfast Table. 
See Holmes, Oliver "Wendell. 

A YET ON, Professor W. E., F.R.S.. 
born in London, 1847, is the son of 
Mr. E. N. Ayrton, M.A., Barrister. 
He was educated at University Col- 
lege School, where he gained numerous 
prizes, and entering subsequently into the 
College, gained the Andrews Exhibition 
in 1805 and the Andrews Scholarship in 
1806. Passing the examination, with 
honours, for his first B.A. in 1867, Mr. 
Ayrton in the same year came out first in 
I the Entrance Examination for the Indian 



Government Telegraph Service. He was 
then sent by the Secretary of State for India 
to study electrical engineering with Prof. 
Sir William Thomson, coming out first at 
the advanced Examination for the Indian 
Government Telegraph Service, and won 
the Scholarship. When in India Prof. 
Ayrton acted first as the Assistant Elec- 
trical Superintendent, and subsequently 
as the Electrical Superintendent in the 
Government Telegraph Department, in- 
troducing, with the late Mr. Schwendler, 
throughout British India, a complete sys- 
tem of immediately determining the posi- 
tion of a fault in the longest telegraph line 
by electrically testing at one end. In 1872-3 
Prof. Ayrk)n was on special duty in Eng- 
land on behalf of the Indian Government 
Telegraph Department, and in charge of 
the Great Western Telegraph Manufac- 
tory in London, on behalf of the Engi- 
neers, Prof. Sir William Thomson and the 
late Prof. Fleeming Jenkin. From the 
latter year until 1879 Prof. Ayrton was 
the Professor of Natural Philosophy and 
of Telegraphy at the Imj^erial College of 
Engineering, Japan, the largest English- 
speaking Technical University in exist- 
ence at that date. In 1879 he was ap- 
pointed Professor of Apjilied Physics at 
the City and Guilds of London Technical 
College, Finsbury, and in 1884 the Chief 
Professor of Physics at the Central Insti- 
tution, South Kensington, of the City 
and Guilds of London Institute ; in 1880 
a Secx-etary of the Mathematical and 
Physical Section of the British Associa- 
tion ; and in 1881 was elected a Fellow of 
the Royal Society. Prof. Ayrton is a 
Vice-President of the Physical Society, a 
Vice-President of the Institution of Elec- 
trical Engineers, a Member of Council of 
the Royal Society, and of the British 
Association ; he has been a Juror in the 
majority of the Electrical Exhibitions in 
England and abroad, and is joint editor 
of Cassell's " Manuals of Technology," 
and the author of " Practical Electricity," 
the most recently-iDublished work in this 
series, but already in its third edition. 
His lecture on the " Electric Transmis- 
sion of Power," given at the meeting of 
the British Association at Bath, in 1888, 
was so much appreciated that, at the 
request of the town, this lecture was 
repeated to an audience of 3,000, the first 
time in the annals of the British Associa- 
tion that one of their lectures has been re- 
peated. With the late Prof. Perry he is the 
joint inventor of the well-known Amme- 
ters, Voltmeters, Electric Power Meter, 
Ohmmeter, Disjiersion - Photometer, 

Transmission, Dynamometer, Dynamome- 
ter Coupling, Governed Electric Motor, 
Oblique Coiled Dynamo Machine, and 

Secohmmeter ; and with the late Prof. 
Fleeming Jenkin and the late Prof. Perry, 
of the system of Automatic Electric Trans- 
port known as "Telpherage." Abovit 90 
Papers published in the Proceedings and 
Transactions of the Royal Society, Physi- 
cal Society, Society of Telegraph-Engi- 
neers, and other societies have Vjeen con- 
tributed by Prof. Ayrton conjointly with 
the late Prof. Perry, of which some of the 
most important are : — " The Sijecific In- 
ductive Capacity of Gases ; " " The Con- 
tact Theory of Voltaic Action ;" " A New 
Determination of the Ratio of the Elec- 
tromagnet to the Electrostatic Unit of 
Quantity ; " "A Duplex Partial Earth 
Test ; " " Electricity as a Motive Power ;" 
" Experiments on the Heat Conduction of 
Stone ; " " On a Neglected Principle that 
may be Employed in Earthquake Mea- 
surements ; " " The Magic Mirror of 
Japan ; " " Electric Railways ; " " Measur- 
ing Instruments used in Electric Lighting 
and Transmission of Power;" " Economic 
Use of Gas Engines;" "Electromotors 
and their Government;" " A New Form of 
Spring for Electric and other Measuring 
Instruments;" "The Gas Engine Indi- 
cator Diagram ;" " The Most Economical 
Potential Diiierence to use with Incan- 
descent Lamps ;" " The Winding of Volt- 
meters;" "Economy in Electrical Con- 
ductors;" "Uniform Distribution of 
Power from an Electrical Conductor;" 
" Modes of Measiiring the Coefficients of 
Self and Mutual Induction ; " " The 
Driving of Dynamos with very Short 
Belts ; " " Portable Voltmeters for Mea- 
siiring Alternate or Direct Potential Dif- 
ferences ;" " The Magnetic Circuit in the 
Dynamo;" " The Efficiency of Incandes- 
cent Lamps with Direct and Alternate 
Currents." Prof. Ayrton, with the late 
Prof. Perry, has also taken out tweiity- 
six patents in Great Britain, several of 
them also in France, Germany, America, 
and other foreign countries. 

BAB. See Gilbert, Willtam 


BABINGTON, Professor Charles Cardale, 
M.A., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.L.S., F.G.S., son 
of the late Rev. Joseph Babington, M.A., 
L.M., and grandson of Thomas Babing- 
ton, Esq., of Rothley Temple, Leicester- 
shire, was born at Ludlow in 1808, and 
educated at St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge (B.A. 1830; M.A. 1833). He is 
Pi'ofessor of Botany in the University of 



Cambridge, and he was elected to a pro- 
fessorial fellowship at St. John's College 
in Oct. 1882. Professor Babington is 
well known as a naturalist, and has 
published " Flora Bathoniensis," " The 
Flora of the Channel Islands," a " Manual 
of British Botany," which has passed 
thi-ough eight editions, " Flora of Cam- 
bridgeshire," " The British Riibi," also 
many botanical articles in the scientific 
journals. In addition to these works he 
has published " A History of the Chapel 
of St. John's College, Cambridge," 1874 ; 
and has contribiited "Ancient Cambridge- 
shire " (1883), and other papers, to the 
publications of the Cambridge Anti- 
quarian and other societies. 

BACON, The Eight Honourable Sir 
James, P.C., was born in 1798, and is the 
eldest son of the late Mr. James Bacon, 
barrister-at-law of the Middle Temple. 
He was called to the Bar at Gray's Inn, 
in 1827, and afterwards became a member 
of Lincoln's Inn, of which he is still a 
bencher. He obtained a silk gown in 
184(3, and in 1S(3S he was appointed 
Commissioner of Bankruptcy for the 
London District, and continued to hold 
that oiEce till the end of 1869, when he 
was appointed Chief Judge in Bank- 
ruptcy. In August, 1870, he succeeded 
to the Vice-Chancellorship vacated by 
Sir William Milbourne James, and in 
1875 was made a Judge of the High 
Court of Justice, Chancery Division. He 
continued in active work up to Nov. 
1886, when he resigned the Vice-Chan- 
cellorship. As a Judge his sayings were 
often memorable, and his judgments 
seldom reversed. Sir James Bacon was 
appointed a Member of the Privy Council 
upon his retirement. 

BADEN, Grand Duke of. See Feedeeick 
William Louis. 

BADEN-POWELL. Sir George Smyth, 
M.P., K.C.M.G., F.E.S., was born at 
Oxford on Dec. 21, 1847. His grand- 
father, Baden - Powell, of Langton, a 
much respected Kentish squire, was high 
sheriff of his county in 1832. His father 
was the well-known Kev. Baden-Powell, 
Professor of Geometry in the University 
of Oxford, whose magnum ojnis was written 
to demonstrate that Science and Revela- 
tion are in harmony rather than antagon- 
istic. He was one of the most illustrious 
of the contributors to Essays and Reviews. 
Sir George's mother is a daughter of the 
distinguished Admiral W. H. Smyth, 
K.S.F., D.C.L., F.E.S. Sir George was 
educated at St. Paul's School ; at Marl- 
borough^ under the present Dean of 

Westminster, and at Balliol College, 
Oxford, where he graduated in honours 
in 1876, winning the Chancellor's prize 
for the English Essay. In the interlude, 
between his leaving Marlborough and 
taking up his i-esidence at Balliol, he 
spent three years in making a prolonged 
sojourn in India and Australia, and visit- 
ing the Cape and foreign lands, and the 
principal cities on the continent of 
Europe. The first year of his university 
career saAv jDublished his " New Homes 
for the Old Country : a Personal Experi- 
ence of the Political and Domestic Life, 
the Industries, and the Natural History 
of Australia and New Zealand." This 
important book — which was truly of 
imjDerial interest — was very favourably 
and generally noticed by the press, the 
Times, in a review of three columns, pro- 
nouncing it " a standard work," and the 
Athenmum declaring it to be " an encyclo- 
paedia of Australian knowledge." Jle 
was also diligently applying himself to 
the study of the relations of the Upper 
and Lower Houses of Colonial Legisla- 
ture ; the effect of our tariff on the 
colonial wine industry ; the defence of 
our colonies ; and the questions involved 
in our commercial treaties with France 
and Spain. During these years he pub- 
lished his two well - known books on 
political economy, " Protection and Bad 
Times," and " State Aid and State Inter- 
ference." In 1877 he was serving as 
private secretary to Sir George Bowen, 
Governor of Victoria. During 1880-81, 
Sir George Baden-Powell went to the 
West India Islands, to investigate for 
himself the actual effect of the Sugar 
Bounty System on West India Sugar 
Planting. In Nov. 1882, Mr. Gladstone's 
Government offered him the post of joint 
Commissioner with Col. Sir W. Grossman, 
E.E., to enquire into and report on the 
administration, revenues, and expendi- 
ture of our West India Colonies. Accept- 
ing this honourable task he again left 
England for the West Indies, returning 
home in the following summer to work 
out all the questions referred to the 
Commissioners, and the Report, con- 
tained in five Blue Books, concluded by 
Easter, 1884, is regarded as a complete 
summary of West Indian affairs. For this 
work he was created a C.M.G. In Jan. 
1885, he went to South Africa, and joined 
Sir Charles Warren in Bechuanaland, 
assisting him in his dii^lomatic negotia- 
tions with the native chiefs ; made a 
tour of investigation into the affairs of 
Basutoland, Zululand, and other places, 
and returned to England at the begin- 
ning of 1885. In the winter of 1886-7, 
Mr. Baden-Powell was in Canada and in 



the United States, drawing up a clear 
statement of all the facts and details of 
the Fishery Dispute, of which Mr. Cham- 
berlain was subsequently commissioned 
to negotiate a final arrangement. In the 
autumn of 1887 Sir George was sent by 
the Government to Malta, as the col- 
league of Sir George Bowen, G.C.M.G., 
as Special Commissioner to arrange the 
details of the new Malta Constitution. 
He was, at the same time, offered the 
honour of knighthood for his previous 
Colonial and especially his South African 
services. He is an industrious author, as 
the following more detailed list of his pub- 
lished writings will show : — "New Homes 
for the Old Country : a Personal Experi- 
ence of the Political and Domestic Life, 
the Industries, and the Natural History of 
Australia and New Zealand," 1872; "The 
Political and Social Results of the Absorp- 
tion of Small States by Large," 187*3 ; 
" Protection and Bad Times," with special 
reference to the new British Empire, 
1879 ; " State Aid and State Inter- 
ference," 1882 ; "The Truth about Home 
Eule," essays on the Irish Question by 
leading Unionists, 1888 ; besides nu- 
merous articles in the Quarterly, West- 
minster, Nineteenth Century, Fortnightly, 
Contemporary, National, and Fraser ; deal- 
ing with Australian Constitutions ; Im- 
perial Defence ; Import Duties ; Fiscal 
Policy ; various details of West Indian, 
South African, and Colonial Policy ; In- 
dustries in the United States ; Sugar 
Bounties ; Canadian Commercial Policy ; 
Imperial Federation ; German Colonial 
Expansion ; The Imperial Institute ; 
Fifty years of Colonial Growth ; The 
Expansion of the Queen's Title ; Prac- 
tical Tory Administration ; Colonial 
Home Rule ; Self Government versus 
Home Rule ; and several series of articles 
and letters in the Times and other papers 
dealing with political, fiscal, and com- 
mercial affairs in our Colonies and the 
United States, and other similar subjects. 
Of his public addresses the following are 
the most notable : — " On Tariffs and 
Commercial Treaties," and " On Local 
Option," before the Social Science Con- 
gress, 1881 ; "Protectionist Victoria and 
Free Trade New South Wales," before 
the British Association, 1881 ; " Tariff 
Reform in the British Empire," before 
the British Association, 1882 ; " Scheme 
for the Complete Defence of the Empire," 
before the Royal Colonial Institute, 1882 ; 
" The Maintenance of the Political Unity 
of the Empire," before the Royal Colonial 
Institute, 1884 ; " Africa South of the 
Equator," before a Special Meeting of 
the London Chamber of Commerce, 1885 ; 
" War Risk at Sea," before the Colonial 

Exhibition Conference, 1886; "Emigra- 
tion," before the Working Men's College, 
1886 ; " The Commercial Relations of the 
Empire," before a Special Meeting, at 
the Mansion House, of the Colonial Con- 
ference Delegates, 1887 ; " Colonial 
Government Securities," before the 
Royal Colonial Institute, 1887 ; " Terri- 
torial Waters," before the Conference of 
the Association for the Modification of 
the Law of Nations, in the Guildhall, 
London, 1887. 

BAILEY, Philip James, son of Thomas 
Bailey, author of the " Annals of Notts," 
who died in 1856, was born at Notting- 
ham, April 22, 1816. Having been 
educated at various schools in his native 
town, he in 1831 matriculated at the 
University of Glasgow, where he studied 
for two sessions under Professors 
Buchanan, Sir D. K. Sandford, Thomson, 
and Milne. In 1833 he began to study 
the law, was admitted a member of Lin- 
coln's Inn in 1835, and called to the Bar 
in 1840. Having little inclination for 
legal pursuits, Mr. Bailey before this 
time had carried on an extensive and 
varied course of reading in the libraries 
of the British Museum and Lincoln's 
Inn, as well as at home. He was accus- 
tomed to the composition of verse from 
early years. " Festus," conceived and 
planned originally in 1836, and published 
in 1839, was well received in this country 
and in America, where it has passed 
through many editions. The eleventh, 
or Jubilee edition (so called, from the 
fact that it was issued fifty years after 
the first edition), with a prose preface 
explanatory of the purpose of the poem, 
was published by Messrs. Routledge in 
1889. " The Angel World," 1850 ; " The 
Mystic," 1855 ; " The Universal Hymn," 
1867 ; all since mainly incorporated with 
" Festus ; " " The Age," a Satire, 1858 ; 
and a prose work on the international 
policy of the Great Powers, with a few 
minor and miscellaneous poems, comprise 
nearly the whole of Mr. Bailey's con- 
tributions to contemporary literature. 
The several characteristics of " Festus " 
as a poem are too widely known to 
require to be here specified. A learned 
professor has said recently in one of his 
lectures : " The main aim of ' Festus,' a 
marvellous poem saturated with science 
and philosophy, is to show the immor- 
tality of man and the final absolute 
triumph of the highest, which is infinite 
goodness and love in God." 

BAIN, Professor Alexander, LL.D., 

born at Aberdeen in 1818, entered Maris- 
chal College in 1836, where he took the 



degree of M.A. in 1840. From 1841 to 
1844 he taught, as deputy, the class of 
Moral Philosophy in Marischal College ; 
from 1844 to 1845, the Natural Philosophy 
Class. In 1845 he was elected Professor 
of Natural Philosophy in the Andersonian 
University, Glasgow, but retired at the 
end of a year. In 1847 he was appointed 
by the Metropolitan Sanitary Commis- 
sioners their Assistant-Secretary, and in 
1848 became Assistant-Secretary to the 
General Board of Health, which post he 
resigned in 1850. From 1857 to 18(52 he 
was Examiner in Logic and Moral Philo- 
sophy in the University of London. In 
1858, 1859, 1860, 1863, 1S64, 1868, and 
1870, he acted as Examiner in Moral 
Science at the India Civil Service Exam- 
inations. In 1860 he was appointed by 
the Crown Professor of Logic in the 
University of Aberdeen. In 1864 he was 
re-elected Examiner in the University of 
London, and continued to hold that 
position till 1869. His first literary pro- 
duction was an article, in 1840, in the 
Westminstei- Revieiv, to which he has since 
contributed at various times. In 1847-8 he 
■vvi'ote text-books on Astronomy, Electi'i- 
city, and Meteorology, in Messrs. Cham- 
bers's school series, several of Cnambers's 
" Papers for the People," and the articles 
on Language, Logic, the Human Mind, 
and Rhetoric in the "Information for the 
People." In 1852 he published an edition 
of the "Moral Philosophy of Paley," 
with dissertations and notes. " The 
Senses and the Intellect " appeared in 
1855, and "The Emotions and the Will," 
completing a systematic exposition of the 
human mind, in 1859 ; both works are 
now in their third editions. " The Study 
of Character, including an Estimate of 
Phrenology," was published in 1861, an 
English Grammar in 1863, and a "Manual 
of English Composition and Rhetoric " in 
1866. His more recent works are, "Men- 
tal and Moral Science," 1868 ; " Logic, 
Deductive and Inductive," 1870 ; " Mind 
and Body ; Theories of their Relation," 
1873 ; a collection of " The Minor Works 
of George Grote, with Critical Remarks 
on his Intellectual Character, Writings, 
and Speeches," 1873 ; " A Companion to 
the Higher English Grammar," 1874 ; 
" Education as a Science," 1879 ; "James 
Mill, a Biography," " John Stuart Mill, a 
Criticism, with Personal Recollections," 
1882 ; and " Practical Essays," 1884. In 
1880 he retired from the Logic chair of 
Aberdeen University. In 1881 he was 
elected, by the students. Lord Rector of 
the University ; and again elected in 
1884. In 1887 appeared Part I. of a 
revised and enlarged edition of the 
" Manual of Rhetoric," being devoted to 

the " Intellectual Qualities of Style ; " 
accompanying which was a volume on 
" Teaching English." The year follow- 
ing, 1888, was published Part II. of 
the " Rhetoric," on the " Emotional 

BAIRD, Lieutenant - Colonel Andrew 
Wilson, R.E., F.R.S., A.I.C.E., F.R.G.S., 
born at Aberdeen, Aj^ril 26, 1842, is the 
son of the late Mr. Thomas Baird, 
of Woodlands, Cults, and was educated 
at Marischal College and University, 
and was for some years a pupil of Dr. 
Rennet, LL.D., the Mathematical Tutor 
in Aberdeen. Entering Addiscombe 
College as a Cadet of the Hon. E. India 
Co.'s service in the beginning of 1860, 
he was transferred to the Royal Military 
Academy, Woolwich, at the end of the 
year, and obtained a commission in the 
Corps of Royal Engineers in Dec, 1861. 
After having finished his coiirse of 
military engineering stiidies at Chatham, 
Lieutenant Baird proceeded to India in 
Feb., 1864, and served under the Bombay 
Government ; he was employed as Special 
Assistant in the Harbour Defences at 
Bombay, and held charge of the con- 
striiction of the Middle Ground and 
Oyster Rock Batteries at various times 
between April, 1864, and December, 1865, 
when he was appointed as Special As- 
sistant Engineer in the Government Re- 
clamations which were being carried ovit 
on the foreshore of the harbour. From 
Janixary till July, 1868, Lieutenant Baird 
was employed as Assistant Field En- 
gineer with the Abyssinian Expedition 
(medal), diu-ing which time he held the 
charge of Traffic Manager of the railway, 
and he was mentioned in despatches for 
zeal and management in bringing safely 
and expeditiously troops and baggage 
for embarkation. Shortly after his re- 
turn to Bombay, Lieutenant Baird was 
appointed to the Great Trigonometrical 
Survey of India (in December, 1868). 
Employed successively on the triangula- 
tion in Kattywar and Guzerat. Lieu- 
tenant Baird suffered considerably from 
the trying work in the very hot weather, 
and was obliged to go on furlough to 
England in May, 1870, and while on 
furlough he was selected by General 
Walker, R.E. (then chief of the Great 
Trigonometrical Survey) ; and employed 
by order of the Secretary of State for 
India to study the practical details of 
tidal observations, and their reductions 
by harmonic analysis as carried on 
under the superintendence of Sir William 
Thomson for the British Association. 
On his return to India in April, 1872, 
Lieutenant Baird carried out a recou- 



naissance of the Gulf of Cutch, with a 
view to selecting sites for three Tidal 
Observatories, one at the mouth, and one 
at the head and as far into the "Eunn" 
as possible, and one about the middle of 
the gulf. The tidal observatories and 
the levelling operations in connection 
therewith were carried out for special 
reasons in connection with the question 
of the depression of the great tract called 
the Eunn of Cutch ; and Captain Baird 
was sent to England to carry out the 
calculations for reducing the tidal ob- 
servations. Eeturning to India in June, 
1877, Captain Baird was appointed to 
the general superintendence and control 
of tidal observatories on the Indian 
coasts ; these operations were gradually 
extended, until twenty tidal observatories 
(in India, Burmah, Ceylon, the Anda- 
man Islands, and Aden) were working 
simultaneously, and as five years' work 
was completed at minor stations the 
observatories were removed to other 
places, and now over thirty stations have 
been observed at. In August and Septem- 
ber, 1881, Captain Baird was sent as one 
of the Commissioners from India to the 
Venice Geographical Congress and Ex- 
hibition. Here the Survey of India 
exhibited a complete set of tidal and 
levelling apparatus, diagrams, &c., and 
was awarded a Diploma of Honour ; and 
the Congress awarded Captain Baird a 
medal of the First Class for his works on 
tidal observations ; the Secretary of 
State for India and the Government of 
India recorded their thanks to Captain 
Baird for his services at this Congress. 
After furlough in England, Major Baird 
returned to India in April, 1883, and 
resumed charge of the tidal and level- 
ling operations until he was appointed 
to officiate as Mint Master of Calcutta in 
July, 1885 ; since then he has acted 
several times as Mint Master of Calcutta 
and Bombay, and in the intervals held 
the appointment of Assistant Surveyor- 
General. He was promoted to Lieutenant- 
Colonel in Decembei-, 1888, and was con- 
firmed as Mint Master, Calcutta, in 
August, 1889. For his services in the 
tidal research Colonel Baird was elected 
a Fellow of the Eoyal Society in May, 
1885. The following are the works of a 
public or official character which Colonel 
Baird has written : — Articles on the Gulf 
of Cutch, Little Eunn, and Gixlf of 
Cambay for the Bombay Gazetteer; Notes 
on the Harmonic Analysis of Tidal Ob- 
servations, published by order of the 
Secretary of State, 1872; Paper on 
the Tidal Observations of the Gulf of 
Cutch, read before the British Associa- 
tion, 1876 ; Account of the Tidal Dis- 

turbances caused by the Volcanic Erup- 
tion at Krakatoa (Java) in August, 1883, 
presented to the Eoyal Society ; Aux- 
iliary Tables (two Pamphlets) to facilitate 
the calculations of Harmonic Analysis of 
Tidal Observations, published in India, 
1879 and 1882; Joint Eeport with Pro- 
fessor G. H. Darwin, F.E.S., &c., of 
the results of the Harmonic Analysis of 
Tidal Observations, presented to the 
Eoyal Society and reprinted from their 
Proceedings, March, 18S5 ; Account of 
the SiMrit-Levelling Operations of the 
Great Trigonometrical Survey of India, 
read before the British Association in 
1885, and afterwards printed among the 
supplementary papers of the Eoyal Geo- 
graphical Society ; Manual of Tidal Ob- 
servations, published at the expense of 
the British Association ; Tide Tables for 
India Ports, prepared annually by Major 
Baird and Mr. Eoberts of the Nautical 
Almanac Office by order of the Secretary 
of State for India. Colonel Baird is also 
an Associate of the Institute of Civil 
Engineers, and a Fellow of the Eoyal 
Geographical Society. 

BAKER, John Gilbert, F.E.S., F.L.S., 
born at Guisborough, in Yorkshire, Jan. 
13, 1831, was educated at schools belong- 
ing to the Society of Friends at Ackworth 
and York. He was appointed Assistant- 
Curator of the Herbarium of the Eoyal 
Gardens, Kew, in 1866, (which office he 
still holds,) and Lecturer and Demon- 
strator of Botany to the Apothecaries' 
Company in 1882. He was for many 
years Lectiirer on Botany to the London 
Hospital, and one of the assistant editors 
to Seemann's Journal of Botany. Formerly 
Mr. Baker was Curator, and afterwards 
Secretary, of the London Botanical Ex- 
change Club. His works on descriptive 
botany are as follows : — " Synopsis 
Filicum," a descriirtive catalogue of all 
known ferns, with plates of the genera — ■ 
a work planned and commenced by the 
late Sir W. Hooker, 1868, 2nd edit. 1874 ; 
" Monograph of the Ferns of Brazil," in 
folio, 1870, with fifty plates ; and since of 
the " Compositse, Ampelidese and Con- 
naracefE " of the same country ; " Eevision 
of the order Liliacese," 7 parts, 1870 — 80 ; 
" Monograph of the British Eoses," 1869 j 
" Monograph of the British Mints," 1865 ; 
Monographs of Papilionacese and other 
Orders in Oliver's " Floral of Tropical 
Africa," 1868 — 1871 ; Descriptions of the 
Plants figured in Vols. I., III., and IV. 
of Saunders' "Eefugium Botanicum," 
1869 — 71 ; " Popular Monographs of Nar- 
cissus, Crocus, Lilium, Iris, Crinum, 
Aquilegia, Sempervivum, Epimedium, 
Tulipa, Nerine, and Agave," 1870 — 7; 



" Monograph of the Papilionaceaj of 
India," 18713 ; " Systema Iridacearum," 
1877 ; " Flora of Mauritius and the 
Seychelles," 1877 ; " A Monograph of 
Hypoxidacese," 1879 ; " A Monograph of 
Selaginella," 1884—5; "On the tuber- 
bearing species of Solanum," 1884. The 
following are the titles of Mr. Baker's 
•works on geographical botany, &c : — 
"An Attempt to Classify the Plants of 
Britain according to their Geographical 
ReUitions," 1855 ; " North Yorkshire : 
Studies of its Botany, Geology, Climate, 
and Phj^sical Geography," 18(33 ; "A new- 
Flora of Northumberland and Durham, 
with Essays on the Climate and Physical 
Geography of the Coiinties " (aided by 
Dr. G. R. Tate), 18G8 ; " On the Geogra- 
phical Distribution of Ferns through the 
World, with a Table showing the Bange 
of each Species," 1868; "Elementary 
Lessons in Botanical Geography," 1875 ; 
Many papers on the " Botany of Mada- 
gascar," containing descriptions of aVjove 
1000 new species, 1881—1890 ; " A Flora 
of the English Lake District," 1885. In 
1883 he edited, in conjunction with the 
Eev. W. Newbould, the first jjublished 
edition of Watson's " Topographical 
Botany ; " 1887 ; " A Handbook: of the 
Fern Allies," 1888 ; " A Handbook of the 
Amaryllideae," 18S9 ; and " A Handbook 
of the Bromeliacese," 1890. 

BAKER, Sir Samuel White, M.A.., F.K.S., 

eldest son of the late Samiiel Baker, Esq., 
of Lypiatt Park, Gloucestershire, was 
born m London, June 8, 1821, and was 
ediicated at a private school and in Ger- 
many. He married, in 1843, Henrietta, 
daughter of the Rev. Charles Martin. In 
1847 he established an agricultural settle- 
ment and sanatorium at Newera EUia, in 
the mountains of Ceylon, at an altitude 
of 6,200 feet above the sea level. At great 
personal cost he, together with his 
brothei*, conveyed emigrants from Eng- 
land, and the best breeds of cattle and 
sheeiJ, to found the mountain colony. 
The impulse given by this adventure 
secured the assistance of the Colonial 
Olfice, and with the increasing prosperity 
of Ceylon, Newera Ellia has become a re- 
sort of considerable importance, the most 
recent development being the cultivation 
of the valuable Cinchona plant. In 1854, 
Mr. Baker retired from Ceylon after eight 
years' residence, and at the death of his 
wife in 1855 he proceeded to the Crimea, 
and he w^as subsequently engaged in Tui'- 
key in the organization of the first rail- 
way. In 1861 he commenced an enter- 
prise entirely at his own cost for the 
discovery of the Nile sources in the hope 
of meeting, the Government expedition 

under the command of Captain Speke, 
who had started from Zanzibar for the 
same object. Having married, in 1860, 
Florence, daughter of M. Finnian von 
Sass, he was accompanied throughout 
this arduous journey by his wife. Leaving 
Cairo April 15, 1861, he reached, on Jvme 
13, the junction of the Atbara with the 
Nile. For nearly a year he explored the 
regions of Abyssinia whence comes the 
Blue Nile ; and in June, 1862, he de- 
scended to Khartoum, at the junction of 
the Blue and the White Nile, where he 
organised a party of ninety-six persons to 
explore the course of the latter river. 
They set out in Dec. 1862, and reached 
Gondokoro in Feb. 1863. Here Mr. Baker 
had the good fortune to meet Captains 
Speke and Grant, who had succeeded in 
reaching the Lake Victoria N'yanza, 
which they believed to be the primary 
source of the Nile. Mr. Baker, having 
resolved to supijlement their explorations, 
supplied them with the necessary vessels 
for the voyage to Khartoum, and started 
from Gondokoro by land. Mar. 26, 1863, 
without either interpi-eter or guide, in 
defiance of the oi^ijosition of the slave- 
hunters, who attempted to bar his pro- 
gress. The route was first eastward, then 
nearly south, and afterwards turned to- 
wards the east. On March 14, 1864, he 
came in sight of a great fresh- water lake, 
the " Mwootan N'zigc," until then un- 
known, which he named the Albert 
N'yanza. After navigating the lake from 
N. lat. 1" 14' to the exit of the Nile at 2" 
15', he set out on his homeward journey 
early in April, 1864, but owning to illness 
and the disturbed condition of the coun- 
try he did not reach Gondokoro until 
March 23, 1865. This was the first 
successful expedition directed from the 
North in the history of Nilotic discovery ; 
Mr. Baker having carried with his vessels 
all the numerous transport aniiuals which 
alone enabled him to proceed from Gon- 
dokoro in the absence of native car- 
riers. The Royal Geographical Society 
awarded to him its Victoi-ia Gold Medal, 
and en his return to England in 1866, he 
was created M.A. of the University of 
Cambridge and received the honoiir of 
knighthood. In Sept. 1869, he undertook 
the command of an expedition to Central 
Africa under the auspices of the Khedive, 
who placed at his disposal a force of 1,500 
picked Egyptian troops, and intrusted 
him for four years with absolute and un- 
controlled power of life and death. He 
undertook to subdue the African wilder- 
ness, and to annex it to the civilized 
world ; to destroy the slave trade, and to 
establish regular commerce in its place ; 
to open up to civilization those vast 



African lakes -which are the equatorial 
reservoirs of the Nile ; and to add to the 
kingdom of the Pharaohs, the whole of 
the countries which border on that river. 
Sir Samuel, having first received from the 
Sultan the Order of the Medjidieh and the 
rank of Pacha and Major-general, left 
Cairo with his party on Dec. 2, 1869, Lady 
Baker, as in former journeys, accom- 
panying him. He returned in 1873. 
Sir Samuel is the author of " The 
Kiile and the Hoimd in Ceylon," ISSi, 
new edit. 187-1 ; " Eight Years' Wander- 
ings in Ceylon," 1855, new edit. 187-1' ; 
" The Albert N'yanza, Great Basin of the 
Nile, and Explorations of the Nile 
Sources," 2 vols., 1866, translated into 
French and German ; " The Nile Tribu- 
taries of Abyssinia and the Sword Hun- 
ters of the Hamram Arabs," 1867, -Ith 
edit. 1871 ; " Cast vip by the Sea," a Story, 
1869, translated into French by Madame 
P. Fernand under the title of " L'Enfant 
du Navifrage ; " " Ismailia : a Narrative 
of the Expedition to Central Africa for 
the Suppression of the Slave Trade ; 
arranged by Ismail, Khedive of Egypt," 
2 vols., 1874. In 1879, shortly after the 
British occupation of Cyprus, he visited 
every portion of the island thoroughly to 
investigate its resources, the results of 
which journey he published in a volume 
entitled " Cyprus as I saw it in 1879." 
Thence he proceeded upon various re- 
searches through Syria, India, Japan, and 
America. In 1883 he published " True 
Tales for my Grandsons," and in 1890, 
" Wild Beasts and their Ways," reminis- 
cences of Europe, Asia, Africa, and 
America. Sir Samuel is a Fellow of the 
Royal Geographical Society of London, 
and an honorary member of the Geogra- 
phical Societies of Paris, Berlin, Italy, 
and America. He has received the Grande 
Medailled'Or of the Societe de Geographic 
de Paris. He is a Deputy-Lieutenant of 
Gloucestershire, and J. P. of Devon ; he 
has the Orders, the Grand Cordon of the 
Medjidieh, and the second and third 
classes, in addition to the second class of 
the Osmanieh. 

3AKER, The Eev. William, D.D., Head 
Master of Merchant Taylors' School, 
youngest son of the late George Baker, 
Esq., of Eeigate, was born at Eeigate in 
Dec, 1811, and educated at Merchant 
Taylors' School and St. John's College, 
Oxford, of which he was sometime Fellow 
and Tutor. He obtained a first class in 
classics at Moderations in 1862, and a 
second class in the Final Classical School 
in 1864, and was elected Denyer and 
Johnson Theological Scholar in 1866. He 
was appointed Head Master of Merchant 

Taylors' School, on the retirement of Dr. 
Hessey, at Christmas, 1870, and Preben- 
dary of St. Paul's in 1880. He is the 
author of "A Manual of Devotion for 
School Boys," published in 1876 ; " Lec- 
tures on the Historical and Dogmatical 
Position of the Church of England," 
1882 ; " A Plain Exposition of the Thirty- 
nine Articles," 1883 ; "Daily Prayers for 
Younger Boys," 1886. 

BALFOTIE, The Eight Hon. Arthur 
James, P.C, LL.D., F.E.S., &c., son of the 
late James Maitland Balfour, Esq., of 
Whittinghame, and Lady Blanche Mary 
Harriet, daughter of the second Marquis 
of Salisbury, born July 25, 1848, educated 
at Eton, and at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge (M.A. 1873, Hon. LL.D. Edin- 
burgh 1881, St. Andrews 1885, and Cam- 
bridge 1888) ; is a D.L. for East Lothian 
and Ross-shire ; was private secretary to 
the Marquis of Salisbury when Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs 1878-80 ; em- 
ployed on special mission of Lords Bea- 
consfield and Salisbury to Berlin, June 
1878; P.C, 1885; president of Local 
Government Board June 1885 to Jan. 
1886; and secretary for Scotland July 1886 
to March 1887 ; since which time he has 
been chief secretary for Ireland, with a 
seat in the Cabinet since Nov. 1886. He 
sat for Hertford Feb., 1874 to Nov., 1885, 
and since then he has sat for the Eastern di- 
vision of Manchester. He was elected Lord 
Rector of St. Andrews University, Nov. 
1886 ; was Keeper of the Privy Seal, Ire- 
land, 1887 ; Chancellor of the Order of St. 
Patrick, 1887 ; vice-president of the Com- 
mittee of Council on Education for Scot- 
land ; chairman of the Commission on Bi- 
Metallism, 1887; elected F.R.S., 1888; 
member of the Senate of London Univer- 
sity, 1888 ; the Freedom of the City of Lon- 
don was conferred on him in 1888 ; and he 
was elected member of the Committee on 
Town Holdings, Procedure of the House 
of Commons, &c. He is the author of a 
" Defence of Philosophic Doubt," pub- 
lished 1879, and various magazine 

BALFOTIE, Professor Isaac Bayley, 
Botanist, M.D. (Edin.), D.Sc. (Edin.), 
M.A. (Oxon.), F.R.S., F.E.S.E., F.L.S., 
F.G.S., and member of other British 
and foreign scientific societies, was born 
in Edinburgh March 31, 1853, being the 
second son of John Hutton Balfour, Pro- 
fessor of Botany in the University of 
Edinburgh, 1845-79. He was educated at 
the Edinburgh Academy and at the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, where he was Bax- 
ter Natural Science Scholar, and gradu- 
ated with honoui's in Science and Medi- 



cine. In 1879 he was appointed Regius 
Professor of Botany in the University of 
Glasgow, which chair he resigned on being 
elected in 188-i Sherardian Professor of 
Botany in the University of Oxford. 
This chair he resigned in 1888 on his re- 
ceiving the appointment of Queen's 
Botanist in Scotland, Keeper of the Royal 
Botanic Garden in Edinburgh and Regius 
Professor of Botany, having previously 
been elected Professor of Botany in the 
University of Edinburgh. These posi- 
tions he now holds. In 1871 he was ap- 
pointed, by the Royal Society, Naturalist 
to the Ti-ansit of Venus Expedition to 
Rodriguez. The natural history results 
of the Expedition are published in the 
Philosophical Transactions, vol. 168 (1879). 
In 1880 he undertook, on behalf of the 
Royal Society and the Britisli Associa- 
tion, the exploration of the island of 
Socotra. Reports upon the results of the 
Expedition have appeared in publications 
of the British Association and of the Royal 
Institution. The botany of the island 
constitutes vol. xxxi. (1886) of the Trans. 
Roy. Soc. Edin. Prof. Balfour has contri- 
buted papers, chiefly on botanical sub- 
jects, to the various botanical journals 
and publications of scientific societies. 

BALFOUR, The Eight Hon. John Blair, 
Q.C., LL.D., P.C, is the son of the late 
Rev. Peter Balfour, minister of Clack- 
mannan, by Jane Ramsay, daughter of 
Mr. John Blair of Perth. He was born 
at Clackmannan in 1837, and was 
educated at Edinburgh Academy and the 
University of Edinburgh. He was called 
to the Scottish Bar in 1861, and was 
appointed Solicitor-General for .Scotland 
on the formation of Mr. Gladstone's 
Administration in 1880. Mr. Balfour 
entered Parliament as M.P. for the 
counties of Clackmannan and Kinross, in 
Nov., 1880, in the place of the late 
Mr. W. P. Adam, on the appointment 
of the latter as Governor of Madras, and 
was again elected in Nov., 1885, and 
in July, 1886. In Aug., 1881, he was 
appointed Lord Advocate for Scotland in 
the room of Mr. McLaren, Avho had been 
raised to the judicial bench ; held the 
office till the resignation of Mr . Gladstone's 
Administration in June, 1885 ; was 
re -appointed Lord Advocate in Feb., 
1886 ; was made Privy Councillor, 1883 ; 
elected Dean of the Faculty of the 
Advocates July, 1885, and again May, 
1889, and Depvxty-Lieutenant for the 
County of the City of Edinburgh. He 
is also Hon. LL.D. of the Universities 
of Edinburgh and St. Andrews. Mr. 
Balfour has been twice married — first, in 
1869, to Lnias Oswald, daughter of Lord 

Mackenzie (a Judge of Sessions cf 
Scotland) ; and, secondly, in 1877, to the 
Hon. Marianne Eliza Wellwood-Mon- 
creiff , younger daughter of Lord MoncreifE 
late Lord Justice Clerk of Scotland. 

BALFOUR, Thomas Graham, M.D., 
Q.H.P., F.R.S., son of John Balfour, 
Merchant, Leith, and great grandson of 
James Balfour, Professor of Moral 
Philosophy, and of Robert Whytt of 
Bennochy, Professor of Medicine in the 
University of Edinburgh, was born in 
Edinburgh, March 18, 1813. He was 
educated at the High School, the Edin- 
burgh Academy, and the University, 
where he took the degree of M.D., in 1834. 
He was gazetted to the Medical Staff of 
the Army, in 1836, and was immediately 
employed at Head Qiiarters, with Deputy- 
Inspector-General Marshall and Lieuten- 
ant Tulloch, in drawing up the first series 
of Statistical Reports on the health of the 
Army — the first ever published by any 
Government. In 1840 he was appointed 
to the Grenadier Guards, and served in 
them till promoted in 1848. In 1857 he 
was selected to be Secretary to the Royal 
Commission, presided over by Mr. Sidney 
Herbert, appointed to inquire into the 
regulations affecting the sanitary con- 
dition of the Army, and the organisation 
of the Medical Department. In 1859, on 
the consequent re-organisation of the 
Army Medical Service, he was promoted 
to be Head of the Statistical Branch, then, 
for the first time, formed in the Depart- 
ment. He held this post till he became 
Surgeon-General in 1873, and, after serv- 
ing as Principal Medical Officer at Netlty 
and at Gibraltar, retired in 1876. He 
became fellow of the Royal Society in 
1858, Fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians in 1860, Honorary Physician to 
the Queen in 1887 ; Corresponding 
Foreign Member of the Academic Royale 
de Medecine de Belgique : Fellow, and 
formerly Vice-President of the Royal 
Medical and Chirm-gical Society ; Fellow 
of the International Statistical Institute ; 
Fellow, and in 1888 and 1889, President, 
of the Royal Statistical Society. In 1867 
Dr. Balfour was sent by the Government 
as a Delegate to the International 
Statistical Congress at Florence, and 
was the only Englishman appointed Pre- 
sident of a Section there. In 1880 he 
repres juted the Army Medical Department 
at the International Medical Congress 
held in London. He has also served on 
the follDwing committees :— in 1861-5, on 
the Admiralty Committee to inqiure into 
thj sunject of Contagious Diseases in the 
Army and Navy; from 1863 to 1868 on 
a committee of the Royal College of 



Physicians on the Nomenclature of 
Diseases for Statistical Eeturns ; and in 
1889 on the committee appointed by- 
Government to inquire into the Pay, 
Status, and Conditions of Service of the 
Medical Officers of the Army and Navy. 
In addition to a number of articles in 
the British and Foreign Medical Quarterly, 
and elsewhere (unsigned), he was the 
author, conjointly with Sir A. Tulloch, 
of five volumes of Statistical Eeports 
" On the Health of the Army ; " as Head 
of the Statistical Branch, of thirteen 
Annual Eeports, 1859-71 ; of a paper " On 
the Health of the Troops in the Madras 
Presidency," in the Edin. Med. and Surg. 
Journal, No. 172 ; of two papers in the 
Medico - Chirurgical Transactions, " On 
Spirometry," and on " The Protection 
afforded by Vaccination ; " and of 
several papers in the Journal of the 
Statistical Society. 

BALL, The Right Hon. John Thomas, 
M.P., LL.D., D.C.L., eldest son of Major 
Benjamin Marcus Ball, was born at Diiblin 
in 1815, and educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin, gradiiating B.A. in 1836, and 
LL.D. in 1844. He was called to the 
Irish Bar in 1840, and became successively 
a Queen's Counsel, Queen's Advocate and 
Judge of the Provincial Consistorial 
Court at Armagh. At the general elec- 
tion of 1868 he was returned to the 
House of Commons in the Conservative 
interest by the University of Dublin, 
and for a few weeks in Nov. and Dec. of 
that year he was successively Solicitor- 
General and Attorney-General for Ireland 
under Mr. Disraeli's administration. In 
1870 the University of Oxford conferred 
on him the honorary degree of D.C.L. 
Dr. Ball proved himself to be a ready 
and energetic debater by his numerous 
speeches on the Church Bill, the Land 
Bill, and other measures affecting Ireland. 
"When the Conservatives came into power 
in Feb. 1874, Dr. Ball again became 
Attorney-General for Ireland, and at the 
close of that year he was appointed Lord 
Chancellor of Ireland. He took the oaths 
of office Jan. 1, 1875, and resigned in 
May, 1880. He has been Vice-Chancellor 
of the University of Dublin, since Jan. 
1880. He married, in 1852, Catherine, 
daughter of the Eev. Charles E. Elrington, 
Eegius Professor of Divinity in the Uni- 
versity of Dublin. 

BALL, Sir Robert Stawell, LL.D., 
P.E.S., was born at Dublin, July 1, 1840, 
and educated at Chester by Dr. Brindley. 
He was appointed University Student at 
Trinity College, Dublin, in 1861 ; Lord 
Eosse's Astronomer at Parsonstowu in 

1865 ; Professor of Applied Mathematics 
and Mechanism at the Eoyal College of 
Science for Ireland in 1867 ; Fellow of 
the Eoyal Society in 1873 ; Andrews Pro- 
fessor of Astronomy in the University of 
Dublin, and Eoyal Astronomer of Ireland 
in 1874. He obtained the Cunningham 
Gold Medal of the Eoyal Irish Academy. 
He is author of the following works 
among others : — " The London Science 
Class-books on Asti'onomy and Mechanics," 
which have gone through several edi- 
tions ; " Theory of Screws," Dublin, 
1876; "Story of the Heavens," 1885; 
" Time and Tide " 1889 ; besides many 
papers on mathematics, astronomy, and 
physical science in various publications. 
Several of his works have been translated 
into foreign languages. He has fre- 
quently lectured on Astronomy at the 
leading institutions in the United King- 
dom. His most widely circulated work 
is the little volume entitled " Starland." 
It contains the Christmas Talks about 
the Stars with Juveniles at the Eoyal 
Instittition of Great Britain. He is also 
the editor of the new Admiralty maniial 
of scientific inquiry. He was knighted 
on Jan. 25th, 1886. 

BALL, Valentine, LL.D., F.E.S., F.G.S., 
M.E.I. A., was boi'n in Dublin July 14, 
1843, and is the second son of the late 
Eobert Ball, LL.D., and was educated at 
Dr. Brindley's, Chester, Dr. Fleury's and 
Dr. Benson's, Dublin, private schools, and 
at Trinity College, Dublin. He gra- 
duated in the University of Dublin, B.A., 
1864; M.A., 1872 ; JjIj.J). (honoris causa), 
1889. He was elected Fellow of the Geo- 
logical Society of London, 1874 ; Fellow 
of the Calcutta University (honoris causa), 
1875 ; Fellow of the Eoyal Society of 
London, 1882 ; and President of the 
Eoyal Geological Society of Ireland, 1882. 
He was ap^Dointed (1) Clerk in the Ee- 
ceiver Master's Office, Dublin, 1860-64 ; 

(2) to the Staff of the Geological Survey 
of India, from 1864 to 1881 (17 years) ; 

(3) Professor of Geology and Mineralogy 
in the University of Dublin, from 1881 to 
1883 ; (4) Director of the Science and Art 
Mixseum in 1883, which office he holds at 
present. Its duties include, besides the 
general management of the nuiseum, the 
local administrative control, under the 
direction of the Science and Art depart- 
ment of the Metropolitan School of Art, 
the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, 
and the National Library of Ireland. Dr. 
Ball is also Honorary Secretary of the 
Eoyal Zoological Society of Ireland ; and 
Member of the Council of the Alexandra 
(Ladies') College, and of that of the 
Eoyal Irish Academy. His published 



■works are: — (1) "Jungle Life in India, 
or the Journeys and Journals of an 
Indian Geologist," 1880 ; (2) " The Dia- 
monds, Coal and Gold of India," 1S81 ; 
(3) " The Economic Geology of India," 
1881 ; ( i) an English Translation of 
" Tavernier's Travels in India," with 
notes, appendices, &c., 1889. Besides 
numerous contributions to Learned So- 
cieties, he has published several Memoirs 
on the Geology of extensive tracts in 
India, and accoiuits of his visits to, and 
explorations in, Afghanistan and Belu- 
chistan, the Andaman and Nicobar 
Islands, the Himalayas, &c. As a col- 
lateral result of his exjjlorations in the 
wild and then little known central regions 
of the Peninsula of India, where he first 
discovered several coal fields, he was 
enabled to suggest to the Government 
the most desirable line of route for a 
direct railway between Calcutta and 
Bombay. This route has now been 
adopted after several years spent in sur- 
veys of the variovis alternative routes. 
Several of his more important recent 
contributions to Societies are upon the 
" Identification of the Animals, Plants, 
and Minerals of India which were known 
to the Ancients." In the year 1884 he 
pi-esented a Report to the Science and 
Art Department on the Museiims of 
America ; it was subsequently published 
in the Department's Annual Report. Dr. 
Ball was married in the year 1879, to Mary, 
daughter of the late Mr. John Stewart- 
Moore, of Moyarget, County Antrim, by 
whom he has had five children. 

BALLANTYNE. John, E.S.A., was born 
in Kelso, Roxburghshire, in 1815. His 
father, Alexander, was proprietor and 
editor of The Kelso Mail newspaper, and 
was an intimate friend of Sir Walter 
Scott. John was educated in the Edin- 
burgh Academy, and received his first in- 
struction in drawing and painting under 
Sir William Allan, P.R.S.A.,and Thomas 
Duncan, A.R.A. In 1832 he went to 
London and studied in the Royal Aca- 
demy for several years ; he also studied 
in the Academies of Paris and Rome. In 
1834 he exhibited a picture in the Royal 
Academy and has continued, with inter- 
missions, to exhibit there ever since. He 
frequently visited the picture galleries 
of the Continent, and made many copies 
there. He was elected a Member of the 
Royal Scottish Academy in 1845, and at 
the commencement of the volunteer 
movement was made Captain of the 
Artists' Company, and in 1860 Command- 
ant of the Edinburgh Artillery Regi- 
ment. Mr. Ballantyne has painted many 
*' fo^ilequie ^e genre," and a few hxs' 

torical pictures. Amongst his works 
may be mentioned a series of " Portraits 
of Celebrated Painters in their Studios," 
one of which. Sir Edwin Landseer's, has 
just been presented to the National Gal- 
lery by Mr. Agnew. 

BANCROFT, George. Ph.D., LL.D., 
D.C.L., was born at Worcester, Massa- 
chusetts, Oct. 3, 1800. He entered Har- 
vard College in 1813, and graduated 
in 1817. Almost immediately afterwards 
he went abroad, where he remained for 
five years, studying at Gottingen and 
Berlin, travelling through Germany, 
Italy, Switzerland, and Great Britain, 
and making the personal acquaintance 
of many of the leading European scholars. 
He received the degree of Ph.D. at Got- 
tingen in 1820, and returning to America 
in 1822, was for a year Greek tutor in 
Harvard College. In 1823, in conjimction 
with Dr. Joseph Coggswell, afterwards 
noted as the organiser of the Astor 
Library in New York, he founded the 
Round Hill School at Northampton, 
Massachusetts. He published in 1824 a 
translation of Heeren's " Politics of 
Ancient Greece." He was also at this 
time meditating and collecting materials 
for his " History of the United States," 
the first volume of which appeared in 
1834. In 1835 he removed to Sprinsj- 
field, Massachusetts, where he resided 
for three years, and completed the second 
volume of his history. In 1838 he was 
apiDointed Collector of the Port of Boston, 
a position which he occupied tmtil 1841, 
being also a frequent speaker at political 
meetings, and still keeping up his his- 
torical labours. The third volume of his 
history appeared in 1840. In 1844 he 
was the Democratic candidate for Gover- 
nor of Massachusetts, but was not elected. 
In 1845, Mr. Polk having been elected 
President, Mr. Bancroft entered his 
Cabinet as Secretary of the Navy, and 
also served for a month as Acting Secre- 
tary of War. In 1846 he was sent as 
Minister to Great Britain, where he suc- 
cessfully urged upon the British Govern- 
ment the adoption of more liberal navi- 
gation laws, and was especially earnest 
in vindicating the rights of persons 
naturalized as citizens of the United 
States. During this residence in Europe 
he made use of every opportunity to per- 
fect his collections of documents relating 
to American history. He returned to the 
United States in 1849, took up his resi- 
dence in New York, and set about the 
preparation of the remainder of his his- 
tory, of which the tenth volume was pub- 
lished in 1874. This brings the narrative 
to the close of tl^e Revqlutiqiiary War, 



and completes the body of the work. 
Two supplcnientai-y volumes were issued 
in 1882 under the title of "History of the 
Foundation of the Constitution of the 
United States," which bring the narrative 
down to 1780. After his return from 
England he for many years devoted him- 
self wholly to literary labour. In Feb., 
1866, he delivered before Congress an 
address in memory of Abraham Lincoln, 
for which he received a vote of thanks 
from both Houses. In May, 1867, he was 
appointed Minister to Prussia ; in 1868 
he was accredited to the North German 
Confederation ; and in 1871 to the Ger- 
man Empire. He was recalled from this 
mission at his own request, in 1874. 
During his mission to Germany several 
important treaties were concluded with 
the various German States, relating es- 
pecially to the naturalization of Germans 
in America. Mr. Bancroft is a member 
of numerous learned societies. In 1855 
he published a volume of "Miscellanies," 
comprising a portion of the articles 
which he had contributed to the North 
American Review. In 1883 the first 
volume of a carefully revised edition of 
his History was published, of which the 
sixth and concluding one ajipeared in 
1885. He published in 1886 " A Plea for 
the Constitution of the United States 
wounded in the House of its Guardians." 
His latest publication is "Martin Van 
Buren to the end of his Public Career," 
1889. He has resided at Washington, 
D.C., for several years, passing his sum- 
mers at Newport, Rhode Island, where he 
has one of the finest rose gardens in the 

BANCROFT, Mrs.,?ie'e Marie Effie Wilton, 
actress, who belongs to an old Glouces- 
tershire family, is the eldest daughter of 
the late Mr. Eobert Pleydell Wilton, and 
a native of Doncaster. After acting from 
early childhood in the provinces, chiefly 
at the old Theatre Royal, Bristol, she 
first appeared in London in Sept., 1856, at 
the Lyceum Theatre, as the boy in 
" Belphegor " and " Perdita the Royal 
Milkmaid." Subsequently she fulfilled 
various engagements at London houses, 
notably making the fortune of the cele- 
brated burlesques at the Strand Theatre. 
Miss Wilton, in partnership with Mr. H. 
J. Byron, became manager of the Prince 
of Wales's Theatre, London, at Easter, 
1865. Shortly afterwards she gave up 
burlesque acting, and devoted her entire 
attention to the production of English 
comedies, chiefly written by the late T. 
W. Robertson. She was married to Mr. 
S. B. Bancroft in Dec, 1867. Mr. and 
Mrs. Bancroft continued their successful 

career at the Prince of Wales's Theatre 
until January, 1880, Avhen they migrated 
to the Haymai-ket, of which theatre they 
had Vjecome the lessees. The characters 
with which Mrs. Bancroft's name is l)est 
associated are Polly Eccles, Naomi Tighe, 
Mary Netley, Peg Woffington, Jenny Norih- 
cote. Nan, Lady Franklin, and Lady 
Teazle. Mr. and Mrs. Bancroft retired 
from theatrical management in July, 
1885, the occasion being a tribute to 
their poi^ularity both before and behind 
the curtain. Mrs. Bancroft has since 
shown considerable power as a writer by 
her important share in the book of re- 
miniscences called " Mr. and Mrs. Bancroft 
on and off the Stage." Mr. Bancroft in 
the course of his farewell speech on retir- 
ing from the management said, "Most of 
us, I think, owe Mrs. Bancroft something, 
but I am by far the heaviest in her debt. 
I alone know how she has svipportcd me 
in trouble, saved me from many errors, 
helped me to many victories ; and it is 
she who has given to our work those 
finishing touches, those last strokes of 
genius, which, in all art, are priceless." 

BANCROFT, Squire Bancroft, actor and 
theatrical manager, born in London, May 
14, 1841, made his first appearance on the 
stage at the Theatre Royal, Birmingham, 
in Jan., 1861. He afterwards accepted 
engagements in Dublin and Liverpool, 
playing almost every line of character, 
including important Shaksperian parts, 
with Charles Kean and G. V. Brooke. 
He made his debut in London on the 
occasion of the opening of the Prince of 
Wales's Theatre, under the management 
of Mr. Byron and Miss Marie Wilton, 
April 15, 1865. Mr. T. W. Robertson's 
popular comedies, " Society," " Ours," 
"Caste," "Play," "School," and "M.P.," 
were brought out at this theatre, and in 
each of them Mr. Bancroft created one of 
the leading characters. In 1867 Mr. 
Bancroft married Miss Marie Wilton, 
and a large share of the management of 
the Prince of Wales's Theatre thence- 
forward devolved upon him. Among 
other parts subsequently performed by 
him at that house were Sir Frederick 
Blount in " Money," Josei)h Surface in the 
" School for Scandal," Trijjlet in " Masks 
and Faces," Sir George Ormond in 
" Peril," Dazzle in " London Assurance," 
Blenkinsop in "An Unequal Match," 
Count Orloff in " Diplomacy," and Henry 
Spreadbrow in " Sweethearts." Mr. 
Bancroft's successful cai-eer at the Prince 
of Wales's Theatre was brought to a close 
on Jan. 29, 1880. In Sept., 1879, he had 
become lessee of the Haymarket, and 
after expending nearly twenty thousand 


pounds on its internal rebuilding and 
decorations, he began bis management 
of that theatre on Jan. 31, 1880. The 
first ijerformance was Lord Lyt ton's 
comedy, "Money." "Odette" was pro- 
duced in April, 1882, Mr. Bancroft taking 
the part of Lord Henry Trevene, with 
Madame Modjeska as Odette. This was 
followed by the '"Overland Eoute" (Sept. 
1882), and'" Caste " and" School" (Feb., 
1883). Then followed an elaborate revival 
of " The Kivals."' Mr. and Mrs. Bancroft, 
having realized a large fortune, retired 
from their exceptionally successful career 
of management on July 20, 1885. Mr. 
Bancroft reappeared on the stage in the 
autumn of 1889 at the Lyceum Theatre, 
acting with great success the pax't of the 
Abbe Latour in "The Dead Heart." Mr. 
Bancroft generously offered to subscribe 
^1,000 towards General Booth's scheme 
for alleviating distress, if ninety-nine 
others would subscribe the same amount. 
The Earl of Aberdeen was the first to 
follow suit. 

BANGOK, Bishop of. See Llotd, The 
Eight Eev. Daniel Lewis. 

BANKS, Mrs. G. Linnaeus, nee Varley, a 
poet and novelist, was born in Oldham 
Street, Manchester, March 25, 1821. Her 
father was a man of genius and culture ; 
artistic, scientific, and literary. The 
education which Mrs. Banks i-eceived, in 
part from a classical master, was largely 
supplemented by home influences, a good 
library, and the intelligent, literary, 
theatrical, and artistic friends who 
thronged her gifted father's house. At 
the age of eleven she wrote a song, and 
delighted her younger sister and little 
friends with stories of her own invention. 
Her first contribution to the press (in the 
Manchester Guardian, April 12, 1837), was 
a sentimental poem entitled " The Dying 
Girl to her Mother." It was followed at 
intervals by others of a higher order. 
Later, at the request of Mr. Eogerson, 
editor of the Odd Fellows' Quarterly 
Magazine, she sent him a poem called 
" The Neglected Wife," and gained by it 
a prize of three guineas, which was her 
first literary honorarium. She was barely 
eighteen when she succeeded to a long- 
established school for young ladies, at 
Cheetham, Manchester, which she carried 
on with success. In 1844 was issued her 
" Ivy Leaves ; a Collection of Poems." 
Two years later, viz., Dec. 27, 1846, she 
was married at the Collegiate Church. Man- 
chester, to Mr. George Linnaeus Banks, of 
Birmingham, a many-sided man, poet, 
orator, and journalist. She greatly 
assisted her husband in his literary 

labours, and conjointly with him pro- 
duced a favoxirably received volume of 
verse under the title of "Daisies in the 
Grass." Many of their songs have been 
set to music, and are extremely popular. 
Mrs. Banks's first publication after mar- 
riage was a " Lace Knitter's Guide," 
followed, after a long interval, by "Light 
Work for Leisure Hours." It was not 
until Jime, 1865, that she published her 
first novel, " God's Providence House." 
It established her reputation. Xext in 
turn appeared a Xorth Country story, 
" Stung to the Quick," 1867 ; " The Man- 
chester Man," 1876 ; a Wiltshire story 
entitled " Gloi-y," 1877 ; a Lancashire 
novel entitled " Caleb Booth's Clerk," 
1878; "Wooers and Winners," a York- 
shire story, 1880 ; " Forbidden to Wed," 
1883 ; and " In his Own Hand," 1885. A 
cheap and uniform edition of her novels 
was commenced in 1881. In addition to 
the foregoing novels, excepting " God's 
Provident House," the series includes 
the story "' More than Coronets," a 
number of weird stories entitled 
"Through the Xight," and a second 
volume of short tales under the title of 
" The Watchmaker's Daughter, and Other 
Stories," and a third volume entitled 
" Sybilla, and Other Stoi-ies." In 1S78 a 
collection of Mrs. Banks's later poems 
was published under the title of "Eip- 
plts and Breakers." Mrs. Banks has 
\vritten much for the leading magazines, 
including All the Year Round, Argosy, 
Gentleman's Magazine, Temple Bar, Bel- 
gravia Annual, Cassell's Family Magazine, 
Quiver, Girl's Owyi Paper, The Fireside, 
Odd Fellow's Quarterly, Once a Week, 
Country Words, many of the Christmas 
Annuals, Holiday Numbers, &c. 
During her residence at Harrogate she 
lectured with considerable success on 
" Woman as she was, as she is, and as she 
may be." She baptized the Shakespeare 
Oak, planted by Mr. Phelps, the tra- 
gedian, on Primrose Hill, at Shakespeare's 
tercentenary, and delivered an address on 
the occasion. 

BANES, Nathaniel Prentiss, was born 
at Waltham, Massachusetts, Jan. 30, 
1816. While a boy he worked in a cotton 
factory, and afterwards learned the trade 
of a machinist. In time he became 
editor of a country newspaper, and re- 
ceived an appointment in the Boston 
Custom House. He also studied law, 
was admitted to the Bar, and in 1849 was 
elected to the lower branch of the Legis- 
lature of Massachusetts, of which he was 
chosen Speaker in 1851 ; and in the 
following year he was elected a member 
of Congress, nominally as a Democrat } 



but he soon formally withdrew from the 
Democratic party, and in 1854 was re- 
elected by the concuri'ent vote of the 
" American " and Republican parties. 
At the following meeting of Congress he 
was chosen S^jeaker on the 133rd ballot, 
after the longest contest ever kno^v^l. 
He was also a member of the next Con- 
gress, and in 1857 was elected Governor 
of Massachusetts, and re-elected in 1858 
and 1859. On the outbreak of the civil 
war he was made major-general of volun- 
teers, was assigned the command of a 
corjjs in the army of the Potomac, and 
was sxibsequently placed at the head of 
the forces for the defence of the city of 
Washington. In December he succeeded 
General Butler in command at New 
Orleans, and in July, 1863, took Port 
Hudson on the Mississippi. In the 
spring of 1864 he made an unsuccessful 
expedition up the Red River, in Loui- 
siana, and was in May relieved of his 
command. He again entered upon 
l^olitical life, and was re - elected to 
Congress from his old district in 1866, and 
again in 186S and 1870. In 1872 he took 
an active part in favour of the election 
of Horace Greely to the presidency. In 
1876 he was again elected to Congress by 
the votes of the Democrats and of that 
portion of the Republicans who were 
opposed to the policy of President Grant, 
but he acted with the Republican party. 
From 1879 to 188S he was U. S. Marshal 
for the district of Massachusetts, but he 
has recently (1889) re-entered Congress 
as a Republican Representative from 

BANKS, William Mitchell,M.D..F.R,C.S., 
was born at Edinburgh in 1842, and was 
educated at the Edinburgh Academy, and 
at the University of Edinburgh. In 1864 
he took the degree of M.D. with honours, 
gaining the University Gold Medal for an 
anatomical thesis on the Wolffian Bodies. 
After graduating, he acted as Demon- 
strator of Anatomy in the University of 
Glasgow under the late Professor Allen 
Thomson for two years, and then settled 
in Liverpool as a consiilting and oper- 
ating surgeon. Mr. Banks has con- 
tributed numerous surgical papers to 
various journals and societies, but his 
name has been more especially associated 
with the advocacy of extensive operative 
measures for the removal of cancer of 
the breast, and with attempts to find the 
most suitable operation for the radical 
cure of rupture. His chief work, how- 
ever, has been in connection with the 
resuscitation of the Medical School of 
Liverpool, and with the origination of 
the yiiiv§r§itjr College of that city, now 

one of the three colleges of the Victoria 
University. In the laying down of the 
original constitution of the college, and 
in the arrangements of the regulations for 
the medical degrees of the university, Mr. 
Banks's work has been of acknowledged 
service. He has also devoted much time 
and labour to the building of the new 
Liverpool Royal Infirmary, now on the 
eve of completion, having endeavoured, 
by the introduction of the latest forms of 
constrviction, and the most recent im- 
provements in building materials, to ren- 
der this hospital a model of sanitary 
science. On the formation of the Liver- 
pool Biological Society in 1886, Mr. Banks 
was appointed its first President, and at the 
present time he is President of the Liver- 
pool Medical Institution, Senior Surgeon 
and Chairman of the Medical Board of 
the Royal Infirmary, and Rei^resentative 
of the Victoria University in the General 
Medical Council. 

BANVILLE, Theodore Faullain de, 

French writer, was boi-n at Moulins, 
March 14, 1823, the son of a ship's 
captain. He settled early in Paris, and 
devoted himself entirely to literary work. 
He has published a number of poems, 
amongst which are : " Les Caryatides," 
1842 ; " Les Stalactites," 1846 (new edit, 
1873) ; " Les Exiles," 1866 ; " Idylles 
Prussiennes," 1872 ; " Poesies Occiden- 
tales," " Rimes Dorees," 1875. He has 
also written plays, the best known of 
which are : " Le Beau Lcandre," 1856 ; 
" Diane an Bois," 1863 ; " La Pomme," 
1865 ; " Gringoire," 1866. His novels 
are : " La Vie d'une Connklienne," 1855 ; 
" Esquisses Parisiennes," 1859 ; " Les 
Fourberies de Nerine," 1864 ; " Les Pari- 
siensde Paris," 1866. Both his poetical and 
his prose styles are remarkable for grace 
and delicacy. His comedies were pub- 
lished collectively in 1878, and his poems 
in 1879. 

BAPTISTET. See Daudet, Alphonse. 

BABA, Jules, a Belgian statesman, 
born at Tournai, Augiist 21, 1835, was 
educated in his native town, and after- 
wards admitted an advocate. At an early 
age he was appointed a professor in the 
University of Brussels. While occupying 
that position he composed a series of 
" Essays on the Relations between the 
State and Religions, from a Constitutional 
Point of View." In 1862 he was elected 
a Deputy for Tournai in the Liberal 
interest, and he soon distinguished him- 
self in the Chamber of Representatives 
by his skill in debate, and by his zealous 
advocacy qf M. Fr^pe-Qr^an's policy, In 



Nov., 1865, he was nominated Minister of 
Public Justice in the place of M. Victor i 
Tesch, resigned. He held this office until 
the Conservative party came into power, 
in July, 1870. When a liberal ministry 
was formed in June, 1878, M. Bai-a was 
again appointed Minister of Justice. 

BARDSLEY, The Eight Rev. John 
Wareing, D.D., Bishop of Sodor and Man, 
born in 1835, at Keighley, in Yorkshire, 
is the son of late Eev. Canon Bard.sley, 
M.A., Eector of St. Ann's, Manchester. 
He was educated at Burnley and Man- 
chester Grammar Schools, and at Dublin 
Univerity, M.A., ^.D. He was Vicar of 
St. Saviour's, Liverpool, 1870-87 ; Arch- 
deacon of Warrington, 18S0-S6 ; Archdea- 
con of Liverpool, 1886-87 ; and Bishop of 
Sodor and Man, 1887- He is the author 
of ' ' Counsels to Candidates for Confirma- 
tion," 1882. " The Origin of Man," 
Victoria Institute, 1883. 

BARING, Sir Evelyn. C.B., K.C.S.I., 
G.C.M.G., first cousin of the present Lord 
Northbrook, was born February 2(3, 1841, 
and was formerly a European Com- 
missioner of the PubKc Debt in Egypt, 
and was appointed one of the Control- 
lers-General, representing England and 
France, when the Khedive Ismail was 
deposed by the Sultan's firman in 1879, 
and Tewfik Pacha became ruler of Egypt. 
In co-operation with his French colleague, 
M. de Blignieres, Sir Evelyn Baring 
successfully carried on the Control until 
he accepted, towards the close of 1880, 
the office of Finance Minister of India, 
under the Marquis of Eipon, left vacant 
by Sir John Strachey's resignation. In 
this capacity he framed and carried three 
successful budgets. In May, 1883, he 
was appointed to succeed Sir Edward 
Malet, at Cairo, with the status of Minis- 
ter. He married, in 1876, Ethel, daughter 
of Sir Kowland Stanley Errington. 

BARING-GOULD, The Rev. Sabine, M.A., 
of Lew-Trenchard, born at Exeter, in 1834, 
is the eldest son of Edward Baring-Gould, 
Esq., of Lew-Trenchard, Devon, where the 
family has been seated for nearly 300 
years. He was educated at Clare College, 
Cambridge, where he took the degree of 
M.A. in 1856. He was appointed Incum- 
bent of Dalton, Thirsk, by the Viscountess 
Down in 1869, and Eector of East Mersea, 
Colchester, by the Crown in 1871. On 
the death of his father in 1872 he suc- 
ceeded to the family property, and in 
1881 to the rectory of Lew-Trenchard. 
He is justice of peace for the County of 
Devon. Mr. Baring-Gould is the author 
qS " Paths of the Ju§t," 1854 ; " Iceland : 

its Scenes and Sagas," 1861 ; " Post- 
mediseval Preachers," 1865 ; " The Book 
of Werewolves," 1865 ; "Curious Myths 
of the Middle Ages," 1st series 1866. 2nd 
series 1867 ; " The Silver Store," 1868 ; 
" Curiosities of Olden Times," 1869 ; " The 
Origin and Development of Eeligious 
Belief," vol. i. 1869, vol. ii. 1870; "The 
Golden Gate," 1869-70 ; "In Exitu Israel, 
an Historical Novel," 1870 ; " Lives 
of the Saints," 15 vols., 1872-77 ; 
" Some Modern Difficulties, a course of 
Lectures preached at St. Paul's Cathe- 
dral," 1874; "The Lost and Hostile 
Gospels : an Essay on the Toledoth 
Jeschu, and the Petrine and Pauline 
Gospels of the First Three Centuries of 
which Fragments remain," 1874 ; " York- 
shire Oddities," 2 vols., 1874; "Some 
Modern Difficulties," in nine lectures, 
1875 ; " Village Sermons for a Year," 
1875 ; " The Vicar of Morwenstowe," 
1876 ; " The Mystery of Suffering," 1877 ; 
" Germanv, Present and Past," 1879 ; 
"The Preacher's Pocket," 1880; "The 
Village PvUpit," 1881 ; " The Last Seven 
Words," 1884; "The Passion of Jesiis," 
1885 ; "The Birth of Jesus," 1885 ; " Our 
Parish Chm-ch," 18S5 ; "The Trials of 
Jesus," 1886. "Our Inheritance," 1888 ; 
"Old Country Life," 1889; "Historic 
Oddities," 1889. He was editor of The 
Sacristy, a quarterly review of ecclesiasti- 
cal art and literature, 1871-73. Of late 
years Mr. Baring-Gould has won celebrity 
as a novelist. He is the author of 
" Mehalah," "John Herring," and " Court 
Eoyal," as well as of many short stories. 

BARKER, Lady. See Broome, Lady. 

BARKLY, Sir Henry, K.C.B., G.C.M.G., 

is of Scottish extraction, being the only 
son of the late ^neas Barkly, Esq., of 
Eoss-shire, an eminent West India mer- 
chant in London, where his son was born 
in 1815. Having received a sound commer- 
cial education at Bruce Castle School, 
Tottenham, he applied himself to busi- 
ness, in which he obtained that practical 
experience which has placed him in the 
foremost rank of our colonial administra- 
tors. In 1845 he was elected M.P. for 
Leominster, which constitiiency he repre- 
sented till 1849, as a " firm supporter of 
Sir E. Peel's commercial policy." In 1849 
he was appointed Governor and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the settlement of 
British Guiana (where he owned estates) , 
and during his governorship laid before 
Parliament some valuable information 
respecting the colony, advocating the 
introduction of Coolies and Chinese as 
labourers. Sir Henry also endeavoured 
to develop the resources of the colony by 



the introduction of railways, and by re- 
conciling the factions which had retarded 
its advancement. As Governor of Jamaica, 
from 1S53 to 185G, he was equally success- 
ful. Sir William Molesworth, Secretary 
of State for the Colonies, in ]8oG 
appointed him to the imiDortant go- 
vernorship of Victoria, for which his busi- 
ness habits and his large commercial ex- 
j)erience peculiarly fitted him ; and in 1SG3 
he was appointed Governor of the Mau- 
ritius. In August, 1870, he was appointed 
Governor of the Cape of Good Hope, and 
he held that office till Dec. 1876. He was 
appointed High Commissioner for settling 
the affairs of the territories adjacent to 
the eastern frontier of the Cape of Good 
Hope in Nov., 1870. Sir Henry Barkly 
was created a K.C.B. (Civil division) in 
1853, on returning home from British 
Guiana ; and G.C.M.G. in 1874. 

BAELOW, William Henry, F.E.S. 

(L. & E.), Past Pres. Inst. C.E., Hon. 
MemberlSociete des Ingenieurs Civils, &c., 
born at Woolwich, 1812 ; is the son of 
Pi-of . Barlow ; was educated at Woolwich ; 
pupil of H. R. Palmer, M.I.C.E. ; went to 
Constantinople in 1832 for Messrs. Maud- 
slay & Field ; erected the > establishment 
for the re-construction of the Turkish ord- 
nance ; and was employed to report on the 
lighthouses at the entrance of the Bos- 
phorus in the Black Sea. For his services 
in Turkey he received the decoration of the 
" Nichan." Eeturned to England 1833, 
he became Assistant Engineer on the Man- 
chester and Birmingham Railway ; Resi- 
dent Engineer on the Midland Counties ; 
and Engineer to the Midland Railway on 
the formation of that Company. He 
took offices in London in 1857, and be- 
came Consulting Engineer of theMidland 
Company. He made many of the new 
lines of the Midland, including the London 
end of the line and the St. Pancras 
Station. He was Joint Engineer with 
Sir J. Hawkshaw for the completion of 
Clifton Bridge ; was the Engineer of the 
New Tay Bridge ; and acted jointly with 
Sir J. Fowler and Mr. T. Harrison to 
settle the design of the Firth of Forth 
Bridge ; went to America as one of the 
Judges of the Centennia,! Exhibition ; 
and was one of the Vice-Presidents of the 
Royal Society in 1881. After the labours 
of Bessemer and others had reduced the 
cost of obtaining steel, Mr. Barlow took 
an active part in obtaining the recog- 
nition, in the rules and regulations of the 
Board of Trade, of the superior strength 
of this material for structural purposes. 
He served in three Commissions appointed 
by the Board of Trade. (1.) To settle 
the co-efficient to be uged for steel in 

engineering structures. (2.) To enquire 
into the cavise of the fall of the former 
Tay Bridge. (3.) To report on the pro- 
vision to be made to resist wind pressure 
in engineering structures. He was for 
many years a Director of the Indo-Euro- 
pean Telegraph Company ; was api^ointed 
a niember of the Ordnance Committee in 
1881, from which duty ill health com- 
pelled his retirement in 1888. He has 
contributed several papers to the " Philo- 
sophical Transactions," including one on 
the " Diurnal Vai-iation of Electric Cur- 
rents on the Surface of the Earth ; " and 
several papers to the Institution of Civil 
Engineers. He married Selina Craw- 
ford, daughter of W. Caffin, of the Royal 

BARNABY, Sir Nathaniel, K.C.B. , was 
born in 1829, at Chatham, and belongs 
to a family which has produced many 
generations of shii^wrights in the Royal 
Dockyard there. He was apprenticed to 
the trade of shipwright at Sheerness in 
1843, and in 1848 he won, by competition, 
an Admiralty Scholarshi}} in the School 
of Naval Architecture at Portsmouth. In 
1854 he superintended the constriiction 
of the "^ Viper" and "Wrangler" gun- 
vessels built by contract for the Royal 
Navy. In 1855 he entered the designing 
office at the Admiralty, and during the 
thirty years he served there he was con- 
cerned in the design and construction of 
all but three of the entire list of sea-going 
fighting ships, armoured and unarmotired, 
which wei'e in existence or Avere building 
at the date of his retirement^ from ill- 
health, in October, 1885. The exceptions 
were the " Neptune," " Orion," and 
" Belleisle." He was appointed Chief 
Naval Architect in 1872, and afterwards, 
by change of title. Director of Naval 
Construction. He was the means of 
inaugvirating the change in construction 
from iron to steel in shipbuilding in 
England, which has marked the last few 
years so notably. He initiated and was 
responsible for the formation of an 
Admiralty List of Merchant Ships, having 
considerable security against foundering 
in collision, and appreciable fighting 
value as auxiliaries in war. He was one 
of the four original founders of the Insti- 
tution of Naval Architects in 1860, and 
has contributed many papers on profes- 
sional subjects to its Transactions, as 
well as the articles on the "Navy" and 
" Shipbuilding " to the " Encyclopisedia 
Britannica."' He was made a Companion 
of the Bath in 1876 on the recommenda- 
tion of Mr. Disraeli, and a Knight Com- 
mander of the Bath in June 1885, on tliQ 
recommendation of Mr, Gladstone, 



BARNAKD, Henry, LL.D., American 
educator, was born at Hartford, Con- 
necticut, Jan. 2i; 1811. He graduated 
at Yale College in 1830, studied law, and 
was admitted to the Bar in 1835. From 
1837 to 1840 he was a member of the 
Connecticut Legislature, and carried 
through that bocly a comiilete re-organi- 
zation of the common school system, and 
was for four years (1838-12) a member 
and secretary of the Board of Education 
created by it. Displaced by a political 
change in 184-2, he spent more than a 
year in an extensive educational tour 
through the United States, with a view 
to the preparation of a History of Public 
Schools in the United States. He was 
called from the prosecvition of this work 
to take charge of the jjublic schools of 
Rhode Island ; and after five years re- 
turned to Hartford, in 1819. In 1850 a 
State Normal School was established in 
Connecticut, and he was appointed Prin- 
cipal, with the added duties of State 
Superintendent of Public Schools. After 
five years of severe labour he retired from 
this work, but soon began the publication 
of the American Journal of Education, 
Hartford, in 1855, which is still continued. 
In addition to this he has been engaged 
for many years in the publication of a 
Library of Education, which, in 53 vols., 
embraces about 800 separate works. He 
has been President of the American Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Education, 
was elected in 1856 President and Chan- 
cellor of the University of Wisconsin, 
which office he resigned in 1859 ; he was 
President in 1865-7 of the St. John's 
College, Annapolis, Maryland, and United 
States Commissioner of the Department 
of Education in 1868-70. While secretary 
of the Board he established the Connecticut 
Common School Journal, and founded, 
when in Ehode Island, the Rhode Island 
School Journal. His own contributions 
to educational literature have been so 
numerous, that but few of them can be 
mentioned here : — " School Architecture," 
1839; "Education in Factories," 1842; 
"National Ediication in Europe," 1851; 
"Normal Schools in the United States 
and Europe," 1851 ; "Tribute to Gallaudet 
with History of Deaf Mute Instruction," 
1852 ; " School Libraries," 1854 ; " Hints 
and Methods for the Use of Teachers," 
1857; "English Pedagogy," 1862; "Na- 
tional Education," 1872; "Military 
Schools," 1872 ; " American Pedagogy," 

BABNBY, Joseph, musician, was born at 
TorkjAug. 12, 1838; was Chorister in York 
Minster, 1846-52; Student at the Eoyal 
Academy of Music, 1854-57 ; Organist St. 

Andrew's, Well Street, 1863-71 ; Organist 
St. Anne's, Soho, 1871-86 ; Conductor 
of Oratorio Concerts at St. James's 
and Exeter Halls, 1865-72. He suc- 
ceeded Gounod as conductor of the 
Royal Albert Hall Choral Society, 1872 ; 
and was appointed Precentor and Director 
of Mvisical Instruction at Eton College, 
1875. His Compositions are : — Motett, 
" King all Glorious," produced at St. 
James's Hall, 1868 ; Oratorio, " Rebekah," 
produced 1870; Cantata (Psalm xcvii.), 
Leeds I'estival, 1883 ; and many hundreds 
of Services, Anthems, Part Songs, Trios, 
Songs, Hymn Tunes, Chants, &c. He 
conducted the first Passion Service in 
England at Westminster Abbey, 1871 ; 
State Receptions of the Shah at the 
Royal Albert Hall, 1873 and 1889 ; State 
Reception of the Czar, 1874; Opening of 
the Fishery and Colonial Exhibitions, and 
other Royal and State Functions. 

BARNETT, Eev. Samuel Augustus, 
M.A., was born in 1844, and educated at 
Wadham College, Oxford, where he took 
a Second in Mods, and in 1865 a Second 
in History. He was ordained deacon in 
1867, and priest in 1868, and was from 
1867-72 curate of St. Mary's, Bryanston 
Squai-e. He was then appointed Vicar of 
St. Jiide's, Whitechapel. There has 
hardly been a scheme for the elevation 
or education of the people of East 
London which he and Mrs. Barnett have 
not initiated or supjDorted. Their names 
are identified with Poor Law Reform, 
the Extension of University Teaching, 
Charity Organisation, the Cliildren's 
Country Holidays Fund and many other 
philanthropic movements. With the 
help of friends from Oxford and else- 
where, Mr. Barnett has built " Toynbee 
Hall," close to St. Jude's Church, a kind 
of college, dedicated to the memory of 
the late Ai-nold Toynbee, which forms a 
centre for university men who come and 
settle for a time to work among the poor. 
The success of his free exhibitions of 
loan-collections of pictures is attested by 
the increased number of people — many 
of them of the humblest classes — who 
every year crowd to see them. In the- 
ology Mr. Barnett belongs to the Broad 
Church School. 

BARNTJM, Phineas Taylor, was born at 
Bethel, Connecticut, July 5, 1810. He 
began business at the age of thirteen, 
and in 1834 removed to New York, where 
in 1841 he purchased the American 
Museum, by which in a few years he 
acquired a fortune. In 1844-6 he exhi- 
bited the dwarf. General Tom Thumb, in 
Great Britain and France, appearing 



before the crowned heads and nobility 
and reaping a large pecuniary harvest. 
In 1850 he engaged Jenny Lind to visit 
America. She gave 93 concerts under 
his management, the receipts of which 
amounted to $712,000 in a period of nine 
months. In 1847 he took up his resi- 
dence in Bridgeport, Connecticut, where 
(in addition to his New York Museum) he 
engaged lai-gely in real estate. Through 
endorsing the obligations of a Clock 
Manufacturing Company which promised 
to remove its plant to the new city of 
East Bridgeport of which Mr. Barnum 
was the founder and principal owner, he 
became bankrupt. Having effected a 
compromise with the " Clock " creditors, 
he resumed the management of the 
museum and soon retrieved his fortunes. 
Mr. Bai-num served four times in the 
Connecticut Legislature (1865, 1866, 1877 
and 1878), was elected Mayor of Bridge- 
poi't in 1875, and was an unsuccessful 
candidate for Congress in 1866. In 1857 
his palatial residence "Iranistan" was 
destroyed by fire, since which time his 
great museums and menageries have 
been burnt four times (1865, 1868, 1872 
and 1877). His entire losses by these 
fires, exceeding two millions of dollars, 
he has borne with remarkable equanim- 
ity and cheerfulness. Mr. Barnum has 
lectured in England and America on 
temperance, "The World and how to live 
in it," and other topics ; and besides 
some smaller works has published " The 
Life of P. T. Barnxim written by him- 
self," to which he adds an appendix 
annually. In October, 1889, Mr. Barnum 
transported his entire " Greatest Show 
on Earth " to London at an expense of 
two hundred thousand dollars. He 
exhibited it a hiindred days in that city 
with marked success, and brought it 
directly back to New York without acci- 
dent. He received many social atten- 
tions and civilities from the nobility and 
most distinguished personages in Great 
Britain. His latest i^ublication, " Funny 
Stories Told by P. T. Barnum," was 
published by Messrs. Eoutledge & Sons 
simultaneously in London and New York 
in June, 1890. 

BARODA, The Maharajah Gaekwar of, 

His Highness Maharajah Syagi Eao 
Gaekwar was born on the 10th of March 
1863, at the town of Kavalana in the 
Nassick Dictrict, and is the son of the 
late Rao Bhikaji Eao Gaekwar. He was 
educated at the " Maharajah's School " 
at Baroda, under the pei'sonal super- 
vision and tuition of Mr. F. Elliot, of the 
Indian Civil Service. It will be in the 
ijiemory of Qn.r readers how the late 

Gaekwar, Mulhar Eao, for his attempt to 
poison Colonel Phayre, the British Eesi- 
dent, and for continual and gross mis- 
government, was, after being tried by a 
mixed commission of European officials 
and native chiefs, deposed from his 
government and sent into exile at 
Madras, where he died at the end of 1882. 
On Mulhar Eao's deposition, and with 
the consent of the Earl of Northbrook, 
then Viceroy of India, the Mahai-anee 
Jiimna Bai adopted, on the 27th of May, 
1875, the present Maharajah, who was on 
the same day installed on the guddee or 
throne. During the minority of the 
Mahai'ajah the administration was carried 
on by a Council of Eegency under the 
direction of the European representative; 
and Eaja Sir Toujore Madhava Eao, 
Bahadoor, K.C.S.I., who was the Dewan 
to His Highness Maharajah Scindiah of 
Gwalior, was specially selected to fill the 
post of Prime Minister, together with a 
seat at the Eegency Board. On the 28th 
December, 1881, and at the early age of 18, 
His Highness was invested with full and 
sovereign powers, and since he has held 
the reins of state, he has, with the assis- 
tance of Sir Madhava Eao, whom he has 
retained as his Prime Minister, given 
satisfaction by his aptitude for work and 
desire to introduce reforms. His High- 
ness is an excellent English scholar, 
speaking the language as fluently as his 

BARE, Mrs. Amelia Edith, ne'e Huddle- 
ston, was born at Ulverston, Lancashire, 
March 29, 1831. She was educated at 
the Glasgow High School, and in 1850 
married Mr. Eobert Barr. In 1854 she 
went to the United States, and after 
residing for a few years at Austin, Texas, 
i-emoved to Galveston in the same state, 
where, in 1867, her husband and three 
sons died of yellow fever. She went to 
New York in 1869 with her daughters, 
and taught for two years, and then began 
writing for publication. In addition to 
newspaper and magazine contributions, 
she has published "Eomance and 
Eeality," 1872; "Young People of 
Shakespeare's Time," 1882 ; " Cluny 
McPherson," 1883 ; " Scottish Sketches," 
1883; "The Hallam Succession," 1884; 
"The Lost Silver of BrifEault," 1885; 
" Jan Tedder's Wife," 1885 ; " A Daughter 
of Fife," 1886; "The Last of the 
McAllisters," 1886; "The Bow of Orange 
Eibbon," 1886; "Between Two Loves," 
1886: "The Squire of Sandal-Side," 
1887 ; " Paul and Christina," 1887 ; 
"ABox'der Shepherdess," 1887; "Master 
of his Fate," 1888 ; " Eemember the 
Alaino," I888j " OhristophQr an4 Qthef 



stories," 1888; and "Feet of Clay," 
1889. A serial entitled "Friend Olivia" 
is now (1890) running in The Centwy 

BARRETT, Lawrence, American actor, 
was bom at Paterson, Xew Jersey, April 
4, 1838. His first appearance on the 
stage was in 1853 at Detroit, as Mm-ad in 
" The French Spy." For a year he played 
there in various minor characters ; then 
acted at Pittsburg, St. Louis, Chicago 
and elsewhere tiU the latter part of 1856, 
when he went to New York, where his 
first representation was Sir Thomas 
Clifford in " The Hunchback." Under an 
engagement with Mr. Burton he stayed at 
New York for about two years and then 
went to Boston, taking leading parts 
until the outbreak of the Civil War 
(1861), in which he served for a time with 
distinction as a captain in an infantry 
regiment. He resumed his acting at 
Philadelphia, and thence went again to 
Boston and Xew York. Later he 
acquired an interest in the management 
of a Xe,v Orleans theatre, where, for the 
first time, he assumed the roles of Shylock, 
Hamlet and Eichelieu. He made bis first 
starring tour as the leading character of 
"Wallack's " Eosedale " in 18G1-. From 
1S67 to 1870 he was manager of a San 
Francisco theatre ; and in 1871-2 he took 
charge again of the New Orleans theatre. 
In 1870 he played leading parts with 
Edwin Booth, and the two have re- 
peatedly acted together since. At the 
great revival of " Julius Caesar " in New 
York in 1875, Mr. Barrett took the part 
of Cassius, and later he appeared as Lear, 
as lago, Othello, Brutus, Lanciotto (in 
" Francesca di Eimini "), and numerous 
other characters, in addition to the 
parts already named. He has made 
many tours throughout the United States, 
both alone and with Mr. Booth, and has 
"visited England a number of times, ap- 
pearing in his favourite roles. A " Life 
of Edwin Forrest " was published by him 
in 1881. 

BARRETT, Wilson, actor, is the son of 
a gentleman-farmer, and was born in 
Essex, on Feb. 18, 1816. He was educated 
at a private school, and entered the 
dramatic profession by his own choice at 
an early age. His first appearance on 
any stage was at Halifax. Mr. Barrett 
first essayed management as the lessee of 
the Burnley Theatre. In 187^ he took 
the Amphitheatre at Leeds ; this house 
was destroyed by fire in 1876, and a 
limited company then built the Grand 
Theatre, Leeds, which was opened, with 
Mr. Barrett as lessee in 1878. Mr. Barrett 

is also the lessee of the Grand Assembly 
Room, Leeds, and the Theatre Eoyal, 
' Hull. In 1879 he undertook the manage- 
I ment of the Conrt Theatre, London. 
Here he produced " Heartsease ; " an 
adaptation of Schiller's "Marie Stuart;" 
" The Old Love and the New." In 1881, 
Mr. Barrett became sole lessee and 
manager of the Princess's Theatre. He 
revived " The Old Love and the New." 
In the following September he produced 
Mr. G. R. Sims' drtima, " The Lights o' 
London," and played Harold Armytage 
for over 200 nights. " The Romany 
Rye," by the same author, was produced 
in 1882 ; and the " Silver King" in the 
same year. In this drama Mr. Barrett 
created the part of AYilfred Denver, 
which he played for 300 consecutive 
nights. In Oct. 188-1 he made his first 
appeai-ance in London as Hamlet. 
" Hamlet " was played for 117 nights, 
and then Mr. Barrett appeared as Junius 
Brutus in the late Lord Lytton's tragedy, 
" Junius ; or. The Household Gods." 
This was followed by revivals of " The 
Silver King " and " The Lights o' 
London.'^ In 1885, Mr. Barrett produced 
the drama " Hoodman Blind," written 
by Mr. Henry A. Jones and himself, in 
which he played Jack Yeulett for 171 
nights. Mr. Barrett is also part author 
with Mr. Clement Scott of the modern 
drama " Sister Mary," produced at 
Brighton in 1SS6, and with Mr. Sydney 
Grundy of the classical tragedy " Clito," 
which followed " The Lord Harry " at 
the Princess's. He subsequently pro- 
duced "Good Old Times," in collabora- 
tion with Mr. Hall Caine ; and in 1889 
his romantic drama of " Now-a-days." 
On May 18 of that year he took farewell 
of his patrons for a long engagement in 

BARRIE, J. M., was born on May 9, 
1860, at Kirriemuir, a small weaving town 
in Forfarshire. He attended school there, 
and afterwards went for five years to 
Dumfries Academy. Subsequently he 
took the art-classes at Edinburgh Uni- 
versity, and graduated as an M.A. in 
1S82. He was for eighteen months loader- 
writer on a Nottingham i^aper ; then be- 
came a journalist in London,writing chiefly 
for the St. James's Gazette, to which paper 
and the British Weekly, the Speaker, and 
the Scots Observer, he still frequently con- 
tributes. His first book, " Better Dead," 
a satire on London life, appeared in 1887, 
and was followed by two more important 
works the following year, namely " Auld 
Licht Idylls," and " When a Man's 
Single." "^In 1889 he published "A Win- 
dow in Thrums," and in 1890 " My Lady 



Nicotine." The "Thrums" of three of 
these stories is his native town. 

BARROW- IN -FUENESS, Bishop of. 

See Ware, The Eight Eev. Henkt, 

BARRY, The Right Rev. Alfred, D.D., 
B.C.L., late Bishop of Sydney, is the 
second son of the late eminent architect. 
Sir Charles Barry, and was born in 1826. 
He was educated at King's College, Lon- 
don, and at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
where he graduated B.A. as fourth 
Wrangler, second Smith's prizeman, and 
seventh in the first class of the Classical 
TriiDos in 1848, obtaining a fellowship in 
the same year. Dr. Barry, who was or- 
dained in 1850, was from 1851 to 1854 
Sub-Warden of Trinity College, Glen- 
almond ; and subsequently held from 1854 
to 1802 the Head Mastership of the Gram- 
mar School at Leeds, which he raised to 
a very high position by his energy and 
ability ; and in 18G2 he was ajopointed to 
the Principalship of Cheltenham College. 
In 1868 he became Principal of King's 
College, London ; in 1869 Examining 
Chaplain to the Bishop of Bath and 
Wells ; in 1871 was made a Canon of 
Worcester; in 1875 Honorary Chaplain, 
and in 1880 Chaplain in Ordinary to the 
Queen ; and in 1881 Canon of Westmin- 
ster. He was also a member of the Lon- 
don School Board from 1871 to 1877. On 
Jan. 1, 1884, he was consecrated Primate 
of Australia, Metropolitan of New South 
Wales, and Bishop of Sydney, which office 
he resigned in May, 1889, and is now 
acting as Bishop Coadjutor in the diocese 
of Eochester. Dr. Parry is the author of 
an " Introduction to the Old Testament," 
" Notes on the Gospels," " Life of Sir C. 
Barry, E.A.," " Cheltenham College Ser- 
mons," " Sermons for Boys," " Notes on 
the Catechism," " Eeligion for Every 
Day ; Lectures to Men," 1873, " What is 
Natural Theology ? " the Boyle Lectures 
for 1876, " The, Manifold Witness for 
Christ," the Boyle Lectures for 1877, 
1878, &c. 

BARRY, Charles, F.S.A., is the eldest 
son of the late Sir Charles Barry, and 
was born in 1823. He showed an early 
desire to be an architect, and was edu- 
cated for the profession in his father's 
ofiBce, and was for several years assisting 
him in various important works, both 
pvxblic and private, inchxding the New 
Houses of Parliament. His health fail- 
ing, in 1846 he went abroad and travelled 
through France, Germany, and Italy, 
studying the architectural works in those 
countries, and was absent li years. He 
did not return to his father's office, but 

at his recommendation started practice 
on his own account, associating with him 
as partner the late Eobert E. Banks, Esq., 
who had for some years been one of the 
principal assistants of Sir Charles. This 
association (which was founded on sincere 
personal friendship as well as artistic 
sympathy) remained unbroken till the 
death of Mr. Banks in 1872. During that 
time, and since, Mr. Barry has had 
an extensive and varied practice. In 
1856, at the International competition for 
the " Government Public Offices," the 
design sent in by his partner and him- 
self was placed second in merit by the 
assessors for the then projected Foreign 
Office ; the work was however given (after 
strong remonstrances) to Sir Gilbert (then 
Mr.) Scott, whose design had obtained 
only the third place. Among his 
more public works may be named the 
New Burlington House, Piccadilly, the 
New College at Dulwich, and the large 
Industrial School at Feltham for the 
County of Middlesex. Among a large 
number of works for private clients may 
be mentioned " Bylaugh Hall," Norfolk, 
" Stevenstone," North Devon, for the Hon. 
Mark EoUe, and the almost rebuilding 
" Clumber House," Nottinghamshire, for 
the Duke of Newcastle. Mr. Barry has 
since 1858 held the office of architect and 
surveyor to the Dulwich estate, and has 
erected there several chiu-ches, and a 
large number of private residences, be- 
sides his work at the old College and the 
erection of the new College. In 1876 Mr. 
Barry was elected President of the Eoyal 
Institute of British Architects, and held 
that office for three years. In 1878 he 
was one of the Eoyal Commission for the 
French Universal Exhibition for that 
year, and acted therein as the sole repre- 
sentative British Member of the small 
International Jury of the Fine Arts Sec- 
tion for making the awards for Architec- 
ture from the various countries therein 
represented. In recognition of this ser- 
vice the French Government, at the in- 
stance of the Prince of Wales, conferred 
on him the distinction of the Cross of an 
Officer of the Legion of Honour. In 1877 
Mr. Barry received from his colleagues of 
the Eoyal Institvite of British Architects 
the Queen's Gold Medal of the Institute, 
which is awarded once in three years to 
an architect of eminence. He is an Hono- 
rary Member of the Academies of Fine 
Arts at Vienna and Milan, and was elected 
a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of 
London in 1876, and is one of the original 
members of the Surveyors' Institution. 
Mr. Barry has been from its foundation a 
Member of Council of the City and Guilds 
of London Institute, and has always taken 



an active part in the proceedings of that 

BABB7, The Right Hon. Charles Rohert, 
born at Limerick, in 1831-, received his 
academical edixcation at Trinity College, 
Diiblin, was called to the Irish Bar in 
1845, was made a Queen's Counsel in 
1849, and was the first Crown Prosecutor 
in Dublin from 1859 to 18G5. Mr. Barry 
was law adviser to the Crown from 18G5 
to 1869, during which period he repx-e- 
sented Dungarvan, in the House of 
Commons. He was ajipointed Solicitor- 
General for Ii'eland in 18G9, and Attorney- 
General in Jan., 1870, succeeding, in the 
latter office, Mr. Sullivan, who had been 
appointed Master of the Rolls in Ireland. 
In Dec, 1871, he was appointed a Judge 
of the Queen's Bench in Ireland, in the 
room of the Eight Hon. John George, 
deceased. In Aug., 1878, he was nominated 
a member of the Royal Commission ap- 
pointed to inquire into the provisions of 
the draft Code relating to Indictable 
Offences. In June, 1883, he accepted the 
office of Lord Justice of Appeal, vacant 
by the death of Lord Justice Deasy. 

BARRY, John Wolfe, M.I.C.E., is the 
fifth and youngest son of the late Sir 
Charles Barry, E.A., and was born in 
1836. He was educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Glenalmond (where his elder brother, 
the Eev. Alfred Barry, afterwards Bishop 
of Sydney and Primate of Australia, was 
sub -warden), and at King's College, 
London. To acquire a practical know- 
ledge of work, he was placed with Messrs. 
Lucas Brothers, and was afterwards 
articled to Mr. (now Sir John) Hawk- 
shaw. While with Sir John Hawkshaw, 
he was engaged as Resident-Engineer on 
the bridges over the Thames and the 
large stations at Charing Cross and 
Cannon Street. On leaving Sir John 
Hawkshaw's service in 1867, he com- 
menced practice on his own account, and 
has carried out the Lewes and East 
Grinstead Railway ; the Earl's Court 
Station, and the Ealing and Pulham 
Extensions of the Metropolitan District 
Railway ; the St. Paxil's Station and the 
new bridge over the Thames at Black- 
friars ; the railways for the completion 
of the " Inner Circle " (in conjimction 
with Sir John Hawkshaw) ; the Bai-x-y 
Dock, near Cardiff (the lax-gest single 
dock in the United Kingdom), and rail- 
ways connecting it with the South Wales 
coalfield ; and vei-y many less important 
undex'takings. Mr. H. 5l. Brunei, son of 
the late I. K. Bi-unel, joined Mr. Barry 
in pax'tnership in 1878, and has been 
associated with him in most of the above 

works. Mr. Barry is now carrying out 
for the Corporation of London the Tower 
Bridge, which work was commenced in 
conjunction with Sir Horace Jones, the 
City Architect (since deceased), to whom 
wex-e entrusted the architectural features 
of the bx-idge, as distinguished fx-om the 
engineering work. In 1872 Mr. Barry 
visited the Argentine Republic and laid out 
a x-ailway from Buenos Ayres to Rosario. 
In 1886 the Government appointed Mr. 
Barx-y on the Royal Conxmission on Irish 
Pxxblic Works, and important legislation, 
based on the Reports of the Commission, 
has taken place on the subjects of 
drainage, light railways, and fishery 
harbours. In 1889 he was nominated by 
the Board of Trade, jointly with Admiral 
Sir George Nares, K.C.B., and Sir Charles 
Hartley, K.C.M.G., on a commission 
ordered by Parliament to settle certain 
ixnportant matters connected with the 
River Eibble ; and, in Decexnber, 1889, 
he was appointed, by the Governxuent, on 
the Western (Scottish) Highlands and 
Islands Conixnission, a commission having 
objects similar to those of the Royal 
Commission on Irish Public Woi-ks. Mr. 
Barx-y is a Mexnber of Coxxncil of the 
Institxxtion of Civil Engineers ; a Mexnber 
of the Institution of Mechanical Engi- 
neers : Associate of Council of the Sur- 
veyors' Institution ; a Fellow of the 
Royal Institution ; and a Lieut. -Colonel 
in the Engineer axxd Railway Volunteer 
Staff Corps. He is the author of a snxall 
volxxnxe, " Railway Appliances," in the 
Text-books of Science Series (Longmans, 
1876), and of a course of lectxxres de- 
livered at the School of Military Engi- 
neex'ing, Chathaxxi, in conjunction with 
Sir P. J. Braxnwell, on the " Railway and 
the Locomotive," published in 1882. 


member of the Institution, was born in 
Paris, Aug. 19, 1805, and was at first 
attached to the Ministry of Finance in 
1825 ; but this did not prevent hiin fx-om 
writing in the Globe, and he signed 
the pi-otestation of the joxxrnalists, 
Jxxly 26, 1830. After the revolution 
he founded the Bon Sens, and, as 
a Liberal he took an active part 
in politics wx'iting with Carx-el in Le 
National; but towax-ds the close of 1833 
he showed signs of a desire to renounce 
political life, and to apjjly himself to 
literature. In 1834 he was made tutor of 
French literature ixx the Polytechnic 
School, and undertook about the same 
tixne a coxuplete translation of the wox-ks 
of Aristotle, which served as a pendant 
to the translation of Plato, published 
by Cousin For this service ne was in 



1838 appointed to the chair of Greek 
and Latin Philosophy in the College of 
France, and in 1839 was admitted into 
the Academy of the Moral and Political 
Sciences. The revolution of February 
again drew him into the political arena, 
and he entered the Constituent Assembly, 
and became one of the chiefs of the Re- 
publican tiers-jmrti. He did not oppose 
the candidature of Louis Napolean, and 
supported the administration of M. Odilon 
Barrot. After the coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 
1851, and the downfall of the paidiamen- 
tary system, he refvised to take the oath, 
and resigned the chair in the College of 
France. At the general election of 18G9 he 
was retux-ned to the Corps Legislatif as de- 
puty for the first circonscription of Seine- 
et-Oise. He voted with the extreme Left, 
and was one of those who signed the 
manifesto after the disturbances caused 
by the funeral of the Depvity Baudin. 
Dviring the siege of Paris he remained in 
the cajiital, which he quitted after the 
armistice, in order to take his seat in the 
National Assembly, having been elected 
a dei^uty tor the department of Seine-et- 
Oise. He was a zealous supporter of his 
old friend M. Thiers, to whom he acted as 
General Secretary. He was elected a 
life Senator by the National Assembly, 
Dec. 10, 1875, and took his seat among 
the EepuVjlican minority. At the term- 
ination of the ministerial crisis, occasioned 
by the execvition of the decrees against 
the unaiithorized religious comnuxniti(,'s, 
he accepted the portfolio of Foreign 
Affairs, in succession to M. de Freycinet, 
in the Cabinet which was reconstituted 
under the presidency of M. Jules Ferry 
(Sept. 23, 18S0). His principal works are 
a very important series of translations of 
the works of Aristotle; " De I'Ecole 
d'Alexandrie," report to the Institvite, 
preceded by an " Essai sur la Methode 
des Alexandrins et le Mysticisme," 1845 ; 
" Des Vedas," 1854 ; " Du Bouddhisme," 
1855; " Le Bouddha et sa Eeligion," 
1866 ; " Mahomet et le Coran," 1867 ; 
"Memoire sur le Ssinkhya, dans les 
Memoires de I'Acadc'mie des Sciences 
morales et politiques," " Pensees de Marc- 
Aurele," 1876 ; " L'Inde Anglaise," 1887 ; 
" La philosophic dans ses rapports avec les 
Sciences et la Eeligion," 1889 ; " Fran9ois 
Bacon," 1890. 

BAETHOLDI, Auguste, was born at 
Col mar (Alsace), was intended for a 
lawyer, but Ary Scheffer, who was a friend 
of the family, recognized his latent artistic 
talent, and the use of Ary Scheffer's 
Btudio was the turning point of a life 
subsequently noteworthy for the pro- 
duction of the Lion de Belfort and 

the gigantic Liberto eclairant le Monde, 
which, constructed in copper, on an 
internal iron frame designed by M. 
Eiffel, was, in 1884, presented by the 
French Committee to the United States, 
and has since been erected at the entrance 
to the harbour of New York. It is by far 
the largest bronze statue in the World, 
being 150 ft. high, or higher than the 
column in the Place Vendome at Paris, 
and than (according to repute) even the 
Colossus of Rhodes. 

BARTTELOT. Sir Walter Barttelot, 
Bart., M.P., eldest son of the late George 
Barttelot, Esq., of Stopham House, Pul- 
borough, was born in 1820, and educated 
at Rugby. He entered the 1st Royal 
Dragoons in 1839 and served until 1853, 
when he retired. In 1860 he entered 
Parliament as Conservative member for 
West Sussex, and continued to represent 
the same constituency until 1885, when, 
after the Redistribution Act, he was re- 
turned for the new Division of Horsham, 
North West Sussex, with a majority of 
over 2,000, and again returned unopposed 
in 1886. Throughout these years he has 
been regarded as a typical county member, 
and has taken a keen interest in all 
matters connected with the magistracy, 
the land-laws,, &c. He has 
also taken an acti\e part in all questions 
relating to the Army. In 1875, in return 
for his active services on behalf of the 
Conservative party, he was created a 
Baronet by Mr. Disraeli. He is a magis- 
trate and Deputy-Lieutenant for the 
county of Sussex, he is also a County 
Councillor, and an Hon. -Colonel of the 
2nd Rifle Volunteer Battalion Royal 
Sussex Regiment. 

BASING, Lord, The Right Hon. George 
Sclater-Booth, F.R.S., P.C, son of the late 
William Lutley Sclater, Esq., of Hod- 
dington House, Hampshire, by Anne 
Maria, daughter of the late William 
Bowyer, Esq., was born in London in 
1826. From Winchester School, where 
he obtained the gold medal for Latin 
verse, he proceeded to Balliol College, 
Oxford (B.A. 1847). He was called to 
the Bar of the Inner Temple in 1851. 
In 1857 he assumed, by royal licence, the 
name of Booth in addition to his patro- 
nymic ; and in the same year he was 
elected M.P. for North Hampshire, 
which constituency he has continued to 
represent in the Conservative interest 
down to the present time. During the 
first ten years of his Parliamentary 
career Mr. Sclater-Booth was a frequent 
and active member of Select Committees, 
and became very conversant with the 

:bassi:t— BASTiAi<r. 


public and private business of the House 
of Commons. As Secretary to the Poor 
Law Board in 1867 he represented that 
department in the Lower House, his 
chief. Lord Devon, being the first peer 
who had ever filled the office of President. 
On the resignation of Lord Derby in Feb., 
1868, the following year, Mr. Sclater- 
Booth was appointed to the Secretaryship 
of the Treasury in the room of Mr. Hunt, 
who became Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer. He passed the estimates through 
the House of Commons, and conducted 
the financial business of the Treasury 
till the general election of 1868, when 
Mr. Disraeli's Government resigned. 
During Mr. Gladstone's administration 
(1868-74) Mr. Sclater-Booth's attention 
continued to be constantly directed to 
public business, and he served during 
the greater part of that time as Chair- 
man of the important Committee on 
Public Accounts. On the formation of 
Mr. Disraeli's Government in 1871, he 
was sworn in as a Privy Councillor, and 
appointed to the office of President 
of the Local Government Board, which 
he held till the Conservatives resigned 
in April, 1880. During the period of Mr. 
Gladstone's administration, 1880-1885, 
Mr. Sclater-Booth acted as Chairman in 
conducting the new experiment of Grand 
Committees. He is chairman of the 
Hants County Council, and official 
Verderer of the New Forest. On the 
occasion of Her Majesty's Jubilee, in 1887, 
Mr. Sclater-Booth was raised to the peer- 
age by the style of Baron Basing of 
Basing Byflete and Hoddington in the 
County of Hampshire. 

BASSET, Alfred Barnard, M.A., F.R.S., 
is the only son of the late Mr. Alfred 
Basset of London, and was born on 
July 25, 1854. His father died during his 
childhood, and he was brought up by his 
grandfather. He was educated at Grove 
House School, Tottenham, entered Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in Oct., 1873,and was 
elected to a foundation scholarship in 
April, 1876. He graduated B.A. in 1877, 
having been 13th Wrangler in the Matin - 
matical Tripos of that year. Afttr leav- 
ing Cambridge, he studied law in the 
chamber of Mr. John Eigby, Q.C., atd 
was called to the Bar on June 25, 
1879 ; but after the expiration of a few 
years he gave up the practice of his 
profession, and resumed the study of 
Mathematics. He was elected a Fellow 
of the Eoyal Society on June 8, 1889, 
and is the author of a " Treatise on 
Hydro - dynamics," in two volumes, and 
also of several papers ou Mathematical 
Physics. - 

BASTIAN, Professor Henry Charlton, 
M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., was born at Truro, 
in Cornwall, April 26, 1837, and educated 
at a private school at I'almouth, and 
in University College, London. He 
graduated M.A. in 1861, M.B. in 1863, 
and M.D. in 1866; these degrees being 
conferred by the University of London. 
He was elected F.K.S. in 1868, and 
F.R.C.P. in 1871. Dr. Bastian is a Fel- 
low of several Medical Societies ; he is 
also a Corresponding Member of the 
Royal Academy of Medicine of Turin, 
and of the Soc. Psychol. Physiolog. 
of Paris. In 1866 h3 was appointed 
Lecturer on Pathology, and Assistant- 
Physician to St. Mary's Hospital. These 
posts he held until his appointment as 
Professor of Pathological Anatomy in 
University College, and Assistant-Physi- 
cian to University College Hospital in 
Dec, 1867. He was elected a physician 
to this hospital in 1871 ; and in 1878, on 
taking charge of in-patients, a professor- 
ship of Clinical Medicine was conferred 
upon him. In 1887 he resigned the Chair 
of Pathological Anatomy at University 
College, and was elected Professor of the 
Principles and Practice of Medicine. 
Dr. Bastian was Dean of the Faculty of 
Medicine in University College during 
the sessions 1874-5 and 1875-6 ; he 
served as Examiner in Medicine to the 
Queen's University in Ireland for 1876-79, 
and he has discharged similiar duties for 
the University of Durham, and for the 
Royal College of Physicians of London. 
In 1887 the honorary degree of M.D. was 
conferred upon him by the Royal Uni- 
versity of Ireland, and he was elected an 
Honorary Fellow of the King and 
Queen's College of Physicians in Ireland. 
For some years past he has acted as 
one of the Cro-wn Referees in cases of 
Supposed Insanity. Dr. Bastian has 
published the following works : — " The 
Modes of Origin of Lowest Organisms," 
1871 ; "The Beginnings of Life," 2 vols., 
1872 : " Evolution and the Origin of Life," 

1874 ; "Clinical Lectures on the Common 
Forms of Paralysis from Brain Disease," 

1875 ; " The Brain as an Organ of Mind," 
1880 (the latter work has been translated 
into French and German) ; and " Paraly- 
s s ; Cerebral, Bulbar, and Spinal," 1886. 
He is also th? author of "Memoirs on 
Nematoids : Parasitic and Free," in the 
Fkilosophical Transactions and the Trans- 
actions of the Linncean Society. In his 
monograph on the Anguillulidae he de- 
scribed 100 new species discovered by 
him in this country. Dr. Bastian is the 
author of numerous papers on Pathology 
and Medicine, in the 2'rans. of the Patho- 
logical and MedicQ'Chirurgical Societies -, 



of papers on the more recondite depart- 
ments of Cerebral Physiology in the 
Journal of Mental Science, Brain, and 
other periodicals; and of some joint 
articles with the editor in Dr. Reynold's 
" System of Medicine." Dr. Bastian is 
likewise one of the principal contributors 
to Quain's "Dictionary of Medicine" 
(1882), having written nearly the whole 
of the articles on Diseases of the Spinal 
Cord, as well as many others on Diseases 
of the Nervous System. 

BATEMAN, Kate Josephine. See Ceowe, 
Mrs. George. 

BATES, Henry Walter, F.E.S., was born 
Feb. 8, 1825, at Leicester, of middle- 
class parentage, educated at Commercial 
Schools of the town, and at Billesdon, 
and in due time was placed with a manu- 
facturing iirm as the commencement of a 
mercantile career. He evinced, at an 
early age, a love for Natural History, 
which was gratified by long, and mostly 
solitary, country rambles, and by the 
study first of Botany and Geology, after- 
wards of Entomology. In 1848 he threw 
up his prospects in commercial life, and 
arranged with Mr. A. E. Wallace a joint 
voyage to South America and exploration 
of the valley of the Amazons. March of 
that year was spent in visiting the 
museums and botanical gardens of London, 
and making arrangements for the disposal 
of the collections which they would send 
home. He sailed from Liverpool for Para 
April26. Mr. Wallace returned toEngland 
in 1852, and Mr. Bates remained, carrying 
his investigations to the upper river, his 
last station being 1,800 miles distant from 
the Atlantic. He returned to England in 
July, 1859 ; and published his narrative, 
" The Naturalist on the Eiver Amazons," 
in 1863. The more technical scientific 
results were published at intervals in the 
journals of various scientific societies, and 
in the " Annals of Natural History," in a 
series of Memoirs beginning in 1861. 
His paper on " Mimetic Resemblances as 
illustrated by the Heliconidse," in which 
the now generally accepted theory of 
these phenomena was propounded, ap- 
peared in the transactions of the Linnean 
Society in 1862. He was elected F.E.S. in 
188 1. In April, 1864, he was appointed 
Assistant- Secretary and Editor of piiblica- 
tions to the Eoyal Geographical Society, 
a post he still retains. 

BATH & WELLS, Bishop of. See 
Hervey, Lord Arthur Charles. 

BATTENBERG, Prince Alexander. See 

Alexander Joseph or Battenbero 

BATTENBTJRG, Prince Henry. See 
Henry of BattenberoJ(Pbince). 

BAVABIA, King of. See Otto. 

BAVARIA, Regent of. See Luitpold, 
Prince Charles Joseph William. 

BAYARD, The Hon. Thomas Francis, 

American statesman, was born at Wilming- 
ton, Delaware, Oct. 29, 1828. He at first 
entered mercantile life, but abandoned 
it for the study of law, and was admitted 
to the Bar in 1851. In 1853 he was 
appointed U. S. District Attorney for 
Delaware, but resigned in 1854. In 1869 
he succeeded his father as TJ. S. Senator 
from Delaware, and was successively re- 
elected in 1875 and 1881, retaining the 
position until March, 1885, when he 
entered Mr. Cleveland's Cabinet as Sec- 
retary of State. He was for many years 
regarded as the leader of the Democratic 
party in the Senate, was for a short time 
its presiding officer, and was the principal 
competitor with Mr. Cleveland for the 
presidential nomination in 1884. Since 
the close of Mr Cleveland's administration 
in 1889 Mr. Bayard has held no piiblic 

BAYER, Karl Emmerich Robert, an 

Austrian writer, generally known by his 
nom de guerre of Eobert Byr, was born at 
Bregenz in the Tyrol, April 15, 1835 and 
received his education in the Military 
Academy at Wiener-Neustadt, which he 
left on his appointment as lieutenant in 
the Count Eadetzky's Hussar Eegiment. 
In 1859 he was advanced to the rank of 
captain, and during the Italian campaign 
he was placed on the general staff. 
After the conclusion of peace, Bayer 
began his literary career by the publica- 
tion of his '' Sketches of Military Life " 
(Kantonierungsbilder," 1860). In 1862 
he retired from active service and settled 
in his native town, where he still con- 
tinues to reside. Bayer is chiefly known 
to fame as a novelist ; his tragedy " Lady 
Gloster " (1872), being his only essay in 
dramatic composition. Military life he 
has described in his first work, already 
mentioned, in "Austrian Garrisons" 
(" Oesterreichische Garrnisonen," 1863), 
and in " Quarters " (" Auf der Station," 
1866). His " In the years Nine and Thir- 
teen" ("Anno Neun ujid Dreizehn," 
1865), contain biographical sketches of 
actors in the German war of Independ- 
ence. To another class of works belong 
the following novels: "The Home of a 



German Coxint" ("Ein deutsches Graf- 
enhaus/' 1866) ; " With a Brazen Face " 
("Mit eherner Stirn," 1868); "The 
Struggle for Life " (" Der Kampf ums 
Dasein," 1869);" Sphinx," 1879; "No- 
maden," 1871 ; " Ruin " (" Triimmer/' 
1871); "Quatuor," a collection of tales, 
1875 ; " Ghosts " (" Larven," 1876) ; and 
"A Secret Despatch" (" Eine geheime 
Depesche," 1880) ; and " Sesani," 1880. 
"The Path to the Heart" ("Der Weg 
zum Herzen," 1881) ; " Turn of Life " 
(" Am Wende punkt des Lebens," 1881) ; 
"Implacable" (" Unversohnlich/' 1882) ; 
" Lydia," 1883 ; " Andor," 1883 ; " Am I 
to do it 'i " (" Soil Ich ? " 1884) ; " Castell 
Ursani," 1885; "Dora," 1886; "Villa 
Mirafior," 1886 ; " AVill - of - the - Wisp " 
("Irrneische," 1887) ; " The Path to For- 
tune " (" Der Weg zum Glilck," 1889) ; 
"Woodidyl" (" Waldidyll," 1889). He 
has also written plays which have been 
performed in public. 

BAYLEY, Sir Stewart Colvin. K.C.S.I., 
C.I.E., Secretary in the Political and 
Secret Department of the India Office, 
formerly Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, 
was educated at Haileybury, and arrived 
in India in 1856. His first post was that 
of assistant-magistrate and collector of 
the 24 Pergunnahs, and he siibsequently 
rose through various grades till he was 
appointed Commissioner of the Dacca 
division in 1873. Four years later he 
was acting as personal assistant to the 
Viceroy for famine affairs. His more 
recent appointments have been — Chief 
Commissioner of Assam, June, 1880 ; 
Resident at Hyderabad (Nizam's do- 
minions), March, 1881 ; a member of the 
Governor-General's Council, May, 1882; 
and Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal, 
April, 1887. 

BAYLY, Miss Ada Ellen, "Edna 
Lyall," is the youngest daughter of the 
late Robert Bayly of the Inner Temple, 
barrister-at-law. She was born and 
educated at Brighton, and at an early age 
made up her mind to write. Her first 
story, " Won by Waiting," was pxita- 
lished in 1879. This was followed by 
"Donovan," 1882; "We Two," 1884; 
" In the Golden Days," 18S5 ; " Knight- 
Errant," 1887 ; " Autobiography of a 
Slander," 1S87 ; " Derrick Vaughan, 
Novelist," 1889 ; " A Hai-dy Norseman," 
1889. Like some other writers, " Edna 
Lyall " has been a good deal annoyed by 
an impostor who assumes her name, and 
who presumably was the original cause of 
the false reports as to the author's mental 
health, which, despite rumour, has always 
been excellent^ and her creed which has 

always been, and still remains, that of 
the Church of England. 

BAYNE, Peter, M.A., LL.D., born in 
the manse of Fodderty, Ross-shire, Scot- 
land, Oct. 19, 1830, was educated at 
Marischal College, Aberdeen, where he 
took his M.A. degree. He was the winner 
of a prize for a poem, open to competition 
j by the whole university, and after taking 
his degree he won the Blackrwell prize 
(£40) for a prose essay. He was ap- 
pointed successively editor of the Glasgow 
Commonwealth, the Edinburgh Witness, 
the Biol, and the Weekly Review, the last 
two published in London. His biograph- 
ical sketches in an Edinburgh magazine 
attracted attention, and led to the 
publication, in 1855, of "The Christian 
Life in the present Time," followed by 
two volumes of Essays published in 
America, 1857. A volume of Biographical 
and Critical Essays, a treatise on " The 
Testimony of Christ to Christianity," 
and an historical drama on " The Days of 
Jezebel," written by him, have been 
published in this country. His " Life and 
Letters of Hugh Miller " appeared in 1871. 
A volume on " The Chief Actors in the 
Puritan Revolution," appeared in 1878. 
He has since written " Lessons from my 
Masters," and " Two Gi'eat English- 
women, with an Essay on Poetry." He 
has been a contributor to the Contem- 
porary, Fortnightly, British Quarterly, 
London Quarterly Reviews, Fraser, Black- 
wood, and other magazines. In 1879 the 
University of Aberdeen presented him 
with the degree of LL.D For upwards 
of twenty years Dr. Bayne has occupied 
an important place on the staff of the 
Christian World, advocating liberal 
opinions both in theology and in politics. 
In the latter part of 1883, he became 
engaged in the composition of an original 
Life of Martin Luther, and the book was 
published in 18S7. It was considered by 
Protestants generally as giving a life-like 
presentation of the Reformer, and it 
deeply offended High Churchmen by its 
vehement repudiation of Newmanite 
and Tractarian views. . 

BAZALGETTE, Sir Joseph William, 
K.C.B., son of the late Captain Joseph 
William Bazalgette, R.N., was born at 
Enfield, Middlesex, in 1819. At the age 
of eighteen he was articled as piipil to 
Sir John MacNiel, C.E. In 1845 he was 
practising on his owti account as an 
engineer in Great George Street. West- 
minster. In November of the year in 
which the railway mania began he 
was at the head of a large staff of 
engineering assistants, designing and 

F 2 

feMCH— BEAti!. 

laying out schemes for railways, ship 
canals, and other engineering works in 
various parts of the United Kingdom, 
and preparing the surveys and plans for 
parliamentary deposit, which had to be 
accomplished by tlie last day of Novem- 
ber. While his remarkable success was 
most encouraging, its effects soon began 
to tell upon his health, which completely 
gave way in 1847 ; and he was compelled to 
retire from business and go into the 
country, where a year of perfect rest 
restored him to health. In 1848 he 
accepted an appointment as assistant- 
engineer under the Metropolitan Com- 
mission of Sewers. On the death of the 
chief engineer of the Commissioners in 
1852, Mr. Bazalgette was selected from 
among thirty-six candidates to fill the 
vacant position, being first appointed 
under the title of General Surveyor of 
Works, and soon afterwards of Chief 
Engineer. His report on the failures of 
the new system of drainage in certain 
provincial towns led to the resignation of 
the Commissioners, and the appointment 
of a new Commission by Lord Palmer- 
ston. Mr. Bazalgette was elected engi- 
neer to the Metropolitan Board of Works 
on its establishment in 1856, and was 
instructed to devise a scheme for the 
drainage of London. Accordingly, he 
prepared estimates and designs, which 
were executed between 1858 and 18G5. 
The main intercepting drainage of Lon- 
don is original in design, and it is also 
perfect and the most comprehensive, and 
at the same time the most difficult work 
of its class that has ever been executed. 
Though little thought of now, because it 
is unseen, it is the work for which its 
author's reputation as an engineer will 
ever stand highest in the opinion of 
professional engineers. Between 1863 
and 1874 the Victoria, the Albert, and 
the Chelsea Embankments, were designed 
and executed by him ; his latest works 
are a new granite bridge over the Thames 
at Putney, a steel suspension bridge at 
Hammersmith, and an iron bridge at 
Battersea ; besides many other metro- 
politan improvements, such as new 
streets, subways, and artisans' dwellings. 
He has also designed and carried out the 
drainage of many other towns. He was 
created a Companion of the Bath in 1871, 
and knighted in 1874. In 1889, when 
the Metropolitan Board of Works was 
superseded by the London County Coun- 
cil, Sir Joseph Bazalgette retired from 
the position of Chief Engineer, which he 
had held for 40 years. He is a past 
President of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers and a member of the Athe- 
naeum Club. 

BEACH, The Bt. Hon. Sir Michael 
Edward Hicks. See Hicks-Bkach. 

BEAL, James, was born in 1829, at 
Chelsea, and educated at private schools. 
He took an active i>art as the colleague 
of James Taylor, the founder of the Free- 
hold Land movement, in establishing 
Land and Building Societies. He was 
the first to institute legal proceedings 
against the curate of St. Barnabas, Pim- 
lico, for conducting the services with 
high ritual, in a suit, afterwards merged 
in a similar suit brought by Mr. Wester- 
ton, and known as " Westerton and Beal 
V. Liddell," which was the commencement 
of the movement that culminated in the 
Public Worship Regulation Act of 1874. 
He was also instrumental in securing the 
passing of the Metropolis Gas Act, 1860, 
and subsequently the City of London Gas 
Act, 1868, and he has been a prominent 
politician in Westminster since 1852. 
Mr. Beal has devoted much time to par- 
liamentary inquiries into the government 
and taxation of the metropolis. He was 
an active member of the City Guilds 
Reform Association, organised to secure 
a reform in the administration of the 
City Companies, and was the honorary 
secretary of the Metropolitan Municipal 
Association, formed to create a munici- 
pality of London. Mr. Beal is the author 
of " Free Trade in Land," 1855, of pam- 
phlets against the Stamp Duty on News- 
papers, and on Direct Taxation. He 
took an active part in securing the Royal 
Commission on City Parochial Charities, 
secured the Royal Commission on " the 
Livery Companies of the City Corpora- 
tion," and has been twice examined 
before the Commission. He contends 
that the guilds are an integral part of 
the Corporation, and that their estates 
and property and halls are public pro- 
perty. He has formulated a demand for 
the restitution of Christ's Hospital to 
the poor of London, and claims that it 
shall be handed over to the London 
School Board. Mr. Beal was elected on 
the County Council at Fulham in 1889. 

BEALE, Dorothea, daughter of the late 
Mr. Miles Beale, M.R.C.S., was born in 
London, 1831, and edxicated chiefly at 
home. She attended the opening lectures 
of Queen's College in 1848, when for the 
first time public examinations were 
thrown open to women. In 1850 she was 
appointed the first lady Mathematical 
Tutor, and was also appointed Latin Tutor 
under Dr. Plumptre. In 1858 she was 
elected Principal of the Ladies' College, 
Cheltenham, which, numbering at that 
time 69 pupils^ has Biace risen to about 



700. Miss Beale has published some 
school books, and has contributed many 
articles to the Joiimal of Education, 
Fraser, The Nineteenth Century, Atalanta, 
Patents' Magazine, Monthly Packet, &c. 
She edits the Ladies' College Magazine. 
Miss Beale has been largely instrumental 
in advancing the movement for the 
Higher Ediacation of Women. The 
Ladies' College gained a gold medal at 
the International Exhibition, and Miss 
Beale received the title of Officier d'Aca- 
demie. She is a member of the Societe 
des Sciences et Lettres. 

BEALE, Professor Lionel Smith, M.B., 
F.R.S., Physician to King's College Hos- 
pital, and Professor of the Principles and 
Practice of Medicine at King's College, 
London, lately Examiner in Medicine, 
Professor of Physiology and of General 
and Morbid Anatomy, and afterwards 
Professor of Pathological Anatomy, was 
born in London in 182S, and educated in 
King's College School, and in the Medical 
Department of King's College. He was 
elected a Fellow of the Eoyal College of 
Physicians in 1859, is an Hon. Fellow of 
King's College, a Fellow of the Medical 
Society of Sweden, of the Microscopical 
Societies of New York and California, 
the Eoyal Medical and Chirurgical, the 
Microscopical, and the Pathological 
Societies ; he was formerly President 
and is now Treasurer of the Eoyal Micro- 
scopical Society, and of the Quekett 
Club, member of the Academy of Sciences 
of Bologna, Corresponding Member of 
the Academic Eoyale de Medecine de 
Belgique, &c., and the author of several 
works on medicine, physiology, medical 
chemistry, and the microscope. Among 
these works are " The Microscope in its 
Application to Practical Medicine;" 
" How to work with the Microscope," of 
which there have been several editions ; 
" The Structure of the Tissues of the 
Body ; " " Protoplasm ; or. Life, Matter, 
and Mind ; " " Disease Germs, their 
supposed and real Nature, and on the 
Treatment of Diseases caused by their 
Presence;" "Life Theories, their In- 
fluence upon Eeligious Thought," 1871 ; 
"The Mystery of Life : Facts and Argu- 
ments against the Physical Doctrine of 
Vitality, in reply to Sir William Gull," 
1871 ; " Our Morality and the Moral 
Question," 1887 ; " The Liver," 1889 ; 
" On Life and on Vital Action in Health 
and Disease ; " " The Anatomy of the 
Liver ; " " Urine, Urinary Deposits and 
Calculous Disorders," 4 editions ; " Uri- 
nary and Eenal Derangements and Cal- 
culous Disorders : Diagnosis and Treat- 
ment J " " One Huii4f edTJrinaryDeposits," 

in eight sheets ; " On Slight Ailments ; " 
" The Physiological Anatomy and Phy- 
siology of Man," in conjunction with the 
late Dr. Todd and Mr. Bowman ; and of 
other works. He has contributed several 
memoirs to the Eoyal Society, on the 
structure of the liver, on the distribution 
of nerves to muscle, on the anatomy of 
nerve-libres and nerve-centres, <S:c., which 
are published in the " Philosophical 
Transactions," and in the " Proceedings " 
I of the Eoyal Society. He was the editor 
of the " Archives of Medicine," and has 
! also contributed to the Lancet, Medical 
j Timts and Gazette , Medical and Chirurgical 
' Revietv, and the Microscopical Journal. 

I BEATJCHAMP, (Earl) Frederic Lygon, 
I D.C.L., sixth Earl, is the second son of the 
' fourth Earl by the second daughter of the 
! Earl of St. Germans. He was born in 1830. 
j and was educated at Eton and at Christ 
i Church, Oxford. He was elected Fellow of 
i All Souls' in 1852. On the death of his 
' brother in 1866 he succeeded to the title. 
i From March to June, 1859, he was a Lord 
I of the Admiralty, and Lord Steward of the 
' Qiieen's Household from 1874 to 1880. 
He represented Tewkesbury from April, 
j 1857, to October, 1863, and Worcestershire 
(West) from the latter date to March, 1866, 
i and is a Conservative. In 1870 the Uni- 
versity of Oxford conferred on him the 
i honorary degree of D.C.L., and in 1876 
i he was appointed Lord-Lieutenant of 
i Worcestershire. In 1885, in Lord Salis- 
j bury's first government, he was appointed 
i Paymaster-General, and again in August, 
18S6, but resigned in March, 1887- Lord 
Beauchamp is a prominent member of the 
High Church party, and was influential 
I in founding Keble College, Oxford, of the 
council of which he is a member. 

! BEATTFOET (Duke of), Henry Charles 

j Fitzroy Somerset, Marquis and Earl of 

1 Worcester, Earl of Glamorgan, Viscount 

I Grosmont, &c., was born Feb. 1, 1824, 

I His Grace, who is a Conservative in 

; politics, andsucceeded his father as eighth 

i Duke, Nov. 17, 1853, is Lieut. -Colonel in 

j the army, was Master of the Horse under 

Earl Derby's second administration, 

1858-9, and was re-appointed to that office 

under Earl Derby's third administration, 

in July, 1866. He takes a great interest 

in horse-racing, and is President of the 

Four-in-Hand Club. He is one of the 

joint editors of the sporting books known 

as "The Badminton Library." His Grace 

married, July 3, 1845, Georgina Charlotte, 

eldest daughter of the late Earl Howe. 

BEAUBEGABD, Pierre Gnstave Tontant, 

was born at N^w Orleans, Louisiana, in 



1818. He graduated from West Point 
Military Academy in 1838, and was at 
first assigned to the artillery, whence he 
was subsequently transferred to the corps 
of engineers. He served in the Mexican 
war, and was twice wounded, and twice 
brevetted. He was promoted to a cap- 
taincy of engineers in 1853, and was on 
duty, superintending the erection of 
Government buildings in New Orleans, 
and fortifications on the GwU coast till 
Jan. 1861, when he was for five days (Jan. 
23-28) Superintendent of the United 
States Military Academy at West Point. 
He resigned Feb. 20, 1861, joined the 
Confederates, and began the civil war by 
the bombardment of Port Sumter, April 
12, 1861. He was in actual command of 
the Southern troops at Bull Eun, Jiily 
21, 1861, in which the Federals ex- 
perienced a defeat ; for this service he 
was made a full general, the highest 
grade. He was second in command, 
under General Albert S. Johnston, at the 
battle of Shiloh, or Pittsburgh Landing, 
Tennessee, April 6-7, 1862, imtil General 
Johnston was killed on the afternoon of 
the first daj% when General Beauregard 
succeeded him as commander-in-chief. 
From the summer of 1862 iintil the spring 
of 1864 he successfully defended Charles- 
ton and its outworks when besieged by 
General Gillmore. He was subsequently 
second in command in the army of Joseph 
E. Johnston in North Carolina up to the 
time of that general's surrender, April 
26, 1865, which brought the war to a close. 
Since the termination of the war. General 
Beauregard has resided in Louisiana, one 
of the Southern States ; he became 
President of the New Orleans, Jackson, 
and Mississipi:)i Railroad ; and for a 
niimber of years has been one of the mana- 
gers of the Louisiana State Lottery, and 
was also Adjutant-General of Louisiana. 

BECKER Bernard Henry, author and 
journalist, born in 1833, was for years 
attached to All the Year Round, and has 
wi'itten a large number of original stories 
and sketches in that journal, as well as 
in the World and other papers, and 
was formerly on the staff of the Daily 
News. In 1874 he produced " Scientific 
London " — an account of the rise, pro- 
gress, and cond ition of the great scientific 
institutions of the capital. Mr. Becker 
published in 1878 a book in two vohimes, 
entitled " Adventurous Lives." Having 
in the winter of 1878-9 acted as the 
"Special Commissioner" of the Daily 
News in Shefiield, Manchester, and other 
distressed districts of the North and 
Midlands, he was sent in a similar 
capacity to Ireland in the axxtunm of 

1880, when he discovered Mr. and Mrs. 
Boycott herding sheep, and wrote those 
letters on the state of Connaught and 
Munster, which has since appeared in a 
collected form as " Disturbed Ireland," 
and given rise to several discussions in 
the House of Commons. In 1884 Mr. 
Becker produced " Holiday Haunts," the 
title of which explains itself, like that of 
the more recent " Letters from Lazy 
Latitudes " published in 1886. 

BECKLES, The Right Rev, Edward 
Hyndman, D.D., son of the late John 
Alleyne Beckles, Esq. (descended from the 
Beckles family, of Durham), was born in 
Barbados, in 1816, received his education 
at Codrington College, Barbados, and 
after holding different cures in the West 
Indies was consecrated Bishop of Sierra 
Leone in 1859. He resigned that See in 
1870, being siicceeded in it by Dr. Cheet- 
ham. In the same year he was appointed 
rector of Wooton, Dover, and in 1873 
rector of St. Peter's, Bethnal Green, 
London. In Feb., 1877, he was ap- 
pointed Superintending Bishop of the 
English Ej^iscopalian congregations in 

BEDDOE, John, M.D., F.R.S., born at 
Bewdley, in Worcestershire, September 
21, 1826, was educated at Bridgnorth 
School, University College, London, and 
the University of Edinbuigh. He gra- 
duated B.A. in London in 1851, and 
M.D. in Edinburgh in 1853. Dr. Beddoe 
served on the civil medical staff diu-ing 
the Crimean war. Since then he has 
practised as a physician at Clifton, and 
held sundry hospital appointments. He 
was President of the Anthropological 
Society in 1869 and 1870, and he was a 
member of the council of the British 
Association for several years. He was 
elected a Fellow of the Eoyal Society, 
and a Fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians in 1873, and is an honorary 
member of siindry continental and 
American scientific societies. Dr. Beddoe 
has written numerous papers, medical, 
statistical, and anthropological, and he 
has largely applied the numerical method 
to ethnology. In 1868 his Essay on the 
Origin of the English Nation took the 
first prize, .£150, of the Welsh National 
Eisteddfod. It formed the basis of his 
principal work, " The Races of Britain," 
which was not published until 1885. 
His other most considerable works and 
papers are " Stature and Bulk of Man in 
the British Isles ; " " Relations of Tem- 
perament and Complexion to Disease ; " 
" On Hospital Dietaries ; " " Comparison 
of Mortality in England and Australia j " 



and on the " Natural Colour of the Skin 
in certain Oriental Eaces." He is joint 
author of the " Anthropological Instruc- 
tions for Travellers " of the British Asso- 
ciation ; and was elected President of 
the Anthropological Institute in 1889 and 

BEDFOBD, Bishop of. See Billing, the 
Et. Eev. Egbert Claudius. 

BEESLY, Professor Edward Spencer, was 
born at Feckenham, Worcestershire, in 
1831, and educated at Wadham College, 
Oxford. He was appointed Assistant- 
Master of Marlborough College in 185 l,and 
Professor of History in University Col- 
lege, London, in 18G0. At the General 
Election of 1885 he was the unsuccessful 
Liberal candidate for Westminster, and 
in 1886 he stood, also without success, for 
East Marylebone. Professor Beesly is 
the author of several review articles, 
pamphlets, &c., on historical, political, 
and social questions, treated from the 
Positivist point of view. He is one of 
the translators of Comte's " System of 
Positive Polity." A series of lectures by 
Professor Beesly on Eoman history, en- 
titled " Catiline, Clodius, and Tiberius," 
Avas published in 1878. 

BEET, Professor the Eev. Joseph Agar, 

was born on September 27, 18-10, at Shef- 
field, to which town his paternal grand- 
father went in boyhood from Wortley, a 
village about nine miles away, where his 
family had lived for generations. He was 
educated at Wesley College, Sheffield, and 
then at the Wesleyan College, Eichmond, 
Yorks ; was engaged in pastoral work for 
twenty-one years ; became Professor of 
Systematic Theology at Eichmond Col- 
lege in September, 1885, which position 
he now holds. In August, 1877, he 
published a " Commentary on the Epistle 
to the Eomans," now in its seventh 
edition. Since then volumes on " I. & 
II. Corinthians," and on "Galatians." 
He hopes to publish before the end of 1890, 
a volume on " Ephesians," " Philippians," 
and " Colossians." He delivered at Shef- 
field in August, 1889, the Fernley Lecture 
on" The Credentials of the Gospel," which 
has been published. For more than ten 
years he has been a frequent contributor 
to the Expositor. The aim of his studies 
has been to learn all that he could about 
God, and the mutual relations of God 
and man, assured that this is the most 
worthy object of human research. His 
chief method has been a careful and 
consecutive examination of the Christian 
documents in the light of modern 
philological science, 

BEETON, H. C, was born in London on 
May 15, 1827 ; is a Merchant, and has been 
Agent-General in England, for British 
Columbia, since 1883. He was a Com- 
missioner of the International Fisheries' 
Exhibition, 1883 ; and of the Health Ex- 
hibition, 1884; and Eoyal Commissioner 
of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 

BELGIANS, King of the. See Leopold II. 

BELL, Alexander Graham, Ph.D. was 
born at Edinbui'gh, March 3, 1847. He 
was educated at the Edinburgh High 
School and Edinburgh University, and 
also studied for a time at the London 
University. He went to Canada in 
1870, and thence, in 1872, to the United 
States. He had acquired prominence as a 
teacher of deaf-mutes before his inven- 
tions of the speaking telephone and 
photophone (first exhibited in 1876 and 
1880 respectively) brought him wealth 
and fame. He is a member of various 
learned societies, and has published a 
niimber of papers on electrical subjects 
and the teaching of speech to deaf-mutes. 

BELL, Charles Dent, D.D., Hon. Canon 
of Carlisle, son of Henry Hiunphrey Bell, 
Esq., landed proprietor, was born Feb. 
10, 1819, at Ballymaguigan, County 
Derry, Ireland. He was educated at the 
Academy, Edinburgh, at the Eoyal 
School, Dungannon, County Tyrone, and 
entered Trinity College, Dublin as Queen's 
Scholar, in 1839 ; received the Degree of 
B.A. and Divinity Testimonial, 1842; 
and was Vice-Chancelloi-'s Prizeman for 
English verse, 1840, 1841, 1842; M.A., 
1852 ; B.D. and D.D., 1878 ; Deacon, 
1843 ; Priest, 1844. The following have 
been his appointments : — Curate of Hamp- 
ton-in-Arden, 1843-45 ; Curate of St. 
Mary's Chapel, Eeading, 1845-46 ; Curate 
of St. Mary's -in -the -Castle, Hastings, 
1846-54 ; Incumbent of St. John's Chapel, 
Hampstead, 1854-61 ; Vicar of Ambleside, 
and Eural Dean, 1861 ; Hon. Canon oif 
Carlisle, 1869; Vicar of Eydal with 
Ambleside, 1872 ; Eector of Cheltenham, 
1879 ; Surrogate of Cheltenham, 1884. 
He is the author of " Night Scenes of the 
Bible, and their Teachings," 1860 ; " The 
Saintly Calling," 1874 ; " Hills that 
bring Peace," 1876 ; " Voices from the 
Lakes," 1876 ; " Angelic Beings and their 
Ministry," 1877; " Eoll Call of Faith," 
1878 ; " Songs in the Twilight," 1878 ; 
" Hymns for Church and Chamber," 
1879 ; " Our Daily Life, its Dangers and 
its Duties," and "Life of Henry 
Martyn," 1880; "Choice of Wisdom," 
aijd "Living Truths for Head and 



Heart/' 1881 ; " Songs in Many Keys," 
1884 ; " The Valley of Weeping and 
Place of Springs/' and " Gleanings 
from a Tonr in Palestine and the East/' 
1886 ; " A Winter on the Nile/'_ 1888 ; 
" Eeminiscences of a Boyhood in the 
Early Part of the Century, a New Story 
by an Old Hand," 1889. Dr. Bell is one 
of the promoters of the Dean Close 
Memorial School, Cheltenham, Chairman 
of Committee, and a Trustee ; Ex-Officio 
Chairman of the Committee of the 
Cheltenham Training College for Male 
and Female Students. During his In- 
cumbency he has restored the fine old 
Parish Church of Cheltenham, and has 
built in the parish a large new church 
(St. Matthew's). 

BELL, The Eev. George Charles, M.A., 

fifth in the succession as Master of 
Marlborough College, is the eldest son of 
George Bell, Esq., Merchant of London, 
and was born July 9, 1832 at Streatham. 
He was educated, 1842-51, at Christ's 
Hospital (the Bluecoat School), in London, 
where he carried off every prize and 
distinction that a boy could take. As a 
Grecian, he gained a scholarship at 
Lincoln College, Oxford, 1851, and went 
up to the University in 1851, having, in 
addition, the first scholarship of tho 
school. In his second year he migrated 
to Worcester College, where he had again 
won a valuable scholarship, 1852. As 
an undergraduate, he acquired a fami- 
liarity with the language and literature 
of several European nations, and in 
addition made himself a musician of 
no small repute. In the last term of 
1854 he took a First Class in the Final 
Mathematical School, and, in the follow- 
ing spring, a First in the Final Classical 
School. In 1857 Mr. Bell gained the 
Senior University Mathematical Scholar- 
ship, and was elected Fellow and Mathe- 
matical Lecturer of his College. He 
received Deacon's Orders in 1859, and six 
years later, was appointed Under Master 
of Dulwieh College. In 1868 Mr. Bell 
received his nomination as Head Master 
of his own old school, Christ's Hospital. 
In the following year he was ordained 
priest. Mr. Bell remained at Christ's 
Hospital for eight years, and in 1876, on 
the resignation of Archdeacon Farrar, he 
accepted the Mastership of Marlborough. 
While in London, Mr. Bell took an 
active part in supporting Mrs. William 
Grey's scheme for the education of girls : 
in recognition of this, he was appointed 
a Vice-President of the Girl's Public Day 
School Company. He has been an active 
member of the Head Masters' Conference 
sincp it§ foundation J and was Chftirniaa 

of its Committee for three periods of 
three years each. He has also, for many 
years, been a member of the Council of 
the College of Preceptors. The following 
is a list of the various stages in Mr. Bell's 
remarkable career : — Scholar of Lincoln 
College, Oxford, 1851 ; Scholar of Wor- 
cester College, Oxford, 1852 ; First Class 
Mathematical Moderations, 1852 ; First 
Class Classics (Final Schools), 1854; First 
Class Mathematics (Do.), 1855, B.A., 
1855; Senior Mathematical Scholar, 1857 ; 
Fellow of Worcester, 1857, and M.A. ; 
Mathematical Lecturer of Worcester 
College, 1857-65 ; Mathematical Moderator, 
1859-60; ordained Deacon, 1859, Priest, 
1869, by Samuel Wilberforce, Bishop of 
Oxford ; Mathemathical Examiner, 1863 ; 
Select Preacher, 1867 and 1885 ; Second 
Master of Dulwieh College, 1865-68 ; Head 
Master of Christ's Hospital, 1868-76; 
Master of Marlboroiigh College, 1876 ; 
Prebendary of Sarum, 1886 ; has pub- 
lished nothing but two sermons, " The 
Increase of Faith," preached in Salisbury 
Cathedral, 1887 ; "Confidence in Christ," 
preached in Westminster Abbey, 1888. 
He married in 1870, Elizabeth, second 
daughter of Edward Milner, Esq., of 
Dulwieh Wood. 

BELL, Sir Isaac Lowthian, Bart., F.E..S., 
D.C.L.,was born in 1816. After completing 
his studies of physical science at E dinbvirgh 
University, and the Sorbonne at Paris, he 
entered the chemical and iron works at 
Walker. In 1850 he became connected 
with the chemical works at Washington, 
in the county of Durham, then in the 
hands of his father-in-law, the late H. L. 
Pattinson, F.E.S. Under his direction 
they were greatly enlarged, and an exten- 
sive establishment was constructed for the 
manufacture of oxy chloride of lead, a pig- 
ment discovered by Mr. Pattinson. In 
1873 he ceased to be a partner in these 
works, which are now carried on by a 
grandson of Mr. Pattinson's. Mr. Bell, 
in connection with his brothers, Messrs. 
Thomas and John Bell, founded, in 1852, 
the Clarence Works on the Tees, one of 
the earliest, and now one of the largest 
iron-smelting concerns on that river, 
which these gentlemen cari-y on in con^ 
nection with extensive collieries and iron-, 
stone mines. Recently, arrangements 
have been made for obtaining salt from a 
bed of the mineral , found at a depth of 1 ,200, 
feet at Port Clarence. Mr. Bell has been 
a freqiient contributor to various learned 
societies on subjects connected with 
the metallurgy of iron, and has recently 
completed a very elaborate experimental 
research on the chemical phenomena of 
the blast-furnace. He has filled the pogtg. 



of President to the Iron and Steel Insti- 
tute, to the Institution of Mechanical 
Engineers, to the Mining and Mechanical 
Engineers of the North of England, and 
now is President of the Society of Chemi- 
cal Industry. In recognition of his 
services as Juror of the International 
Exhibitions at Philadelphia in 1876, and 
at Paris in 1878 and 1889, he was elected 
an honorary member of the American 
Philosophical Institixtion, and an OfBcer 
of the Legion of Honour. He has filled 
the office of Sheriff, and was twice elected 
Mayor of Newcastle-on-Tyne, the last 
time in order to receive the members of 
the British Association at their meeting 
in the year 18G3. He was elected M.P. 
for Hartlepool in July, 1875, biit ceased 
to represent that boroiigh in 1880. Sir 
Lowthian Bell is the author of several 
important writings on the iron and steel 

BELL, James, C.B., D.Sc, Ph.D.,F.R.S., 
born in 1825, is a native of the county 
Armagh ; was educated principally by 
private tuition, and at University College, 
London, where he distinguished himself 
in chemistry and mathematics. He 
became Deputy-Principal of the Somerset 
House Laboratory. Inland Revenue Depart- 
ment, in 1867, and Principal in 1875. In 
connection with his official position, he 
was made, in 1868, Chemical Examiner of 
lime and lemon juice for the supply of the 
British merchant navy, and from 1869 he 
has acted as consulting chemist to the 
Indian Government, and several of the 
principal public departments. On the 
passing of the Sale of Food and Drugs 
Act in 1875, he became Chemical Referee 
under that act for the United Kingdom. 
He was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society in 1884, and the degree of Doctor 
of Science was conferred upon him in 
1886 by the Senate of the Royal Univer- 
sity, Dublin. He obtained the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy under the ordinary 
statutes of the University of Erlangen ; 
and was President of the Institute of 
Chemistry of Great Britain and Ireland 
in 1888, and created a Companion of the 
Bath in 1889. As regards his scientific 
work. Dr. Bell is, perhaps, best known 
from his valuable series of chemical re- 
searches into the composition of articles 
of food, and the variations that occur in 
their constituents. The results of these 
original researches with improved methods 
of analysis, were elaborated and embodied 
by him in a work entitled " The Chemistry 
of Foods," and published in three parts, 
1881-3. This work has since been trans- 
lated into German,and published in Berlin, 
^.niong l^is Qther sQieqtific work iqay Ije 

mentioned his study of the grape and 
malt ferments, published in the Journal 
of the Chemical Society, 1870, and also his 
laborious and interesting research on 
tobacco, the results of which were pub- 
lished in 1887, in the form of a pamphlet 
entitled "The Chemistry of Tobacco." 
In addition to his scientific labours. Dr. 
Bell has compiled two departmental 
books, partly educational and partly legal 
and technical. 

BELL, John, scixlptor, born in Norfolk, 
in 1811, exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
in 1832, a religious group, followed by 
" Psyche feeding a Swan," and other 
poetic works. In 1837 he exhibited the 
model of his " Eagle-slayer," a compo- 
sition which was exhibited in Westmin- 
ster Hall in 1844, and again at the Inter- 
national Exhibition in 1851. Reduced 
casts in bronze were subseqiiently exe- 
cuted for the Art Union. Mr. Bell took 
an active part in the original movement 
which culminated in the Great Exhibition 
of 1851, and gave rise to the South Ken- 
sington Museum and the Schools con- 
nected with it. In 1841 he exhibited 
his well-known and beautifvil figure of 
" Dorothea." The first statue which Mr. 
Bell was commissioned to execute for the 
new Houses of Parliament was that of 
"Lord Falkland." Among his other 
works, which are almost wholly of the 
poetic class, may be mentioned "The 
Babes in the Wood," in marble, now in 
the South Kensington Museum, an 
" Andromeda," a bronze, purchased by the 
Queen, and " Sir Robert Walpole," in 
St. Stephen's Hall; also "Miranda," 
" Imogen," "The Last Kiss," "The Dove's 
Refuge," "Herod Stricken on his Throne," 
" Lalage," " The Cross of Prayer," " The 
Octoroon," " Una and the Lion," " Crom- 
well," at the South Kensington Museum, 
" James Montgomery," the poet, at 
Sheffield, and various busts and statuettes. 
He executed the Wellington monument 
at Guildhall, with colossal figures of 
Peace and War ; and the marble statue 
of armed science at Woolwich. Among 
his public works are the " Guards Me- 
morial " in Waterloo Place, Pall Mall, 
and the Crimean Artillery Memorial on 
the Parade at Woolwich. In 1859 he 
received the medal of the Society of Arts 
for the origination of the principle of 
Entasis and definite proportions applied 
to the obelisk ; and he was one of the 
sculptors employed in the completion of 
the Prince Consort Memorial in Hyde 
Park, his portion being the colossal 
marble group of the United States direct-, 
ing the progress of America, a large copy 

of which, in terr^-cQtt?', i§ non at 

14: ■ 


Washington. He has for some years 
retired from the active practice of his art, 
but still continues executing small 
statues of a poetic class, and has been 
lately employed on the restoration of the 
lost Venus of Cnidus and the mutilated 
statiie of the Veni\s of Melos. He has 
lately presented some of the original 
models of his larger statues to the Town 
Hall of Kensington. 

BELLAMY, Edward, an American writer, 
was born at ChicoiJee Falls in Massa- 
chusetts, in 1850. He was educated at 
Union College and in Germany ; studied 
law and was admitted to the Bar, but 
never practised his profession, as he pre- 
ferred a literary life. During 1871-7'2 he 
was on the staff of the New York Evening 
Post, and for the five years following was an 
editorial writer and critic for the Spring- 
field Union. His health failing him, he 
made a voyage in 1876-77 to the Sandwich 
Islands, and on his return founded, with 
others, the Springfield News. After two 
years more of journalism, he abandoned 
it in order to devote himself entirely to 
original writing. He has contribtited 
many short stories to the magazines, and 
in addition, has published, " Six to One : 
a Nantucket idyl," 1878 ; " Dr. Heiden- 
hoff's Process," 1880 ; and " Miss Liiding- 
ton's Sister," 188i. His greatest success, 
however, has been in his socialistic novel, 
"Looking Backward," issued in 1888, and 
of which more than 300,000 copies were 
sold in America within two years of its 
first appearance. Mr. Bellamy still 
resides at Chicopee Falls, and interests 
himself in advancing the ideas of nation- 
alism advocated in his book. 

BELMOEE (Earl), The Eight Hon. Somer- 
set Richard Lowry-Corry, P.C., K.C.M.G., 
Fourth Earl of, son of the third Earl, 
whom he succeeded in 1845, was born in 
London in 1835, and educated at Cam- 
bridge. He was elected a representative 
peer for Ireland in 1857 ; was Under- 
Secretary of State for the Home Depart- 
ment in Lord Derby's third administra- 
tion, from July, 1866, to July, 1867 ; and 
was Governor of New South Wales from 
Jan., 1868, to Feb., 1872. He is a Privy 
Councillor in Ireland, 1867, and a Knight 
Grand Cross of St. Michael and St. 
George, 1890. 

BELOT, Aldophe, was born at Pointe-a- 
Pitre, in the island of Guadaloupe, Nov. 
6, 1829, and while yet very young 
travelled extensively in the United 
States, Brazil, and other parts of North 
and South America, and also India and 
Cochin China,, He studied law in Paris, 

and became an advocate at the Bar of 
Nancy in 1854. His first attempt in 
literature was "Chatiment," Paris, 1855, 
a novel, which failed to attract attention. 
Two years later he brought out " A la 
Campagne," a one-act comedy, which gave 
no indication of the immense and lasting 
success of his second dramatic composition, 
"Le Testament de Cesar Girodot," a 
comedy in three acts, written in conjunc- 
tion with M. Charles Edmond Villetard, 
first performed at the Odeon Theatre, 
Paris, Sept. 30, 1859, and subsequently at 
the Comedie Francjaise ; altogether it has 
been performed nearly 1,000 times. M. 
Belot has written a large number of other 
dramatic pieces : " L'article 47," " Miss 
Multon,"" Le Pave de Paris," &c. He is 
also the author of numerous novels, some 
of which have passed through as many as 
100 editions. The most celebrated of 
these is " Mademoiselle Giraud, ma 
femnie," 1870. His later works are, " He- 
lene et Mathilde," " La Femme de Feu," 
" La Femme de Glace," " Deux Femmes," 
" Folies de Jeunesse," "La Sultane Paris- 
ienne," and an elaborate romance in four 
volumes, 1875-6, entitled respectively, — 
" Les Mysteres Mondains," " Les Bai- 
gneuses de Trouville," " Madame Vitel et 
Mademoiselle Lelievre," and " Une 
Maison centrale de Femmes." M Belot 
was nominated a Chevalier of the Legion 
of Honour in 1867, Officier d'Acadc'mie and 
Chevalier de I'Ordre d'lsabelle la 

LL.D., was born at Malines, Dec. 16, 1809, 
and became Professor at the Faculty of 
Sciences at Louvain in 1836. He has 
devoted a long life to researches in 
many branches of anatomy, zoology, phy- 
siology, ichthyology (fossil and recent), 
and ethnology. Besides his larger works 
Professor Van Beneden has published 
nearly 300 memoirs in the transactions 
of various scientific societies. Professor 
Van Beneden is M.D. and D.Sc, LL.D., 
Edinburgh, member of the Academy of 
Science of Belgium, Foreign Member of 
the Eoyal Society of London, Member of 
the Institute of France, of the Academies 
of Berlin, Boston, Lisbon, Montpellier, 
Munich, and of numerous scientific 
societies, and Knight Commander, or 
Grand Officer of orders of Belgium, 
Brazil, Italy, and other countries. 

BENEDETTI, Vincent, a French diplo- 
matist, of Italian extraction, born in 
Corsica, about 1815, was educated for 
the consular and diplomatic service. 
After having been appointed consul at 
Palermo in 1848, he became First Secre- 


tary to the Embassy at Constantinople, 
until May, 1859, when he was appointed 
to succeed M. Bouree as Envoy Extiva- 
ordinary and Minister at Teheran. M. 
Benedetti, who declined to accept the 
office, was some months afterwards 
named Director of Political Affairs to 
the Foreign Minister, — a position asso- 
ciated with the successful career of MM. 
de Kayneval and d'Hauterive, and with 
the names of Desages, Armand, Lefebre, 
and Thouvenel. It fell to the lot of 
M. Benedetti to act as secretary and 
editor of the protocols in the Congress 
of Paris in 185G, and he was made 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 
June, 1815, Officer in 1853, Commander 
in 1850, Grand Officer in June, 1860, and 
Grand Cross in 1800. Having been 
appointed Minister Plenipotentiary of 
France at Turin in 1861, on the recogni- 
tion of the Italian Kingdom by the 
French Government, he resigned when 
M. Thouvenel retired from the Ministry 
of Foreign Affairs, and was appointed 
Ambassador at Berlin, Nov. 27, 18G1-. 
M. Benedetti obtained great notoriety 
in connection with the remarkable draft 
of a secret treaty between France and 
Prussia, which was published in the 
Times on the 25th of July, 1870, at the 
very beginning of the war between those 
two powers. The document stated that 
the Emperor Napoleon III. would allow 
and recognise the Prussian acquisitions 
consequent ixpon the war against Austria ; 
that the King of Prussia would promise 
to assist France in acquiring Luxemburg ; 
that the Emperor would not oppose a 
Federal re-union of North and South 
Germany ; that if the Emperor should 
occupy or conquer Belgium, the King 
should afford armed assistance to France 
against any other Power that might 
declare war against her in such case ; 
and that the two Powers should conclude 
an offensive and defensive alliance. The 
publication of this extraordinary docvi- 
ment caxTsed great consternation and 
excitement throughout Eiu-ope. Its 
authenticity was not denied, but France 
declared that although M. Benedetti 
had written the document, he had done 
so at the dictation of Count Bismarck ; 
whereas the latter statesman declared that 
through one channel or another France had 
incessantly demanded some compensation 
for not interfering with Prussia in her 
projects. Both statesmen agreed in 
saying that their respective sovereigns 
declined to sanction the treaty. On the 
outbreak of the war, M. Benedetti was 
of course recalled from Berlin ; and since 
the fall of the Empire he has disappeared 
from public aotice, In Oct., 1871, how- 

ever, he published a pamphlet, in which 
he threw upon Count Bismarck the 
whole responsibility of the draft treaty, 
but the German Chancellor utterly 
crushed his opponent by a weighty reply. 
In 1872 he was elected a member of 
the Conseil General of Corsica, and since 
then he has been an advocate at the Bar 
of Ajaccio. 

BENHAM, The Eev. William, B.D., was 
born at West Meon, Hants, Jan. 15, 
1831, liis father being the village post- 
master, as his gi'andfather had been 
before him. He was educated at the 
village National school, and was favour- 
ably noticed by the rector. Arch- 
deacon Bayley, who, being blind, took 
him to his house as his little secre- 
tary. He taught the youth Latin and 
Greek, and after his death in 1844, Mr. 
Benham was sent to St. Mark's College, 
Chelsea, to be trained for a schoolmaster. 
After working in that capacity for a few 
years. Archdeacon Bayley's family fur- 
nished him with the means of going 
through the Theological Depai'tment of 
King's College, London. He went out 
with a first-class, and was ordained by 
the late Archbishop of Canterbury, then 
Bishop of London, as Divinity Teacher 
to his old college at Chelsea. He re- 
mained there from 1857 to 1864, when 
he became Editorial Secretary to the 
Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge, and curate of St. Lawrence Jewry, 
under the present Dean of Exeter. In 
1867 he was favourably noticed as a 
preacher by some members of Arch- 
bishop Longley's family, unknown to 
himself, and this led to the Archbishop 
offering him the vicarage of his own 
parish of Addington. He acted as the 
Primate's private secretary dixring the 
first Lambeth Conference, and passed 
the Resolutions through the press, and 
also his last Charge. Archbishop Tait 
also made him one of the Six Preachers 
of Canterbury in 1872, and gave him 
the vicarage of Margate in the same 
year. His chief work there was the 
carrying out the restoration of the parish 
church. In 1880 he was appointed to 
the vicarage of Marden, and in 1882 to 
the rectory of St. Edmund the King, 
Lombard Street, in the City of London. 
In 1889 the present Archbishop conf ei-red 
on him an honorary Canonry in Can- 
terbury Cathedral. Mr. Benham has 
published " The Gospel of St. Matthew, 
with notes and a commentary," 1862 ; 
" English Ballads, with introduction and 
notes," 1863 ; " The Epistles for the 
Christian Year, with notes and com- 
mentary," 1864 ; ♦' The Chiu-ch of the 



Patriarchs/' 1867; the "Globe" edition 
of Cowper's works, 1870 ; Commentary 
on the Acts in the " Commentary of the 
Society for Promotinpr Christian Know- 
ledge," 1871 ; " A Companion to the 
Lectionary," 1872 ; a new translation of 
Thomas a Kempis's " Imitatio Christi," 
1874 ; " Memoirs of Catherine and Crau- 
furd Tait," 1879; "Readings on the Life 
of our Lord and his Apostles," 1880 -, 
" How to Teach the Old Testament," 
1881 ; " Short History of the American 
Church," 1884; editor of "Cowper's 
Letters," 1885; "Diocesan History of 
Winchester," 1885 ; " Sermons for the 
Church's Year," 2 vols., 1885 ; and a 
" Dictionary of Religion." He is editor 
of Griffith and Farran's " Library of 
Ancient and Modern Theology." He 
has also contributed articles to " The 
Bible Educator," MacniiUan's Magazine, 
and other periodicals. 

BENNETT, Sir James Risdon, M.D., 
F.R.S., LL.D., Ex-President of the Royal 
College of Physicians, eldest son of the 
Rev. James Bennett, D.D., by Sarah, 
daughter of Mr. John Comley, of Romsey, 
Hampshire, was born at Romsey, in 1809. 
He was educated by private tuition and 
received his professional education in 
Paris and Edinburgh, at which latter 
university he took his degree of M.D. in 
1833. After travelling for two years on 
the Continent, he settled in London, and 
lectured at the Charing Cross Hospital and 
Grainger's School in the Borough. He 
was elected, in 1843, Assistant-Physician 
to St. Thomas's Hospital, and on be- 
coming full Physician, lectured there for 
many years on the "Practice of Medicine." 
He was one of the Founders and Secre- 
tary of the first Sydenham Society for 
the Publication of Medical Works. After 
filling the offices of Censor, Lumleian 
and Croonian Lecturer, and Representa- 
tive of the College of Physicians in the 
General Medical Council, he was elected 
President of the College in 1876, and 
annually re-elected up to 1881. In the 
same year he had been elected Fellow of 
the Royal Society. Sir Risdon Bennett 
is Consulting Physician to the Victoria 
Park Hospital for Diseases of the Chest, 
Hon. Physician and Governor of St. 
Thomas's Hospital, and Fellow of various 
medical and scientific societies. He has 
published a translation from the German 
of Kramer on " Diseases of the Ear ; " 
" An Essay on Acute Hydrocephalus," 
which gained the Fothergillian Gold 
Medal ; " Lumleian Lectures on Can- 
cerous and other Intra-Thoracic Growths." 
He has also contributed numerous papers 
to the Tr»n?actions of tk^ fatjiological 

Society and various medical journals. 
Sir Risdon Bennett was one of the 
Commissioners of the Paris Universal 
Exhibition for 1878. In that year he 
received from the University of Edin- 
burgh the honorary degree of LL.D. 
In 1881 he received from Her Majesty 
the honour of knighthood, and was 
elected Chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the International Medical Con- 
gress. Sir Risdon has been Member of 
the Council, and Vice-President of the 
Royal Society. He married, in 1841, Miss 
Ellen Selfe Page, daughter of the Rev. 
Henry Page, M. A., of Rose Hill,Woi"cester. 

BENNETT, William Cox, LL.D., is the 
son of Mr. John Bennett, watchmaker, 
of Greenwich, where he was born October 
14, 1820. Whilst still a youth, he 
took an active part in the formation 
of a literary institiition on the most 
popular basis, in connection with which 
he formed a library consisting of above 
12,000 volumes. Perhaps best known as 
a song-writer. Dr. Bennett has since 
published " Poems," 1850 ; " Verdicts," 
1852 ; " War Songs," 1855 ; " Queen 
Eleanor's Vengeance, and other Poems," 
1857 ; " Songs, by a Song-Writer," 1859 ; 
" Baby May, and other Poems on 
Infants," 1861 ; " The Worn Wedding 
Ring," &c., 1861 ; " The Politics of the 
People," Part I. and II. 1865; "Our 
Glory Roll, National Poems," 1866 ; 
" Contributions to a Ballad History of 
England," 1868 ; " Songs for Sailors," 
1872 ; republished with music by J. L. 
Hatton, 1878 ; " Prometheus, the Fire- 
giver," an attempted restoration of the 
lost First Part of the " Promethean Trilogy 
of iEschylus," 1877 ; " Sea Songs," 1878 ; 
" Songs for Soldiers," 1879. He edited 
a monthly periodical, " The Lark, — Songs, 
Ballads, and Recitations for the People," 
from Aug., 1883, to Sept., 1884. Dr. 
Bennett has been a frequent contributor 
to periodicals. A collected edition of his 
poems appeared in 1862, in " Routledge's 
British Poets." Dr. Bennett is also a 
political writer, and was attached to the 
staff of the Weekly Dispatch, during the 
years 1869-70. The University of Tusculum 
conferred on him the degree of LL.D. in 

BENNI6SEN, Budelph von, born at 
Liineberg, Hanover, July 10, 1824, 
studied jurisprudence at Gottingen 
and Heidelberg, and qualified as an 
advocate, but entered the judiciary and 
rose to the functions of a judge at 
Gottingen. In 1855 the city of Aurich 
elected him to the Second Chamber of 
the Ha-novef t^egiglatiirSj but the Kin^ 



refused him the indispensable consent of 
the Crown to accept that legislative 
office. Thereupon he resigned his judge- 
ship, took his seat in the Parliament 
(1856), and at once assumed a position 
as leader of the Opposition. In 1859 
Bennigsen and Miguel, with a few others, 
drew up and issued a programme or 
scheme of German unity. In this 
document it was declared that only 
Prussia could be at the head of a united 
Germany, and in fact Bennigsen advocated 
at this period that which Prince Bismarck 
long afterwards accomplished. The 
National-Verein held its first sitting 
Sept. 10, 1859, at the invitation of 
Bennigsen, and he himself was chosen 
President. The Frankfort Assembly 
formed the permanent organisation of 
the National-Verein, and fixed its seat in 
the city of Cobui-g. At the time of its 
dissolution in 1866, it numbered 30,000 
members, of whom 10,000 were from 
Prussia. In that year the organisation 
of the North German Confederation 
making inevitable the speedy realisation of 
the Empire, the Union had no further 
raison d'itre, and it was accordingly 
dissolved. Bennigsen, who by the annex- 
ation of Hanover was made a Prussian, 
became a member both of the Prussian 
Lower Chamber and of the North German 
Eeichstag. During the war of 1870 he was 
in confidential relations with the Prussian 
authorities, and undertook two important 
missions — one to the South German 
States, where he discussed the conditions 
of a possible unity ; the other, to the 
camp of Versailles in the winter of 1871, 
where the same negotiations were after- 
wards carried out to a practical result. 
In 1873 he was elected President of the 
Prussian House of Deputies. At the 
elections of 1877 the Socialist party 
opposed his candidature, but without 

BENSLT, Professor Robert Lubbock, 
was born August 24, 1831, at Eaton, near 
Norwich, and was educated at King's Col- 
lege, London, and at Gonville and Caius 
College, Cambridge ; B.A. 18S5 ; M.A. 
1859 ; also at the University of Halle, 
1857-59. He has been Lecturer in 
Hebrew at Gonville and Caius College, 
1861-90 ; was elected Fellow 1876 ; and 
Lord Almoner's Professor of Arabic in 
the University of Cambridge 1S87. He 
was a Member of the Company for the 
revision of the authorized version of 
the Old Testament, 1870-86. Professor 
Bensly has served as Examiner to the 
University of London in the text of the 
Old and New Testaments ; and has been 
twice sent as a Delegate by tlie University 

of Cambridge to the International 
Congress of Orientalists, in 1881 and 1889. 
He has published " The Missing Frag- 
ments of the Latin Version of the 4th 
Book of Ezra," 1875 ; " The Harklean 
Version of the Epistle to the Hebrews *' 
(the unpublished portion), 1890. 

BENSON. Ihe Most Rev. Edward White, 
D.D., Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate 
of all England, and Metropolitan, son of 
Edward White Benson, Esq., of Birming' 
ham Heath, and formerly of York, was 
born near Birmingham in 1829. He was 
educated at King Edward's School, 
Birmingham, and at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, of which he was successively 
Scholar and Fellow, and where he gradu- 
ated B.A. in 1852, as a First Class in 
classical honours, and Senior Chancellor's 
Medallist, obtaining also the place of a 
Senior Optime in the Mathematical Tripos. 
He graduated M.A. in 1855, B.D. in 1862, 
and D.D. in 1867, Hon. D.C.L. (Oxford), 
1884. He was for some years one of the 
masters in Eugby School, and he held 
the head mastership of Wellington 
College fi-om its first opening in 1858 
down to 1872. For several years he was 
Examining Chaplain to the late Bishop 
of Lincoln, by whom he was appointed 
Chancellor and Canon Residentiary of 
Lincoln, having been a Prebendary of the 
same cathedral for three years previous. 
He was Select Preacher to the University 
of Cambridge (1864, 1871, 1875, 1876, 1879, 
and 1882), and to the University of Oxford 
(1875-76), Hon. Chaplain to the Queen, 
1873, and Chaplain in Ordinary, 1875-77. 
In Dec, 1876, he was nominated by the 
Crown, on the recommendation of the 
Earl of Beaconsfield, to the newly 
restored Bishopric of Truro, and was 
consecrated in St. Paul's Cathedral, 
April 25, 1877. The diocese, which was 
taken out of the diocese of Exeter, con- 
sists of the county of Cornwall, the Isles 
of Scilly, and five parishes of Devonshire, 
constituting the old Archdeaconry of 
Cornwall, with the church of St. Mary, 
Truro, as a Cathedral. During his 
occupation of the See he began the build- 
ing of a new Cathedral at Truro (with 
Mr. J. L. Pearson as architect), of which 
the outward shell has cost over d£lCO,000, 
much of that sum having been gathered 
through the energy of the Bishop. In 
Dec, 1882, Dr. Benson was appointed by 
the Crown, on Mr. Gladstone's recom- 
mendation, to the Archbishopric of 
Canterbury, in succession to Dr. Tait. 
Dr. Benson has published " 2aAirjo-t(. A 
memorial Seimon preached after the 
death of Dr. Lee, first Bishop of 
Manchester/' 1870 ; " Work, Friendship, 



Worship/' being three sermons preached 
before the University of Cambridge in 
1871 ; " Boy-Life, its trial, its strength, 
its fulness, Sundays in Wellington College, 
1859-72," Lond., 8vo, 1874; "Single- 
heart," 1877 ; " The Cathedral, its neces- 
sary place in the Life and Work of the 
Church," 1879; "The Seven Gifts," 
1885 ; and " Christ and His Times," 1889. 
Dr. Benson married, in 1859, Mary, 
daughter of the late Rev. William Sidg- 
wick, of Skipton, Yorlcshire. 

BENTINCK, The Right Hon. George 
Augustus Frederick Cavendish, P.C., son 
of the late Major-Greneral Lord Frederick 
Bentinck, K.C.B., was born in 1821, and 
educated at Westminster School, and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge. Mr. Bentinck 
unsuccessfully contested Taunton in 
April, 1859 ; but he was elected in the 
following August, and continued to 
represent that borough till July, 1865, 
when he was returned for Whitehaven, 
which he has represented up to the 
present time. He was appointed Parlia- 
mentary Secretary to the Board of Trade 
in Feb., 1874. In Nov., 1875, he was 
appointed Judge-Advocate-Gi-eneral, and 
sworn of the Privy Council. He went 
out of office with his party in April, 1880. 

BENTLEY, Professor Robert, F.L.S., 
botanist, who has more particularly 
directed his attention to the applications 
of botany to Medicine, was born at 
Hitchin, Herts, on March 25, 1821, and 
became a member of the Eoyal College of 
Surgeons in 1847. He is a Fellow of 
King's College, London, and Medical 
Associate, and Emeritus Professor of 
Botany there ; Honorary Member of, and 
Emeritus Professor of Materia Medica and 
Botany to, the Pharmaceutical Society of 
Great Britain ; Honorary member of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, 
and of PhiladeliDhia College of Pharmacy ; 
and Member of the Council, and Vice- 
President of the Royal Botanic Society of 
London, &c. Professor Bentley was for 
many years Professor of Botany in the 
London Institution ; and was formerly 
Examiner in Botany to the Royal College 
of Veterinary Surgeons of England ; 
Lecturer on Botany at the Medical 
Colleges of the London, Middlesex, and 
St. Mary's Hopsitals ; and for twenty 
years Dean of the Medical Faculty in 
King's College, London. Professor 
Bentley was President of the British 
Pharmaceutical Conferences in 1866 and 
1867. He has contributed numerous 
articles to the Pharmaceutical Journal, of 
which for ten years he was one of the 
editors. He has written a -" Manual of 

Botany," which has reached the fiftli 
edition ; has jointly edited two edition^ 
of Pereira's Materia Medica and Thera- 
peutics ; is the author of an elementary 
work on Botany, in the series of Manvials 
of Elementary Science, published by the 
Society for Promoting Christain Know- 
ledge ; also " Student's Guide to 
Structural, Morphological, and Physi- 
ological Botany " ; " Student's Guide to 
Systematic Botany"; "Text Book of 
the Organic Materia Medica " ; has edited, 
with Professors Redwood and Attfield, 
the " British Pharmacopoeia, 1885 " ; and 
is joint author, with Dr. Trimen, of an 
illustrated work on Medicinal Plants, in 
four volumes. Professor Bentley has 
published also a Series of Papers " On 
New American Remedies," a Lecture 
" On the Characters, Properties, and 
TJses of Eucalyptus globulus," "Lectures 
on the Organic Materia Medica of the 
British Pharmacopoeia," and numerous 
other Lectures and Papers on Botany 
and Meteria Medica in the Pharmaceutical 
Journal and elsewhere. 

BERESFORD, Lord Charles William de 
la Poer, second son of the Rev. John 
Beresford, fourth Marquis of Waterford, 
by Christiana Julia, fourth daughter of 
the late Colonel Charles Powell Leslie, 
of Glaslough, CO. Monaghan, was born 
Feb. 10, 1846, at Philiptown, co. Dublin. 
He entered the Royal Navy in 1859, was 
appointed a lieutenant in 1868, and 
advanced to the rank of commander in 
1875. He served successively in the 
" Marlborough," the " Defence," the 
"Clio," the "Tribune," the " Sutlej," 
the "Research," the Royal yacht 
" Victoria and Albert," the " Galatea," 
the " Goshawk," and " Bellerophon." 
In 1872 he was appointed Flag Lieu- 
tenant to the Commander-in-Chief at 
Devonport ; and he accompanied the 
Prince of Wales as naval aide-de-camp to 
India in 1875-76. In 1877 he joined the 
" Thunderer," and was commander of the 
Royal yacht "Osborne" from 1878 to 
1881. His lordship received the gold 
medal of the Royal Humane Society, and 
j of the Liverpool Shipwreck and Humane 
Society, for having on three occasions 
jumped overboard and saved lives at sea. 
On one of these occasions, when he 
rescued a marine who had fallen over- 
board at Port Stanley, Falkland Island, 
he was attired in heavy shooting clothes, 
and his pockets were filled with cart- 
ridges. At the time of the bombard- 
ment of the forts of Alexandria, Lord 
Charles Beresford was in command of 
the gunboat " Condor," and in the action 
of July 11, 1882, he greatly distingui^ed 



himself by his gallant conduct. The 
ironcladj " Temeraire," which got ashore 
at the beginning of the engagement, was 
safely assisted ofE by the " Condor." 
Then the formidable Marabout batteries, 
which constituted the second strongest 
defence of the Port of Alexandria, were 
effectually silenced. This latter success 
was chiefly due to the gallant way in 
which the " Condor " bore down on the 
fort and engaged guns immensely 
superior to her own. So vigorous, in- 
deed, was the attack on the big fort, 
that the Admiral's ship signalled " Well 
done, ' Condor.' " It was ascertained 
that the Khedive, who had taken refuge 
with Dervish Pacha at Eamleh, was in 
imminent danger. Arabi Pacha had sent 
a body of troops to guard the palace, and 
ordered them to kill the Khedive, but 
Tewfik and Dervish managed to bribe 
the men, and to communicate with 
Admiral Sir Beauchamp Seymour, who 
dispatched the " Condor " in shore to 
keep the Egyptian troops in check. The 
Khedive then succeeded in getting away, 
and drove to Eas-el-Tin. As the confla- 
gration and looting continued in the city 
of Alexandria, the Americans were asked 
to land marines to assist in keeping order, 
and a regular police system was organised 
under Lord Charles Beresford, while 
Captain Fisher, of the " Inflexible," took 
command of the land forces. Strong 
measures were necessary to subdue the 
looters. Several of the scoundrels 
detected in the very act of setting fire to 
houses were summarily shot in the great 
square, and those caught plundering 
were flogged. Lord Charles Beresford 
was promoted to the rank of captain 
(Aug. 7, 1882) for the services he had 
rendered at the bombardment of Alex- 
andria. In Sept., 1884, he was appointed 
on the staff of Lord Wolseley for the 
Nile Expedition, and assisted in the 
arduous work of getting the boats up to 
Korti. In command of the Naval Bri- 
gade with Sir Herbert Stewart across the 
Desert, he was the only man not killed 
of those in immediate charge of the 
machine-gun at Abu Klea, and was subse- 
quently left in charge of zeraba when the 
troops marched on Gubat. In Feb. 1885, 
with the small river steamer " Safla," he 
rescued Sir Charles Wilson's party (who 
had been wrecked on their return from 
Khartoum), after having had the boiler 
of his steamer repaired while anchored 
for twenty-four hours under fire of the 
enemy's fort, which fire was kept down 
solely by the two machine-guns on board. 
His lordship sat in the House of 
Commons, as member for the coimty of 
. Waterford, in the Conservative interest. 

from Feb. 1874, till April, 1880, when his 
candidature was unsuccessful. In Nov. 

1885, he was returned for the Eastern 
Division of Marylebone by a majority of 
944 over the late sitting member, and 
easily retained the seat at the election of 

1886. He was appointed Junior Lord of 
the Admiralty on the accession of Lord 
Salisbury to power, which post he re- 
signed in 1888 on a question affecting the 
strength of the Navy. In Dec. 1889, he 
was appointed to the command of the 
first class armoured cruiser " Undaunted," 
for service in the Mediterranean. He 
married in 1878 Mina, eldest daughter of 
the late Mr. Richard Gardner, M.P. 

BEKKLEY, George, Civil Engineer, 
was born in London on April 26, 1821, 
and educated at private schools, and 
apprenticed to Samuda Bros, in 1835, 
with whom he worked in the shops and 
on designs of atmospheric systems of 
working railways, steam-engines, &c. 
From 1841 to 1849 he was Assistant to 
Kobert Stephenson, during which period 
he was engaged on experiments with 
Locomotives, alteration of gauge, and 
Rolling Stock of the Eastern Counties 
and North Eastern Railways ; inquiry 
into systems of working atmospheric 
Railways, question of gauge referred to 
Royal Commission in 1846, and other 
work. From 1849 to 1859, he was en- 
gaged on inquiry into the Water supply 
of Liverpool and neighbourhood for 
Robert Stephenson ; Engineer to London 
and Black wall Railway ; North and 
South Western Junction Railway and 
Branch to Hammersmith, Hampstead 
Junction Railway, Stratford and Lough- 
ton Railway, Wimbledon and Croydon, 
East Suffolk system of Railways ; Wells 
and Fakenham and other lines, and from 
1851 — 1859 represented Robert Stephen- 
son as Engineer to the Great Indian 
Peninsula Railway and succeeded to the 
post on the death of Robert Stephenson. 
In 1874 he was appointed one of the Con- 
sulting Engineers to the Colonial Office 
for Railways in Natal, and viaducts and 
other work in the Cape Colony. In 1885, 
he was appointed Consulting Engineer to 
the Indian Midland Railway, and in 1887, 
in conjunction with his son, was appointed 
Engineer to the Argentine North Eastern 
Railway. In 1845, he wrote a paper on 
the atmospheric system of Railways, and 
in 1870 a paper on the strength of Iron 
and Steel, for the Institution of Civil 
Engineers. He is senior Vice-President 
of the Institution of Civil Engineers ; a 
member of the Athenaeum Club, and has 
been for some years on the board of 
Managers of the Royal Institution. 


BEBNABD-BEERE, Mrs., is a daughter 
of Mr. Wilby Whitehead, and widow of 
Capt. E. C. Dering, a son of Sir 
Edward Dering, Bart. She was pre- 
pared for the stage by Mr. Herman 
Vezin, and made her debut at the Opera 
Comique, but soon after, on the occasion 
of her marriage, abandoned the pro- 
fession. On her return to the stage she 
appeared as Julia, in " The Rivals/' at 
the St. James's Theatre, and during her 
engagement there played Lady Sneer- 
well, Grace Harkaway, and Emilia. She 
subsquently took part in "The School for 
Scandal," and " The Rivals." On April 
12, 1882, Mrs. Bernard-Beere represented 
Bathsheba Everdene, in " Far from the 
Madding Crowd," at the Globe. After 
this she proceeded to the Haymarket, 
where, on May 5, 1883, she was " cast for " 
the title part of Mr. Herman Merivale's 
version of " Fedora." Her next charac- 
ters were Mrs. Devenish, in " Lords 
and Commons," and Princess Zicka, in 
" Diplomacy." 

BERNAYS, Albert James, son of 
Adolphus Bernays, Professor of the 
German Language and Literature at 
King's College, London, was born in 
London Nov. 8, 1823, and was educated 
at King's College School and at the 
University of Giessen. He is Dr. of 
Philosophy of Giessen, Fellow of the 
Chemical Society, Fellow of the Institute 
of Chemistry, Lecturer on Agricultural 
Chemistry, in 1845 ; Lecturer on Che- 
mistry and Practical Chemistry at St. 
Mary's Hospital Medical School, 1854-60 ; 
and has been Lecturer on Chemistry, 
Practical Chemistry and Practical Toxi- 
cology at St. Thomas's Hospital since 
1860, and is Public Analist, St. Giles's, 
Camberwell, and St. Saviour's South- 
wark ; late Examiner in Chemistry to 
the Colleges of Surgeons and Phy- 
sicians. He has published " House- 
hold Chemistry," 3 editions; "First 
Lines in Chemistry," " Science of Home 
Life," 1862 ; " Notes for Students in 
Chemistry," sixth edition ; " Notes on 
Analytical Chemistry for Students in 
Medicine," 3rd edition in separate form, 
1889 ; " Food," 1876 ; " Chemistry," and 
various papers on food. Hygiene, 
Cremation, &c. 

BERNHARDT, Rosine (called Sarah). 
jSee Damala, Mme. 

BERRY, Sir Graham, was a shopkeeper 
in Chelsea, who went out to Victoria in 
1852 in the height of the gold-digging 
fever, but instead of turning his atten- 
tion to the gold mines he settled down to 

business at Melbourne. In 1860 he was 
elected to the Victorian Parliament as an 
advanced Liberal, and again in 1864, but 
was defeated in the next election, and 
then, devoting his energies to journalism, 
became proprietor and editor of the 
Geelong Register. He soon, however, 
re-entered Parliament, and in 1870 first 
took office as Treasurer, and five years 
later became Premier for a short time. 
In 1877 Sir G. Berry was returned at the 
head of an overwhelming majority, and 
once more took the Premiership. While 
in office he passed several important 
democratic measures, including a land 
tax on large estates, but failed to carry a 
proposal for a fundamental reform of 
the Legislative Council. Sir G. Berry 
then visited England in order to induce 
the Imperial Parliament to take up the 
matter, but failed, though through his 
efforts the question was eventually 
settled. On his return the general 
election of 1880 placed him in a minority, 
but he was subsequently restored to 
power, and carried some noteworthy 
reform measures. Again thrown out by 
a want of confidence vote. Sir G. Berry 
entered a coalition Ministry, in which he 
was Chief Secretary. Early in 1886, 
Sir G. Berry, with Mr. Service, was 
Victorian delegate to the first Federal 
Council, and shortly afterwards Sir G. 
Berry was appointed Agent-General in 
London for Victoria. The honour of 
knighthood was conferred on Sir Graham 
Bei-ry in recognition of his services to the 
colony. He was Executive Commissioner 
for the Colonial and Indian Exhibition. 

BERTHELOT, P. E. Marcelin, a French 
chemist, the son of a physician, was born 
at Paris, October 25, 1827. From a very 
early age he has devoted himself to 
scientific studies, and made special re- 
searches into the synthesis of fatty bodies 
and alcohol, and into thermo-chemistry. 
The degree of Doctor of Sciences was 
conferred upon him in April, 1854, and in 
1861 the Academy of Sciences awarded 
him the sum of 3,500 francs for his 
researches. In 1859 he was appointed 
Professor of Organic Chemistry at the 
Superior School of Pharmacy, and in 1865 
at the request of the Academy of Sciences 
a new chair of organic chemistry was 
created for him at the College de France. 
He was elected a Member of the Aca- 
demie de Medecine in February, 1863, and 
entered the Academie des Sciences, March 
3, 1873, in the place of Duhaniel. He has 
since been elected Foreign Member of 
the Royal Society of London, and of most 
of the Academies of Europe and the 
United States. On September 2, 1870, 



he was elected President of the Scientific 
Committee of Defence, and during the 
siege of Paris was engaged in the manu- 
facture of guns and ammunition, and 
especially of nitro-glycerine and dyna- 
mite. Since 1878 he has been President 
of the Committe on explosives, to which 
body the new smokeless powder is due. 
On April 6, 1870, he was named 
Inspector-General of Higher Education. 
The labours of M. Berthelot have had for 
their object, principally, the reproduction 
of the substances which enter into the 
composition of organised beings, and his 
labours have opened a new field for science , 
which, up to his time, had limited itself 
almost entirely to analysis. The dyeing 
ti-ade has benefited largely by his dis- 
coveries in extracting dyes from coal-tar. 
He has for forty years contributed ex- 
tensively to the Annates de Chimia et dc 
Physique, of which he is now editor. La 
Synthese des Carbures d'Hydrogcne, &c., 
and has written "Chimie Organiqvie 
fondee sur la Synthese," I860; "Leijons 
sar les Principes Sucres," 1862 ; "Le(;ons 
sur les Methodes Generales de Synthese," 
186 1 ; " Lemons sur I'lsomerie," 1865 ; 
" Traite Elementaire de Chimie Organ- 
ique," " Sur la Force de la Poudre et 
des Matieres Explosives," 1872 and 1889 ; 
" Verification de TAreometre de Baumc," 
1873; "Les Origines de I'Alchimie," 
18S5 ; " Collection des anciens Alchim- 
istes grecs," 1888, besides numerous 
scientific and philosophical articles for 
the Revue des Deux Mondes, the Revue des 
Cours Scientifiques, Le Temps, &c., which 
have been collectively published under 
the title " Science et Philosophie." One of 
these articles, entitled " Science Ideale et 
Science Positive," a letter to M. Eenan, 
in the Revue des Deux Mondes, 1863, is 
vei-y remarkable. M. Berthelot was 
decorated with the Legion of Honour in 
1861, made an ofiicer in 1867, commander 
in 1879, and grand officer in 1886, in 
which year he became, for a short time, 
a m?mber of the French Cabinet. In 
1889 he was elected Secretaire perpetuel 
de I'Academie des Sciences de Paris. 

BE&TRAND, Joseph Louis Francois, a 
French mathematician, born in Paris, 
March 11, 1822, evinced from a very 
early age an extraordinary taste for 
mathematics, and when eleven years of 
age on leaving the College of St. Louis, 
he entered the Ecole Polytechnique. He 
was successively Professor at the Lycee 
Saint-Louis ; Examiner for admissions at 
the Ecole Polytechnique, teacher of 
analysis at the same school. Assistant 
Professor of Mathematical Physics at the 
College of France, and Professor of 

Special Mathematics at the Lycee Napo- 
leon. In 1856 he was admitted to the 
Academie des Sciences, in place of Sturm, 
and on the death of Elie de Beaumont, 
in 187'1, was elected perpetual secretary. 
Besides his three great works, " Traite 
d'Arithmetique," 1849 ; " Traite d'Alge- 
bre," 1856, and "Traito de Calcul Differ- 
entiel Integral," 1864 — 1870, he has 
written a number of memoirs relative to 
physics, pure mathematics and mechanics, 
of which the following are the principal : 
"Sur les Conditions d'Integralite des 
Fonctions differentielles ; " " Sur la 
Tht5orie Generale des Surfaces ; " " Sur la 
Similitude en Mechanique ; " " Sur la 
Theorie des Phenomenes Capillaires ; " 
" Sur la Theorie de la Propagation du 
Son," &c. He was made an officer 
of the Legion of Honour in August, 

BESANT, Walter, was born at Ports- 
mouth, in 1838, and educated at King's 
College, London, and Christ's College, 
Cambridge, where he graduated in high 
mathematical honours. He was intended 
for the church, but abandoned this 
career. He was then appointed Senior 
Professor in the Eoyal College of Mauri- 
tius, but was compelled by ill health to 
resign, and returned to England, where 
he has since resided. In 1868 he pro- 
duced his first work, " Studies in Early 
French Poetry." In 1873 he brought 
out " The French Humourists ; " in 1877, 
" Eabelais," for the " Ancient and Foreign 
Classics : " and, in 1882, "' Readings from 
Rabelais ; " in 1879, " Coligny ; " and in 
1881, " Whittington," for the " New 
Plutarch " series. Mr. Besant acted for 
many years as secretary of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund, in which capacity he 
wrote, in 1871, a " History of Jerusalem," 
with the late Professor Palmer ; and 
was editor of the great work entitled, 
" The Survey of Western Palestine." 
He has contributed to most of the maga- 
zines. In 1871 he entered into the part- 
nership with the late Mr. James Rice, 
which produced the series of novels that 
bear their joint names. Mr. Besant has 
also written, under his own name, " The 
Revolt of Man," " The Captain's Room," 
" All Sorts and Conditions of Men," 1882 ; 
" All in a Garden Fair," 1883 ; " Dorothy 
Forster," 1884 ; " Uncle Jack," 1885 ; 
"Children of Gibeon," 1886; "The 
World Went Very Well Then," 1S87; 
"For Faith and Freedom," 1888; "The 
Bell of St. Paul's," 1889 ; " Armorel of 
Lyonnesse," 1890; and two volumes 
of collected Stories entitled: "To Call 
her Mine," and " The Holy Rose." He 
also, with Mr. Rice, put on the stage two 


plays, one performed at the Eoyal Court, 
a dramatic version of "Ready Money 
Mortiboy ; " and the other, "Such a good 
Man," the play from which their story 
bearing the same title was written. Mr. 
Besant has also written a biography of 
the late Professor Palmer, 1883, and 
"The Eulogy of Eichard Jefferies," 1888. 
On the establishment of the " Incor- 
porated Society of Authors," he was 
elected the First Chairman of the Execu- 
tive Committee, and, in succession to the 
late Sir Frederick Pollock, he has been 
re-elected to the same office. 

BESANT, William Henry, M.A., D.Sc, 
F.R.S., the son of a merchant at Ports- 
mouth, was born at Portsmouth in 1S2S, 
and was educated at the Grammar School, 
and at a Proprietary School at Southsea, 
and proceeded, in 181-6, to St. John's 
College, Cambridse, where he graduated 
B.A. in 1850, as Senior Wrangler, and 
First Smith's Prizeman. He was elected 
to a Fellowship at St. John's College in 
1851, and was appointed Lecturer in 1853. 
The Fellowship ceased in 1859, but he was 
retained as Lecturer,and held that api^oint- 
ment until June, 1889. In 1856 he was 
Moderator, and in 1857 Examiner for the 
Mathematical Prizes, and in 1885 he was 
again Modei-ator. From 1859 to 1864 he 
was one of the Examiners for the Univer- 
sity of London. In 1871 he was elected 
a Fellow of the Eoyal Society. He is 
also a Member of the Eoyal Astronomical 
Society, and of the London Mathematical 
Society. In 1883 he received the degree 
of Doctor of Science, being the first D.Sc. 
created by the University of Cambridge. 
He has been very active as a Private 
Tutor, College Lectvirer, and Examiner 
in Cambridge and elsewhere. In May, 
1889, he was re-elected to a Fellowship at 
St. John's College. Dr. Besant has pub- 
lished treatises on " Hydro-Mechanics," 
"Elementary Hydrostatics," "Geome- 
trical Conic Sections," " Dynamics," 
" Eoiilettes and Glissettes," and has 
written various papers in the Messenger of 
Mathematics, and in the Quarterly Journal 
of Mathematics. 

BESIEGED Resident. 


See Labou- 

BESSEMER, Sir Henry, P.E.S., civil 
engineer and inventor, whose name is 
inseparably connected with the develop- 
ment of the steel industry in England 
and other countries, is the son of the late 
Mr. Anthony Bessemer, and was born in 
Hertfordshire in 1813. From his earliest 
youth he was fond of modelling and 
designing patterns, and, at the age of 

20, he was an exhibitor in the Eoyal 
Academy ; he, however, chose engineer- 
ing as a profession, and, after taking out 
numerous patents for mechanical inven- 
tion, he, in 1856, read before the British 
Association, at Cheltenham, his first 
paper on the manvifacture of malleable 
iron and steel. His discovery of the 
means of rapidly and cheaply converting 
pig iron into steel, by blowing a blast of 
air through the iron when in a state of 
fusion, was the result of costly and 
laborious experiments which extended 
over a jDeriod of several years, and in 
which the ultimate result was attained 
only after many and disheartening 
failures. Prior to this invention, the 
entire production of cast steel in Great 
Britain was only about 50,000 tons 
annually ; and its average price, which 
ranged from ,£50 to .£60 per ton, was 
prohibitory of its use for many of the 
jDuriJOses to which it is now universally 
applied. The manufacture of steel by 
the Bessemer process in Great Britain 
alone, in the year 18S9, amounted to no 
less than 2,140,791 tons, of which 91-3,083 
tons were made into rails, having a mean 
selling price of ,£5 per ton, whereas cast 
steel bars, of a weight equal to a railway 
bar, had never been produced in Sheffield 
at a less cost than .£50 per ton, pi-ior to 
the introduction of Bessemer-steel. The 
quantity of steel produced by this process 
in the seven principal steel making 
countries in the year 1889, amounted to 
8,278,813 tons, effecting a saving of at least 
12 millions of tons of coal in its prodiic- 
tion. The steel made by the Bessemer 
process, while it retains more than the 
toughness of the best iron, is at least 50 
per cent, stronger, and is now rapidly 
superseding the use of iron for the con- 
struction of the hulls of ships, their 
masts, yards, and standing rigging ; 
also for the construction of bridges, 
viaducts, girders, and large span roofs; 
while for steam - boilers, locomotive 
engines, and other railway purjDoses it 
has almost entirely banished the use of 
iron. It is difficult to realize the fact 
that an invention which has revolution- 
ized the whole iron trade of the world in 
the short space of thirty years, was in its 
early infancy so pooh-poohed, cried down, 
and fought against, by the great steel 
trade of Sheffield, as to have been in 
danger of being wholly lost to the world ; 
but Mr. Bessemer, with the courage and 
indomitable energy so characteristic of 
the man, determined, on the refusal of 
the trade to take xvp his invention, 
to become himself a steel manufac- 
turer. With this object he built steel 
works in Sheffield, determined to beard 



the lion in his den, and force, by an 
irresistible competition, the trade to 
adopt and carry out his invention, and 
become Licencees under his Patents ; in 
this he was eminently successful, and 
to-day there is manufactured in England 
by the Bessemer process more than forty- 
five times the quantity of steel that was 
made by the old process prior to his in- 
vention. The first honorary recognition 
of the importance of the Bessemer pro- 
cess in this country was made by the 
Institution of Civil Engineers about 185S, 
when that body awarded Mr. Bessemer 
the Gold Telford Medal, for a paper read 
by him before them on the subject. The 
knowledge of the new process soon spread 
to Sweden, Germany, Axistria, and France, 
and the inventor received from these 
countries several gold medals in recog- 
nition of the merits of his invention. 
The Americans have adopted a very 
special method of showing their appre- 
ciation of Mr. Bessemer's services to 
science. In the midst of one of the 
richest iron and coal districts in the 
world, in Indiana, they have built a new 
city, which, from its geographical position 
and local advantages, is destined even- 
tually to become one of the largest centres 
of trade in America. To this city they 
have given the name of Bessemer. In 
1872, the Albert Gold Medal of the Society 
of Arts was awarded, by the Council, to 
Mr. Bessemer " for the eminent services 
rendered by him to arts, manufactures, 
and commerce, in developing the manu- 
facture of steel." In 1871 he was elected 
President of the Iron and Steel Institute 
of Great Britain, and, diiring his Presi- 
dency, he instituted the " Bessemer Gold 
Medal," which has since been awarded 
annually for the most important improve- 
ment in the iron or steel manufacture 
made during the year. Mr. Bessemer 
was elected a member of the Institution 
of Civil Engineers in 1877. The first 
Howard qiiinquennial prize, being that 
for the year 1877, was awarded by the 
Institution of Civil Engineers to Mr. 
Bessemer as — in terms of the bequest — 
" the inventor of a new and valuable pro- 
cess relating to the uses and property of 
iron." Mr. Bessemer was elected a Fellow 
of the Eoyal Society, June 12, 1879, and 
on the 26th of the same month he was 
knighted by the Queen at Windsor. On 
April 15, 1880, the Company of Turners 
presented the Freedom and livery of their 
company to Sir Henry Bessemer, and on 
Oct. 6 in the same year he was presented 
with the Freedom of the City of London, 
" in recognition of his valuable dis- 
coveries which have so largely benefited 
the iron iodustries of this country, and 

his scientific attainments, which are so 
well known and appreciated throughout 
the world." 

BEST, William Thomas, organist, son of 
a solicitor at Carlisle, was born there 
Aug. 13, 1826. He was educated in his 
native city under a private tutor. It was 
intended that he should adopt the pro- 
fession of a civil engineer, but he chose 
music as a profession before the comple- 
tion of his term in the former pursuit. 
He became Organist of the Panopticon, 
Leicester Square, in 18u3 ; Organist of 
the chapel of Lincoln's Inn ; Organist of 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields ; Organist of 
St. George's Hall, Liverpool, in 1855 (a 
position he still holds) ; and Organist of 
the Eoyal Albert Hall, Kensington, in 
1871. In 1840, English organs were un- 
suitable for the performance of Bach's 
great organ works, the functions of the 
separate or " obligato " pedal not then 
being appreciated. Goss, Turle, and 
other well-kno^NTi men of the same day 
played the organ as a clavier instriuuent, 
with an occasional holding-note on the 
pedals. Mr. Best, however, induced 
organ -builders to re-construct their in- 
struments in accordance with Bach's 
system, in which the bass of organ music 
should be chiefly assigned to the pedals 
and not to the left hand. This i-equires 
a complete and separate organ for the 
feet, the same as the keyboards for the 
hands. Bach's System is now universal 
in England. Mr. Best has published the 
following organ works :— " Modem School 
for the Organ," 1854, a collection of 
original studies ; " Art of Organ-Play- 
ing," 1870 ; Sonatas, Preludes, and 
Fugues ; Concert pieces in all styles, 
1850-86 ; " Arrangements from the scores 
of the Great Masters," 5 vols., 1873 ; 
" The Organ Student," 2 vols., and 
several of Hiindel's works, including 
"Choral Fugues," 1856; "Organ Con- 
certos," 1858-79 ; "Handel Album," 1880; 
and " Opera and Oratorio Songs," 1881. 
He has also composed some pianoforte 
music, an overture for orchestra, and 
triumphal march, as well as many species 
of church music. In 1885 a complete 
English edition of Bach's organ works 
was begun under Mr. Best's editorship. 
In 1880 he received a Civil List pension 
of i£100 per annum. 

BETHAM - EDWARDS, Miss Matilda 
Barbara, was born at Westerfield, Suffolk, 
in 1836, and began to write when quite 
yormg. Her first effort in fiction, a 
st^ry, "The White House by the Sea." 
pibiished when she was nineteen, has 
bicn many times reprinted in popular 

G 2 



oditions, also translated into Norwegian 
and othftr languages ; since that time she 
has devoted heiself entirely to literature, 
contributing to Punch, the Graj.hic, the 
Pall Mall Gazette, Macmillan's Magaziiie, 
and other leading periodicals, and pub- 
lishing numerous novels and novel- 
ettes. Amongst the most poi^nlar are : 
"John and I," "Doctor Jacob,'" "Kitty," 
"The Sylvestres," "Bridget," "Exchange 
no E-obbery," " Disarmed," " Pearla," 
" Love and Mirage," " The Parting 
of the Ways." Many of these stories 
originally appeared in American and 
English serials, and ha,ve been translated 
into French, German, and Norwegian. 
They have also been re-issued in popular 
editions in America, Germany, and at 
home. Amongst Miss Betham-Edwards's 
miscellaneous contribvitions to literature, 
may be mentioned, " A Winter with the 
Swallows in Algeria," and "A Year in 
Western France." In 1S85 she published 
a volume of " Poems," containing, among 
other reprints, " The Golden Bee," which 
attracted the attention of Charles Dickens, 
when the authoress was in her teens. In 
1889 this writer issued a centennial 
edition of Arthin- Young's "Travels in 
France," with notes, biography, and 
general sketch of France, the result of 
personal experience and observations ; 
also, " The Koof of France, or. Travels in 
N. Lozere." 

BETTANY, George T., M.A.,bornat Pen- 
zance, March ;50, 1850, eldest son of the 
late Mr.G.Bettany,was educated privately, 
at Guy's Hospital, London, and at Caius 
College, Cambridge, where he was Tancred 
Student in Medicine, Foundation Scholar 
in Natural Science, and Shuttleworth 
Scholar. He graduated at London Uni- 
versity B.Sc, 1871, with first - class 
honours in Geology ; B.A. Cambridge 
1871 (bracketed third in first-class of 
Natural Sciences Tripos, 1873) ; M.A., 
1877. He lectured for some years on 
Biology at Girton and Newnham Colleges, 
Cambridge ; was lecturer on Botany at 
Guy's Hospital, 1S77-1SS6 ; has edited 
ior Ward, Liock & Co. " Science Primers 
lor the People," the "Popular Library 
of Literary Treasures," and " The Mi- 
nerva Library of Famous Books," the 
latter a very successful monthly series, 
which began in April, 18S9. He is the 
English editor of Lix>ijincott' s Monthly 
Magazine. Mr. Bettany's principal books 
are, "The Morphology of the Skull," 
1877 (conjointly with Prof. W. K. Par- 
ker, F.E.S.) ; "Elementary Physiology," 
188.5 ; " Eminent Doctors, their Lives 
and their Work," 1885 ; "Life of Charles 
Darwin," (Great Writers Series), 1887 ; 

"The World's Inhabitants," an extended 
illustrated work on Ethnology, issued 
serially in 1887-8 ; " The World's Keli- 
gions," a comj^anion work, 1889-90. He 
is a contributor to the Times, Athenmuni, 
" Dictionary of National Biography," &c. 

BETTANY, Jeanie Gwynne, only 
daughter of the late Mr. S. G. Gwynne, 
was born at Audley, Staffordshire, Jan. 
25, 1857, educated by her father and at 
University College, London, and married 
1878 Mr. G. T. Bettany (see above.) . She 
has written a successful novel of life in 
the South Staffordshire "Black Country," 
entitled "The House of Rimmon," 3 
vols., 1885, issued serially in Sylvia's 
Home Journal for 18S9, and in 1 Vol. in the 
same year. This book has been very 
highly praised by many novelists and 
reviewers, as being oi'iginal in style and 
full of acute characterisation and humour. 
Mrs. Gwynne Bettany has also written 
"A Laggard in Love," a 1 vol. novel, in 
LipjAncott's Magazine for Nov. 1890 ; and 
"Aunt Saracen's Two Legacies," a hu- 
morous description of the pranks of two 
boys, and numerous short stories in the 
Argosy, Temple Bar, Belgravia, &c. 

BEVERLEY, Bishop of. See Ckoss- 
THWAiTE, The Et. Eev. Eobekt J. 

BICKERSTETH, The Very Rev. Edward, 
D.D., F.E.G.S., Dean of Lichfield, the 
second son of the late Eev. John Bick- 
ersteth, M.A., nephew of the late Lord 
Langdale, and brother of the late Bishop 
of Eipon, was born in 1811, at Acton, 
Suffolk ; entered Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1832, and graduated B.A. in 
honours, from Sidney Sussex College in 
1836, having previously obtained the 
Taylor's Mathematical Exhibition. He 
afterwards entei-ed as a student in 
theology at Durham University, where 
he gained the first prize for a Theolo- 
gical Essay in 1837 ; was ordained deacon 
at the end of that year, and priest in 
Jan. 1839. He served as curate to Arch- 
deacon Vickers at Chetton, Shropshire, 
in 1838-39, when he was appointed to the 
curacy, with sole charge, of the Abbey, 
Shrewsbury. Having occupied this posi- 
tion for nine years, he was presented by 
the late Earl Howe in 1848 to the incum- 
bency of Penn Street, Buckinghamshire. 
Dr. Bickersteth was appointed Rural 
Dean of Amersham, by tlie Bishop of 
Oxford, the same year ; Vicar of Ayles- 
bury and Archdeacon of Buckingham in 
1853 ; Select Preacher before the Univer- 
sity of Cambridge in 1861, 1864, 1873 and 
1878 ; and Deputy Prolocutor of the 
Convocation of Canterbury in 1861-2. He 



'"''as elected Prolocutor of the Convocation 
^f Canterbury upon the resignation of 
the Dean of Bristol, and admitted to the 
degree of D.D., propter merita, by a Grace 
of the Senate of the University of Cam- 
bridge in 18G1 ; again elected Prolocutor 
at the opening of the new Convocation 
m 18GG, and First Honorary Canon of 
Christ Church, Oxford. He was for the 
third time elected Prolocutor in Dec. 
180S ; and again for the fourth time in 
187-i. He was appointed Select Preacher 
before the University of Oxford in 1875. 
In Feb. 1875, he was nominated by the 
Crown to the Deanery of Lichfield, whicli 
had become vacant by the death of the 
Very Eev. William Weldon Champneys, 
He has published " Questions illustrat- 
ing the Thirty-nine Articles," "Cateche- 
tical Exercises on the Apostles' Creed," 
" Prayers for the Present Times," 
Charges delivered at his Visitations in 
1855, 1S5G, 1858, 1859, 18G1, 18G2, ISGi, 
1865, 1867, 1868, and 1870 ; " The Ee- 
form of Convocation," 1877 ; " The Mer- 
cian Church and St. Chad," — an Addi-ess 
delivered in Lichfield Cathedral on 
March 2, 1880 ; " Marriage with a De- 
ceased Wife's Sister," Oct. 1881, besides 
other tracts and numerous sermons. He 
also brought out a new edition of Evans' 
" Bishopi-ic of Souls," 1877. Dean Bick- 
ersteth was a member of the company 
appointed by Convocation to revise the 
New Testament ; and he is the writer of 
an Exjiosition of St. Mark's Gospel for 
the " Pulpit Commentary," which is now 
in its Gth edition. Dean Bickersteth is 
Chairman of the Executive Committee 
of the Central Council of Diocesan Con- 

BICKERSTETH, The Right Rev. Edward 
Henry, D.D., Bishop of Exeter, born at 
Islington, Jan. 25, 1825, son of the late 
Eev. Edward Bickersteth, Eector of 
Watton, was educated at Watton and 
Trinity College, Cambridge. He was 
Chancellor's English Medallist in 184t, 
1845, and 1846 ; proceeded B.A. (Sen. 
Opt.) in 1847, Classical Tripos, 3rd Class; 
took the degree of M.A. in 1850 ; and 
gained the Seatonian Prize in 1854. Mr. 
Bickersteth became Curate of Banning- 
ham, Norfolk, in 1S4S ; Curate of Christ 
Church, Tunbridge Wells, 1852 ; Eec- 
tor of Hinton Martell, Dorset, in 
the same year ; Vicar of Christ 
Church, Hampstead, in 1S55 ; Chaplain 
to the Bishop of Eipou in 18G1 ; and 
Eural Dean of Highgate in 1878 ; and 
Dean of Gloucester in 1884. On the 
translation of Dr. Temple to the See of 
London, Dr. Bickersteth was ajipointed 
Bishop of Exitar, and wai consecrated in 

1885. He is author of the following 
books : — " Poems," 1848 ; " Water from 
the Well-Spring," 1853 ; " The Eock of 
Ages ; or Scripture Testimony to the One 
Eternal Godhead of the Father, and of 
the Son, and of the Holy Spirit," 1858 ; 
" Practical and Explanatory Commentary 
on the New Testament," 1864; "Yester- 
day, To-day, and for Ever : a Poem in 12 
books," 1866; "The Spirit of Life; or. 
Scripture Testimony to the Divine Per- 
son and Work of the Holy Ghost," 1868 ; 
" Ttie Hymnal Companion to the Book of 
Cjmmon Prayer," 1870 ; " The Two 
Brothers, and other Poems," 1871 ; " The 
Master's Home-Call," 1872; "The Eeef 
: nd other Parables," 1873 ; " The Sha- 
dowed Home and the Light Beyond," 
1874; and, ''The Lord's Table," 1882. 
The " Hymnal Comiianiou," of which a 
revised and enlarged edition, with tunes, 
appeared in 1876, is now in use in more 
than four thousand churches in England 
and the Colonies. 

BICKMORE, Albert Smith, was born at 
St. George's, Maine, March 1, 1839. He 
gradxiated at Dartmouth College in 1860, 
and immediately began to study natural 
history under Agassiz, who, in the fol- 
lowing year, placed him in charge of the 
department of Mollusca in his Museum 
of Comparative Zoology at Cambridge, 
Mass. He had, very early in his scientific 
career, determined to establish at New 
York a Museum of Natural History. 
Partly to make collections for this, and 
partly to supply some deficiencies in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, he 
sailed in 1865 for the East Indies. He 
spent one year making collections of 
shells and small animals in the East 
Indian Archipelago ; then traversed a 
large portion of China, visited and ex- 
plored Japan, crossed Siberia, visiting its 
mines. Central and Northern Eussia, and 
other European countries, and returned 
to New York after an absence of about 
three years. In 1869 he published in 
London and New York a volume of his 
" Travels in the East Indian Archi- 
pelago," and a Gei'man edition at Jena. 
In 1870 he was elected Professor of 
Natural History in Madison University, 
Hamilton, New York. He has been a 
frequent contributor to the Amei'ican 
Journal of Science, and the Journal of the 
Eoyal Geographical Society ; and is now 
Secretary of the Museum of Natural His- 
tory, New York, which was inaugurated 
at the close of 1877. 

BIDDTJLPII. Generil Sir Michael 
Anthony Shrapnel, K.C.B., is the second 
son of t'.ie late Eev. Thomas Shrapnel 



Biddulph, of Amrotli Castle^ Pembroke- 
shire, sometime Prebendary of Breck- 
nock, by Charlotte, daughter of the Eev. 
James Stillingfieet, Prebendary of Wor- 
cester, and was born in 1825. He was 
educated at Woolwich, and entered the 
Royal Artillery in 1813 as a second lieu- 
tenant. He was promoted to first lieute- 
nant in 1844 ; became captain in 1850, 
brevet major in 1854, brevet lieutenant- 
colonel in 1856, colonel in 1874, major- 
general in 1877, lieutenant-general in 
1881, and general in 1886. G-eneral 
BidduliDh served throughout the Eastern 
cami^aign of 1854 - 55, including the 
battles of Alma, Balaclava, and In- 
kerman, and the siege and fall of Sebas- 
topol. He was Deputy Adjutant-General 
of Artillery in India from 1868 to 1871 ; 
and in 1876 he was apjDointed Brigadiei'- 
General in command of the Eohilkund 
district ; he also commanded the Quettah 
field force in Afghanistan in 1878-9. He 
v\^as nominated a Comi^anion of the Order 
of the Bath (military division) in 1873, 
and promoted to a Knight Commander- 
ship of that Order in 1879. In 1881 he 
was appointed to the divisional staff of 
the army in Bengal. Sir Michael Bid- 
dtilph married, in 1857, Katherine, 
daughter of Captain Stamati, Command- 
ant of Balaclava. 

BIDDULPH, SirKobert, G.C.M.G., C.B., 

is the son of the late Mr. Robert Biddulph, 
of Ledbury, Herefordshire, by Elizabeth, 
daughter of Mr. George Palmer, M.P., of 
Nazing Park, Essex. He was born in 
London, August 26, 1835, and educated 
at the Royal Military Academy, Wool- 
wich. He was appointed second lieute- 
nant in the Royal Artillery in 1853 ; 
captain in 1860 ; major in the army in 
1861 ; lieutenant-colonel in 1864 ; colonel 
in 1872 ; brigadier-general in 1879 ; major- 
general in the army in 1883 ; and lieu- 
tenant-general in 1887. He was Deputy 
Assistant- Adjutant-General in India from 
185S to 1860 ; Military Secretary in China 
in 1860-61 ; Military Secretary in Madras 
from 1861 to 1865 ; and Deputy Assistant- 
Quartermaster-General at Woolwich from 
1868 to 1871. He was one of the Assist- 
ant Boundary Commissioners under the 
Reform Act of 1867, and acted as private 
secretary to Mr. Cardwell when that 
statesman was Secretary for War, in 
1871-73. From 1873 to 1878 he was 
Assistant Adjutant -General at head- 
quarters ; in March, 1879, he was nomi- 
nated Her Majesty's Commissioner for 
arranging the payment due to the 
Turkish Government under the Conven- 
tion concluded in the previous year ; and 
in May, 1879, he was appointed High 

Commissioner and Commander-in-Chief 
of the island of Cyprus, on the transfer 
of Sir Garnet Wolseley to Natal ; 
Inspector-General of Recruiting, 1886-7 ; 
Quartermaster-General of the army in 
1887 ; Director-General of Military educa- 
tion since March 1888. Under his adminis- 
tration the state of the island of Cyprus 
has very greatly improved ; and to him is 
due much of the credit for the successful 
" locust war " urged against that deadly 
insect-pla.gue. He was nominated a 
Companion of the Order of the Bath 
(military division) in 1877, and created a 
Knight Commander of the Order of SS. 
Michael and George in 1880, a G.C.M.G. 
in 1886. He married, in 1864, Sophia, 
daughter of the Eev. A. L. Lambert, rec- 
tor of Chilbolton, Hampshire, and widow 
of Mr. R. Stuart Palmer. 

BIDWELL, Shelford, F.E.S., eldest son 
of the late Shelford Clarke Bidwell, Esq., 
J. P., was born on March 6, 1848, at 
Thetford, Norfolk, and was educated 
privately, and at Caius College, Cam- 
bridge. He graduated B.A. (Mathe- 
matical Ti'ipos) in 1870, LL.B. (Law 
Tripos) in 1871, and M.A. in 1873, and 
was called to the Bar (Lincoln's Inn) in 
1874. He has devoted much time to 
experimental scientific work, especially 
in relation to electricity and magnetism. 
Acco^mts of his researches are contained 
in numerous papers published in the 
" Philosophical Transactions " and the 
" Proceedings of the Royal Society," the 
" Proceedings of the Physical Society," 
the Philosophical Magaziiie, Nature, and 
other scientific journals. He was elected 
a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1886, is 
a Vice-President of the Physical Society, 
and a member of the Institution of 
Electrical Engineers and other associa- 
tions. He married, in 1874, Annie 
Wilhelmina Evelyn, daughter of the 
Eev. E. Firmstone, M.A., rector of 
Wyke, near Winchester, and has three 

BIERSTADT, Albert, was born near 
Diisseldorf, in Germany, Jan. 7, 1830. 
His parents emigrated to the United 
States when he was two years of age, and 
settled in New England. He went to 
Germany in 1853, studied painting in 
Diisseldorf, spent a winter in Eome, 
made the tour of Switzerland and the 
Apennines, and returned to the United 
States in 1857- In 1859 he accompanied 
General Lander's expedition to the 
Eocky Mountains, where he spent several 
months in making sketches. He was 
made an Academician in 1860. In 1863 
he produced his celebrated picture. 



" View of the Rocky Mountains, — Lan- 
der's Peak/' which at once gave him a 
high reputation. Among his subsequent 
works, the most noticeable have been — 
" Sunlight and Shadow," " The Storm in 
the Eocky Mountains," " Domes of the 
Yosemite," "Laramie Peak," " Emigrants 
Crossing the Plains," "Mount Hood," 
" Mount Whitney," " Scene near Fort 
Laramie," "Geysers of the Yellowstone," 
"Great Trees of California," "Matter- 
horn," "Eocky Mountain Sheep," " Settle- 
ment of California," " Discovery of the 
Hudson," "Last of the Buffalo," and 
"Landing of Columbus." He travelled 
in Eui-opc in 1SG7, 1878, and 1883, and in 
18G3 and 1873 visited the Pacific coast, 
and in 1889 went to Alaska. In 1871 he 
was made a member of the Academy of 
Fine Arts of St. Petersburg. He has 
received medals in Belgium, Germany, 
Bavaria, and Austria, the Legion of 
Honour, the Eussian Order of St. Stanis- 
laus, and the Turkish Order of the Med- 
jidieh. His house and studio at Irvington, 
New York, were destroyed by fire in 
November, 1882 ; but, though his loss 
was considerable, his more valuable 
pictures were fortunately at his studio in 
New York City, and so escaped destruc- 

BIGELOW, Hon. John, was born at 
Malden-on-Hudson, New York, Nov. 25, 
1817. He graduated at Union College 
in 1835, was admitted to the Bar in 1839, 
became joint proprietor with "William C. 
Bryant, and Managing Editor of the New 
York Evening Post in 1849, was apjiointed 
Consul at Paris by President Lincoln in 
1861, Charge d'Affaires in December, 
1864, and Envoy Extraordinary and 
Minister Plenipotentiary to the Coui't of 
France in Ajiril. 1865 ; he resigned, and 
retui'ned to the United States in the 
beginning of 1867 to devote himself to 
literary pursuits. He was appointed 
chairman of the commission organized 
at the request of Governor Tilden to 
investigate the management of the 
canals of the State of New York in 1874, 
in^l875 was elected Secretary of State of 
the State of New York, in 1884 was 
offered the position of Chamberlain of 
the City of New York, and in 1885 the 
position of Assistant Treasurer of the 
United States at New York, both 
which he declined. During the years 
1843-5 Mr. Bigelow was a frequent con- 
tributor to the Democratic Review. He 
was one of the five inspectors of the state 
prison at Sing Sing, 1845-8, and was the 
author of all their annual reports to the 
Legislature. He visited the island of 
Jamaica -in 1850, and upon his return 

published " Jamaica in 1850 ; or the 
Effect of Sixteen Years of Freedom on a 
Slave Colony." During his residence in 
Paris he published " Les Etats Unis en 
1863." Also while in Paris he became 
possessed of the original manuscript of 
the autobiography of Benjamin Franklin, 
from which he published in 1868, the first 
correct copy ever printed of that famous 
story. Among his other writings are 
" Some Eecollections of Antoine Pierre 
Berryer," 1869; "France and Hereditary 
Monarchy," 1871 ; a " Life of Benjamin 
Franklin," in 3 vols., 1875; "The AVit 
and Wisdom of the Haytians," 1877 ; 
and " Molinos, the Quietist," 1882. He 
also edited the " Writings and Speeches 
of Samuel J. Tilden," 2 vols., 1885, and 
" The Writings of Benjamin Franklin," 
in 10 vols., 1888. " Some Eecollections 
of Laboiilaye " were printed privately for 
him in 1889, and he contributed a " Life 
of William Cullen Bryant" to the 
"American Men of Letters" series in 
1890. Mr. Bigelow is one of the execu- 
tors of the will of the late Samuel J. 
Tilden, and is President of the Board of 
Trustees of the " Tilden Trust." In 1886 
the New York Chamber of Commerce, in 
response to an invitation of M. de 
Lesseps, requested Mr. Bigelow to accom- 
pany him to visit the works of the 
Panama Canal Company and report their 
situation and prospects. Mr. Bigelow's 
report was published by the Chamber of 
Commerce, to which body he was imme- 
diately after elected an honorary member. 
He was also sole Commissioner of the 
United States to the International 
Exposition of Sciences and Industry at 
Brussels in 1888. 

BIGLOW, Hosea. 


See Lowell, James 

BILCESCO, Mile. Sarmisa, Doctor at 
Law, a Eoumanian by birth, is the first 
lady who obtained the degree of a Doctor 
at Law in France. She was born in 1867 
at Bucharest, where her father is Governor 
of the National Bank. When only six- 
teen she graduated as Bachelor of 
Letters, and the year after as Bachelor of 
Sciences. Encouraged by these early 
successes. Mile. Bilcesco felt tempted to 
continue her studies in Paris, where she 
arrived with her mother in 1884. She at 
once put herself iinder the direction of 
M. Georges Bourdon, Secretaire of the 
Chamber des Deputes, and redacteur of the 
journal Le Temps, who prepared her for 
all examinations. After having been ad- 
mitted as student at the Sorbonne, Mile. 
Bilcesco studied three years for the 
degree of a licentiate, and two years 



longer for that of a doctor. She passed 
all her examinations with honours, and 
took the first place among the licentiates 
of her year. But her crowning triumph 
was her examination for the degree of a 
doctor, which took place on June 12, 
1890. The thesis she selected was "The 
Status or Position of Mothers under 
French and Roman Laws," a paper of 504 
pages, which she read before a large 
audience, the jury congratulating her on 
the choice of tiie subject, and the 
remarkable manner in which she had 
treated the same. Mile. Bilcesco, is 
not only a first-rate scholar, but likewise 
a talented musician. She returns to 
Bucharest, where she proposes to claim 
admission to the Roumanian Bar, not so 
much to set vip as a lawyer, as to decide 
the question of a woman's right to 
practice the profession of the law. 

BILLING, The Rt. Eev. Robert Claudius, 
D.D., Oxon., Bishop of Bedford (suffra- 
gan of London), 1.S88 ; Prebendary of St. 
Paul's, Chaplain of the 2nd Brigade of the 
Tower Hamlets Royal Volunteers ; and 
Rector of St. Andrew, Undershaft, E.G. 

BINNIE, Alexander R., M.Inst C.& M.E., 
F.G.S., F.R.M.S., &c.. Engineer to the 
London County Council, was born in 
London in 1839, and was educated at 
various private academies. He was a pupil 
and assistant to the celebrated J. F. Le 
Trobe Bateman, F.R.S., who was presi- 
dent of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
and Engineer to the Glasgow and Man- 
chester Waterworks. In early life Mr. 
Binnie was engaged on railway construc- 
tion in England and Wales. He entered 
the Public Works Department of India 
by open competition in 1SG8, and during 
his six years' service in that country was 
engaged in the exploration which led to 
the discovery of coal in the Central 
Provinces, for which he received the 
commendation of the Government of 
India ; he successfully designed and con- 
structed the whole of the works for the 
supply of the City of Najpur with water, 
for which he again received the com- 
mendation of Government ; he was also 
engaged on railway work, and for a short 
period acted as Assistant Secretary, 
Public Works Department, to the Chief 
Commission of the Central Provinces. 
For fifteen years he was Engineer to the 
Bradford Corporation, during which period 
he designed and successfully constructed 
many large works at a cost of over one 
million sterling, and among them the 
highest reservoir embankment (125 feet) 
in the United Kingdom : he also laid out 
and designed for the Corporation a large 

extension of the water works in the Nedd 
Valley at an estimated cost of ^1,250,000. 
Mr. Binnie is the author of a paper on 
the Najpur water works, for which he 
received from the Institution of Civil 
Engineers a Telford medal and premium. 
He has been appointed on more than one 
occasion Lecturer on Water Works at the 
School of Military Engineering at Chat- 
ham, and his lectures have been pub- 
lished by Government, besides which he 
is the author of many valuable pro- 
fessional reports, and an addrccs as 
President to the Bradford Philosophical 
Society on " Heat in its Relation to Coal.' 

BIRCH, Charles Bell, A.R.A., sculptor, 
the only surviving son of the late Jonathan 
Birch, was born at Brixton, in Suri-ey, Sept. 
28, 1832. At the age of twelve he was sent 
to study at the Somerset House School of 
Design. In 1845 the family removed to 
Berlin, and Charles became a student of 
the Berlin Royal Academy, drawing and 
modelling from the antique, and attending 
the life, anatomical, perspective, and 
animal classes. He also received valu- 
able instruction, as a pupil, in the studios 
of Professors Ranch and Wichmann. He 
remained at the Berlin Academy until 
1852. Before leaving, he produced his 
first work of any importance — a bust of 
the late Earl of Westmoreland, English 
Ambassador at Berlin, subsequently exe- 
cuted in marble for the King of Prussia. 
On his return to England in 1852 Mr. 
Birch passed through the schools of the 
Royal Academy, gaining two medals, and 
after some fiirther years spent in study, 
entered the studio of the late J. H. 
Foley, R.A., where for ten years he acted 
as principal assistant. In 1864 the Art 
Union of London, having offered a 
premium of .£600 for the best original 
figure or group, a prize open to all 
nations, Mr. Birch was the successful 
competitor with his grouj) " A Wood 
Nymph." The work was subseqiiently 
executed in marble, and it was selected 
by the Royal Commissioners as one of 
the rei^resentative works of British Art 
for the Vienna, Philadelphia, and Paris 
Exhibitions. The following list com- 
prises a selection from Mr. Birch's 
contributions to the Royal Academy since 
1852 :— Busts of the late E. M. Ward, 
R.A., and Mrs. E. M. Ward ; statuette of 
Mary Agatha, youngest daughter of Lord 
and Lady John Russell ; Imst of Prince 
Frederick William of Prussia, from 
sittings taken at Buckingham Palace 
before his marriage with the Princess 
Royal ; bust of Lord John Russell, in 
marble, for the City Liberal Club ; 
colossal statue of S. T. Chadwick, M.D., 


executed in bronze for the town of Bolton 
in Lancashire ; and an ideal work, " Ee- ! 
taliation," subsequently cast in bronze 
and purchased by the Commissioners of 
the Sydney Art Gallery. In 1879 Mr. 
Birch exhibited " The Last Call," a 
group of heroic size, representing a 
trumpeter of Hussars and his horse shot 
down simultaneously whilst in the act of 
charging. In 1880 he exhibited a groiip 
representing Lieutenant Hamilton, U.C., 
in his last and gallant attempt to save 
the E^sidency at Cabul in Sept. 1S79. 
In 18S1 he executed a colossal statue in 
bronze of the late Maharajah of Bulram- 
pore, a colossal figure of Earl Beacons- 
field for Liverpool, and a statue of the 
late General Earle, and a large group 
" Godiva," both which are erected in 
front of St. George's Hall. Mr. Birch 
executed in 1880 the dragon on Temple 
Bar Memorial ; in 1883 an equestrian 
statuette of William III., executed in 
silver, for H.M. the King of the Nether- 
lands, being the inaugural prize for a 
race founded by H.M. to be run at 
Goodwood, and called " The Orange 
Cup." The statuette is now in the 
possession of H.E.H. the Princess of 
Wales ; in 1887 two colossal allegorical 
figures in marble, representing " Justice " 
and " Plenty," decorating the entrance of 
the Australian Joint Stock Bank, Sydney, 
N.S.W. ; in 1888 a colossal marble statue 
of the late Earl of Dudley, erected at 
Dudley ; life size marble statue of the late 
Earl of Beaconsfield, K.G., erected in the 
Junior Carlton Club, London ; memorial 
to the late Jenny Lind Goldschmidt, 
erected in Malvern cemetery ; " A Water 
Nymph," statue in bronze, life size, apex 
to a fountain erected at Sydney, N.S.W. 
"Chambers Challenge Shield," presented 
to the Universities of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge by old university athletes. In 
1889 a colossal marble statue of H.M. the 
Queen for the Moharana of Oodeypore, 
erected at Oodeypore ; and a life-size 
statue of Margaret Wilson, the Christian 
martyr, drowned in the Solway, a.d. 1G85. 
Mr. Birch also modelled equestrian 
statuettes of Lord Sandwich, the late 
Lord Lonsdale, and the Marquis of 
Exeter, all which were executed in silver 
and presented to them by the oiRcers of 
their respective regiments, and in addi- 
tion various other busts and statuettes, 
and several shields, ic, for race cups. 
As a draughtsman on wood and stone, 
Mr. Birch for many years contributed to 
the pages of the Illustrated London News 
and other periodicals and books. He 
executed, in 1880, a series of twenty 
original designs for the Art Union of 
London, 'in illustration of Lord Byron's 

poem of " Lara." He was elected an Asso- 
ciate of the Eoyal Academy, April 23,1880. 

BIBDWOOD, Sir George Christopher 
Yolesworth, M.D.,LL. D., C.S.I. ,K.C. I.E., 
eldest son of the late General Christ ojiher 
Birdwood, 3rd Bombay Native Infantry, 
and Commissary-General, Bombay, was 
born at Belgaum, Bombay, Dec. 8, 1832. 
He was educated at Plymouth New Gram- 
mar School, and the University, Edin- 
burgh, where he took the degree of M.D., 
and passed the iisual examination of the 
College of Surgeons, in 1854. He was 
appointed to the Medical Staff of the 
East India Company on their Bombay 
Establishment in the same year. His 
first charge was of the Southern Mahratta 
Horse, Kalludghee, in 185o. Later he 
was transferred to the 1st Battery 2nd 
Brigade of Artillery at Sholapore, where 
he was also at different times in charge 
of the 8th Madras Cavalry, 3rd Bombay 
Native Infantry, and the Civil Station. 
In 1856 he was sent to the Persian Gulf 
in medical charge of the Company's 
steamship "Ajdaha," and on his return 
to Bombay in April, 1857, he was appointed 
Acting Professor of Anatomy and Physi- 
ology in Grant Medical College, and from 
that date to his leaving India continued 
to be connected with the college almost 
without interruption in the chairs suc- 
cessively of Anatomy and Physiology, 
and Botany and Materia Medica. In the 
same year Dr. Birdwood was appointed 
Curator of the Government Central 
Museum at Bombay. Later he was 
appointed Eegistrar of the University ; 
and he also held the offices of Honorary 
Secretary to the Bombay Branch of the 
Eoyal Asiatic Society, and Honorary 
Secretary to the Agri-Horticultural So- 
ciety of Western India, with the assis- 
tance of the late eminent Hindu physi- 
cian. Dr. Bhau Daje. He was mainly 
instrumental in establishing the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, and the Victoria 
Gardens in Bombay. In 18G4 he was 
appointed Sheriff of Bombay. In 1869 
he was forced finally to leave India, 
through permanently broken health. On 
the occasion of the proclamation of the 
Queen as Empress of India, Jan. I, 1877, 
he was appointed to the Comi^anionship 
of the Star of India : and the honour of 
knighthood was conferred on him in 
Sept. 1881. In 1887, he had conferred on 
; him the honorary degree of LL.D., Cam- 
bridge, and was decorated with the 
insignia of the Knight Companionship 
of the Order of the Indian Empire. 

He still maintains his official ties 
I with India, having been appointed, 
I about 1879, Special Assistant in the 



Revenue, Statistics, and Commerce De- 
partment of the India Office. He was a 
Koyal Commissioner and Member of the 
Finance Committee of the Colonial and 
Indian Exhibition of 18S6 ; and Chairman 
of the Committee of the British Indian 
Section of the Paris Exhibition of 18S9. 
He is the author of " Catalogue of the 
Economic Products of the Bombay Pre- 
sidency (Vegetable)," 1st edit., 1862, 2nd 
edit. 1808 ; " The Genus Boswellia 
(Frankincense jjlants), with illustrations 
of three new species ; " in " The Trans- 
actions of the I;innean Society," vol. 
xxvii. ; the article " Incense," in the 
"Encyclopaedia Britannica ; " " The Per- 
fumes of the Bible," in Cassell's " Bible 
Educator ; " " Handbook to the British 
Indian section, Paris Exhibition of 1878 ; " 
the article " On an Ancient Silver Patera," 
in " The Transactions of the Eoyal So- 
ciety of Literature," vol. xi.. New Series, 
1881 ; " Handbook on the Industrial Arts 
of India," 1880; "The Arts of India," 
1881; "Austellung Indischer Kunst-Ge- 
genstiinde, zu Berlin," 1881 ; " Indiens 
Konstsliijd en Kortfattad Skildring," 
Stockholm, 1882 ; " Indiens Kunstindus- 
trie, KjoVjenhaven," 1882 ; Report on the 
Miscellaneous Old Records of the India 
Office, 1879, reprinted 1890. He contri- 
buted introductions to " The Miracle Play 
of Hasan and Husain," by Sir Lewis Pelly, 
1879 ; to " Eastern Cari^ets," by Mrs. Vin- 
cent Robinson, 1882 ; to" The Dawn of the 
British Trade in the East," by Henry 
Stevens, 188G ; to " Representative Men of 
India," by Sorabji Jehanghier, 1889 ; the 
" Catalogue of the Indian Section of the 
Edinburgh Forestry Exhibition," 1884; 
and an Appendix on " The Aryan Fauna 
and Flora," to Professor Max Miiller's 
" Biographies of Words," 1888. He was 
a constant contributor to the Indian 
Press, and for some time editor of the 
Bombay Saturday Review. Letters by him 
on the opium trade, which had ajipeared 
in the Times, were rei^ublished in Mr. 
W. H. Brereton's " Truth about Opium," 
1882. He is also the author of the article 
" Are we Despoiling India ? — A Re- 
joinder, Vjy ' John Indigo,' " in the 
National Review for Sei^tember, 1883 ; and 
of a review of Sir Henry Yule's " Hobson 
Jobson," in the Quarterly Review, for 
1887 ; and of the following articles in the 
Asiatic Quarterly Review : — " The Christ- 
mas Tree," Jan. 1886; "The Empire of 
the Hittites," Jan. 1888 ; " The Mahratta 
Plough," Oct. 1888 ; and " Leper in 
India," April, 1890. He has been a con- 
tributor also to the Bombay Quarterly 
Review, the Journal of the East Indian 
Association, the Journal of the National 
Indian Association, the Journal of the 

Society of Arts, and the Journal of 
Indian Art. Sir George Birdwood 
married, in 1856, Frances Anne, eldest 
daughter of the late Edward Tolcher, 
Esq., R.N., of Harewood, Plympton 
St. Mary's, Devon. 

BIBRELL, Augustine, M.P., youngest 
son of the Rev. C. M. Birrell, of Liverpool, 
and Harriet Jane Grey, daughter of the 
Rev. Henry Grey, D.D., of Edinburgh, 
was born Jan. 19, 1850, at Wavertree, 
near Liverpool. He was educated at 
Amersham Hall School, near Reading, 
and Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he 
graduated with honours in Law and 
History in 1872. He was called to the 
Bar by the Inner Temple, Nov. 1875, and 
practises in the Chancery Division ; is 
the author of " Obiter Dicta," two series, 
1884 and 1887, and " Life of Charlotte 
Bronte," 1887. He contested the 
Walton Division of Liverpool in 1885, 
and the Widnes Division of Lancashire 
in 1886, I)oth unsuccessfully. He was 
returned to Parliament for West Fife in 
July, 18S9, on the retirement of the Hon. 
R. P. Briice. He married first, in 1878, 
Margaret, daughter of the late Archibald 
Mirrielees, formerly of St. Petersburgh 
(she died in 1879) ; and second, in 1888, 
Eleanor, widow of the Hon. Lionel Ten- 
nyson, and daughter of Frederick and 
Lady Charlotte Locker. 

BISHOP, William Henry, American 
aiithor, was born at Hartford, Connecti- 
cut, Jan. 7, 1847, and graduated at Yale 
College in 1867. He has been a freqiient 
conti'ibutor to periodical literature, and 
in addition has published " Detmold," 
1879 ; "The House of a Merchant Prince," 
1882;"Choy Susan and other Stories," 
1884 ; " Old Mexico and Her Lost Pro- 
vinces," 1884 ; " Fish and Men in the 
Maine Islands," 1885 ; " The Golden 
Justice," 1887; and "The Brown Stone 
Boy and other Queer People," 1888. 

von) Karl Otto, statesman, born at 
Schiinhausen, Aj^ril 1, 1815 ; studied at 
Gfittingen, Berlin, and Griefswald ; en- 
tered the army, and was afterwards a 
lieutenant in the Landwehr. He became 
a member of the Diet of the province of 
Saxony in 1846, and of the General Diet, 
in which he made himself remarkable by 
the boldness of his speeches, in 1847. On 
one occasion he argued that all great 
cities should be swept from the face of 
the earth, because they were the centres 
of democracy and constitutionalism. Nor 
did the events of 1848 modify his oi^inious. 
In 1851 he entered the diplomatic service. 



and was intrusted with the legation at 
Frankfort. Eegarding Austria as the 
antagonist of Prussia, he was sent in 1852 
to Vienna, where he proved a constant 
adversary to Count Eechberg. In 1858, 
a pamphlet entitled " La Prusse et la 
Qviestion Italienne " appeared, the author- 
shi}} of which was generally attributed to 
him. In this publication refei-ence was 
made to the antagonism existing between 
Austria and Prussia, and a trijale alliance 
between France, Prussia, and Russia was 
advocated. In March, 1859, M. von 
Bismarck was sent as ambassador to St. 
Petersburg, which post he held until 
1SG2, and having conciliated the Czai', 
was decorated with the order of Saint 
Alexander Newski. In May, 18G2, he was 
ai^pointed Ambassador to Paris, where he 
received the Grand Ci'oss of the Legion 
of Honour from the Empei'or Napoleon, 
and he was made Minister of the King's 
House and of Foreign Affairs in Prussia, 
Sept. 22. I'he budget having been re- 
jected by the Deputies, Vjut adopted by 
the Upper Chamber, M. Bismarck, in the 
name of the King, dissolved the former 
after a series of angry altercations. The 
newspapers which protested against this 
despotic act were proceeded against with 
great severity, as were numerous public 
officials, magistrates, and others, who 
openly expressed views hostile to the 
Government. In Jan., 1863, he i^rotested 
against an address which the Deputies 
presented to the King, in which he was 
acciised of having violated the constitu- 
tion. Shortly after, the afPairs of Poland 
caused fresh difficulties. The Chamber 
of Deputies, by a majority of five to one^ 
censured the Ministry for having con- 
cluded (Feb. 8) a secret treaty with 
Kussia. After the close of the aggressive 
war waged by Prussia and Austria against 
Denmark, in which Austria had very 
reluctantly taken part, Bismarck thought 
the time had arrived for carrying out his 
long-cherished project of making Prussia 
the real head of Germany. His prepar- 
ations for another aggressive war were 
completed, and, aided by an alliance 
with Italy, in a campaign of a few weeks' 
duration, Austria and her allies were 
defeated. It is probable that dread of a 
still more formidable alliance induced 
M. von Bismarck to stop short in his 
career of victoi-y, as the Emperor Napoleon, 
in his speech to the French Chambers, 
declai-ed that he had arrested the con- 
queror at the gates of Vienna. A pre- 
liminary treaty of peace with Austria was 
concluded at Nikolsburg, July 26, 1866, 
as Austria consented to retire from Ger- 
many, the terms of a general pacification 
were arranged. M. von Bismarck was 

created a Count, Sept. 16, 18G5, on which 
occasion he received from the King of 
Prussia a valuable estate in Luxembourg. 
He lost no time in turning to account the 
victory gained by Prussia over Austria, 
and in advancing his favourite scheme 
for the unification of Germany, provinces 
and kingdoms were at once annexed. The 
free town of Frankfort received a Prussian 
garrison in spite of the indignant protests 
of the population ; Hanover was incor- 
porated in the Germanic Confederation ; 
and at the close of the year 186G Count 
Bismarck succeeded in concluding with 
Bavaria, Baden, and Wurtemberg treaties 
of peace and of alliance offensive and 
defensive, with a proviso that in the 
event of war the King of Prussia should 
have the chief military command. In 
18G7 Count Bismarck organised the North 
German Confederation, which comprised 
twenty-two States, representing a popu- 
lation of 29,000,000. The King of Prussia 
was at the head of this powerful Con- 
federation, and a I'ederal Council com- 
posed of delegates of the different States 
was established, together with a Diet or 
common Parliament, the members of 
which were elected by universal suffrage. 
The new federal constitution was adopted 
by the Prussian Chambers in June, and 
came into operation on the 1st of the 
following month. Count Bismarck re- 
ceiving as the reward of his services the 
post of Chancellor of the Confederation 
and President of the Federal Council. 
The Liixemburg question now gave rise 
to serious differences between the Prussian 
and French Governments, and Coimt Bis- 
marck strenuously ojjposed the projected 
cession of that province by Holland to 
France. Eventually the dispute was set- 
tled by the Luxemburg territory being 
neutralized, and the fortresses dismantled. 
After this both Powers declared their 
intention to be pacific, but nevertheless 
they both increased their ah-eady bloated 
armaments. Ill-health compelled Coimt 
Bismarck to retire from public life for a 
short period in 18G8, but he returned to 
Berlin in October of that year, and re- 
sumed the direction of affairs. On the 
1st of January he entered on his functions 
as Foreign Minister of the North German 
Confederation. In July, 1870, it tran- 
sjjired that General Prim had sent a de- 
putation to Prussia to offer the Crown of 
Spain to Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern. 
The French people were greatly agitated 
at the receipt of this intelligence. Some 
of their leading statesmen declared that 
France would never consent to see a 
Prussian prince seated on the throne of 
Spain, and explanations were demanded 
from the Berlin cabinet. It was alleged 



by Count Bismarck that the King of 
Prussia gave his consent to the accept- 
ance of the crown by the prince only as 
the head of the Hohenzollern family, 
and not as an act of the Government. A 
few days later the withdrawal of the 
prince's candidature was announced ; but 
in spite of this, France declared war 
against Prussia, and the campaign began, 
the latter Power receiving great assist- 
ance from the troops sent into the field 
by the King of Bavaria and the Dukes of 
Baden and Wiirtemberg. This is not the 
place to record the comi^lete successes of 
the German armies. Suffice it to say, 
that Count Bismarck accompanied the 
King throughout the campaign, and that 
after the capitulation of Paris he dictated 
the terms of peace, which were adopted 
by the Assembly then sitting at Bordeaux. 
He succeeded in uniting Germany, and 
on January 18, 1S71, he had the satisfac- 
tion of seeing King William of Prussia 
crowned Emperor of Germany in the 
Palace of the French kings, at Versailles. 
In the same month he was appointed by 
his Imperial master Chancellor of the 
German Empire, and in the following 
March raised to the rank of Prince. In 
Sejjtember of the same year he was pre- 
sent at the memorable meeting of the 
German and Austrian emperors at Gas- 
tein. Siibsequently Prince Bismarck 
greatly offended the Eoman Catholic 
party throughout Germany by promoting 
the legal measures which were directed 
against the freedom of the Church, and 
which resulted in the expulsion of the 
Jesuits, and the incarceration of several 
bishops. In Dec, 1872, he resigned the 
presidency of the State Ministry, although 
he continued to confer with the Emperor 
on the affairs of the empire and its foreign 
policy. The Emperor also authorized him, 
in the event of his being unable to appear 
personally at a meeting of the Ministry of 
State, to give his vote on matters con- 
cerning the interests of the empire 
through the President of the Imperial 
Chancellery. On this occasion Prince 
Bismarck received from the Emperor the 
Order of the Black Eagle, set in dia- 
monds. In Oct., 1873, he was re-ap- 
pointed as Prussian Premier. Two at- 
tempts have been made on the life of the 
Chancellor, the first on May 7, 18GG, by a 
step-son of Karl Blind ; and the second on 
July 13, 1874, as the Prince was driving in 
the country at Kissingen ; he was fired at 
by a young man named Kullman, and 
slightly wounded by a shot which grazed 
his right wrist. The culprit was appre- 
hended, and eventually sentenced to four- 
teen years' hard labour, with a further 
ten years' loss of civil i-ights, with 

police inspection, and costs. An attempt 
was made to prove that Kullman was 
connected with the clerical party, and a 
statement to that effect made by Prince 
Bismarck himself afterwards led to an 
exciting scene in the German Parliament. 
Towards the close of 1874, at the instiga- 
tion of Prince Bismarck, Count Arnim 
was imprisoned, and tried on the charge 
of having abstracted documents from the 
archives of the German embassy at Paris. 
Prince Bismarck presided over the Con- 
gress of the representatives of the Great 
Powers which assembled at Berlin to dis- 
cuss the provisions of the Treaty of San 
Stefano in 1878. In Prussia, he has made 
peace with the Eoman Catholic Church, 
and has done much (bylaws of National In- 
surance, &c.) to establish a system of State 
Socialism, intended to counterwork the 
schemes of the Social Democrats. He 
has striven to found a German Colonial 
Empire ; and if he has not as yet suc- 
ceeded in establishing any prosperous 
settlements, he has done a great deal to 
spread German trade all over the world. 
In foreign policy, his aim has been to 
strengthen the Austro-German Alliance, 
and to secure the Czar against any 
temptation that France might offer for 
the formation of a Franco - Eussian 
alliance against Germany. The recent 
action of Prince Bismarck in the Bul- 
garian affair has undoubtedly been 
guided by this motive. Books on Bis- 
marck exist without number in Germany : 
those most generally known are the 
works of Dr. Busch entitled " Bismark 
and his People" [q.v.]. Prince Bis- 
marck's eldest son. Count Herbert, is 
now head of the Prussian Foreign Office. 
The Prince retired into private life in 
March, 1890, when the Emperor conferred 
on him the title of Duke of Lauenburg. 
Up to his retirement, his activity was as 
great and as unceasing as of old. 

Herbert von, son of Prince Bismarck, was 
born at Berlin, Dec. 28, 1849. He is a 
Major in the German Army, has served 
the German Empire in various diplomatic 
capacities, and was Embassy Secretary in 
London, and Minister at the Hague. He 
sits in the Eeichstag as one of the 
members for Schleswig-Holstein, and is 
head of the German Foreign Office. In 
Jan. 1889, the Emperor conferred on him 
the Order of the Eed Eagle, First Class. 

BJORNSEN, Bjbrnstjerne, a Norwegian 
novelist and dramatic poet, born Dec. 8, 
1832, first became known in consequence 
of some articles and stories which he 
contributed to newspapers, especially the 



Folkehlad, an illustrated journal, in 
the columns of which appeared his 
"Aanum," " Ole Stormsen," and "En 
munter Mand." The years 1856 and 
1857 he passed at Copenhagen, where he 
studied the works of Baggesen, of (Elen- 
schliiger, and of the principal Danish 
writers. Afterwards he published in 
Faedrclandet, his novel of " Thrond," 
which was followed by " Arne " and 
" Synnceve Solbakken." He has also 
produced several tragedies and other 
pieces for the stage. The following 
works of his have been translated into 
English : — '• Arne : a Sketch of Norwegian 
Country Life," translated from the Nor- 
wegian, by A. Plosner and S. Eugeley 
Powers, 18l](j ; " Ovind : a Story of 
Country Life in Norway," translated by 
S. and E. Hjerleid, 1869 ; " The Fisher 
Maiden," a Norwegian tale translated 
from the author's German edition, by M. 
E. Niles, 1869— also translated from the 
Norwegian, under the title of " The 
Fishing Girl," by A. Plesner and F. 
Richardson, 1870; "The Happy Boy : a 
Tale of Norwegian Peasant Life," trans- 
lated by H. R. G., 1870; "The Newly- 
married Couple," translated by S. and 
E. Hjerleid, 1870 ; and " Love and Life 
in Norway," translated from the Nor- 
wegian, by the Hon. A. Bethell and A. 
Plesner, 1870. 

BLACK, ■William, was born at Glasgow 
in 1811, and received his education at 
variovis private schools. His youthful 
ambition was to become an artist, and he 
studied for a short time in the Govern- 
ment School of Art in his native city, 
but eventually he drifted into joiu'nalism, 
becoming connected with the Glasgow 
Weekly Citizen while yet in his teens. In 
1864 he came to London, and wrote for 
magazines. He was attached, in the 
following year, to the staff of the Morn- 
i:ig Star, and was special correspondent 
for that paper during the Prusso- 
Austrian war of 1806, scenes from which 
appeared in h'.s first novel, " Love or 
Marriage," pu >lished in 18G7. This novel 
dealt too much with awkward social 
probleirs, and was not successful, but 
the aulh )r's next work of fiction was 
favourably received. It was entitled 
" In Silk Attire," 1869, and a considerable 
portion of it was devoted to descriptions 
of peasant life in the Black Forest. 
Then followed "Kilmeny" and "The 
Monarch of Mincing Lane," the former 
dealing mostly with Bohemian artistic 
life in London. But his first real hold of 
the novel-reading public was obtained by 
"A Daughter of Heth," 1871, which 
went through many editions. Next 

came " The Strange Adventures of a 
Phaeton," 1872, which literally described 
a driving excursion that the author made 
from London to Edinburgh with a thread 
of fiction interwoven. It is said that a 
good many Americans, amongst others, 
have adopted this plan of exploring the 
English Counties, and have taken the 
" Adventures " as a sort of guide-book. 
In 1873 was published "A Princess of 
Thule." It was followed by "The Maid 
of Killeena and other Stories," 1874 ; 
"Thres Feathers," 1875, the scene of 
which was laid in Cornwall ; " Madcap 
Violet," 1876 ; " Green Pastures and 
Piccadilly," 1877 ; " Macleod of Dare," 
1878; "White Wings: a Yachting 
Romance," 1880; "Sunrise: a story of 
these Times," 1881 ; " The Beautiful 
Wretch," 1882 ; " Shandon Bells," 1883 ; 
" Yolande," 1883 ; " Judith Shakespeare," 
1884 ; " White Heather," 1885 ; " Sabina 
Zembra," 1887 ; " The Strange Adventures 
of a House- Boat " (a sequel to the Phaeton 
Adventiu-es) , 1888; "In Far Lochaber," 

1889, and " The New Prince Fortunatus," 

1890. For four or five years Mr. Black 
was assistant editor of the Daily News, 
but he practically ceased his connection 
with journalism fifteen years ago. 

BLACKBURN (Baron), The Right Hon. 
Colin Blackburn, second son of the late 
John Blackburn, Esq., of Killearn, co. 
Stirling, by Rebecca, daughter of the 
late Rev. Dr. Gillies, was born in 1813, 
and educated at Eton and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, Avhere he graduated 
B.A. as a high Wrangler in 1835. He 
was called to the Bar at the Middle 
Temple, and for some years went the 
Northern circuit. For about eight years 
he conducted, with the late Mr. Ellis, 
the regular recognised Reports in the 
Court of Queen's Bench, and the eight or 
ten volumns of " Ellis and Blackburn ' 
are of high authority. He published an 
excellent legal work " On Sales." At 
Liverpool he had secured a large amount 
of business in heavy commercial cases, 
when, in 1859, he was made a puisne 
judge of the Queen's Bench. On that 
occasion he received the honovir of knight- 
hood. In Oct., 1876, he was made a Lord 
of Appeal under the provisions of the 
Appellate Jurisdiction Act (1876), and 
created a peer for life under the title of 
Baron Blackburn. In Aug., 1878, he 
was nominated a member of the Royal 
Commission appointed to consider the 
provisions of a draft Code relating to 
Indictable Offences. Baron Blackburn 
retired in 1886. 

BLACKBURN, Henry, son of Mr. Charles 



Blackburn, B.A., of Cambridge, was born 
at Portsea, February 15, 1830, and edu- 
cated at King's College, London ; he was 
appointed private secretary to the Right. 
Hon. E. Horsman, M.P., in 1853. He is 
a foreign correspondent and art critic for 
London i3af)ers and reviews. Mr. Black- 
burn visited Spain and Algeria in 1855, 
1857 and 1864, and delivers illustrated 
lectures on these sixbjects. He was 
appointed editor of London Society in 
1870, but resigned that post in 1872. He 
also held an api^ointment in the Civil 
Service Commission. Mr. Blackburn 
wrote, and partly illustrated, the follow- 
ing works; "Life in Algeria," 1864; 
"Travelling in Spain," 1866; "The 
Pyrenees," (illustrated by Gustave Dore) 
1867 ; " Artists and Arabs," 1868 ; 
" Normandy Picturesque," 1869 ; " Art in 
the Mountains : the Story of the Passion- 
Play in Bavaria," 1870 ; " Hartz Moun- 
tains," 1873 ; " Breton Folk," 1879 ; and 
" Memoir of Eandolph Caldecott," 1887. 
Mr. Blackburn is the originator of the 
system of Illustrated Catalogues of 
Exhibitions, with Facsimiles of Sketches 
drawn by the artists. He is editor of the 
annual Academy Notes, Grosvenor and New 
Gallery Notes, and is a lecturer on Art. 

BLACKIE, John Stuart, formerly Pro- 
fessor of Greek in the University of 
Edinburgh, son of a banker in Aberdeen, 
was born at Glasgow in July, 1809, and 
was educated at Aberdeen and Edin- 
burgh. During two years passed in 
Gottingen, Berlin, and Eome, he devoted 
himself to the study of German, Italian, 
and classical philology. In 1834 he 
published a metrical translation of 
Goethe's " Faust," with notes and prole- 
gomena, 2nd edit., 1880, and was called to 
the Scottish Bar. In 1841 he was ap- 
pointed to the newly -formed chair of 
Latin Literature in Marischal College, 
Aberdeen. This post he held for eleven 
years. He contributed several philo- 
logical articles to the Classical Museum, 
published in 1850, then edited by Dr. L. 
Schmitz, and a metrical translation of 
^schylus, which led to his appointment, 
in 1852, to the Greek chair in the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh. This was followed 
by an essay on the " Pronunciation of 
Greek, Accent and Quantity," 1852 ; a 
" Discourse on Beauty, with an Exposi- 
tion of the Theory of Beauty according 
to Plato appended," 1858 ; " Songs and 
Legends of Ancient Greece," 1857, 2nd 
edit., 1880 ; and another volume of Poems, 
English and Latin, 1860. He is the 
author of various articles in the North 
British Review, an article on Plato in 
the " Edinburgh Essays," and the 

article "Homer" in the "Encyclopaedia 
Britannica." Professor Blackie has been 
very active as a popular lecturer, and 
made himself somewhat conspicuous as a 
warm advocate of Scottish nationality. 
In 1866 he published " Homer and the 
Iliad," containing a translation of the 
Iliad in ballad measure, a third volume 
of Critical Dissertations, and a fourth of 
Notes Philological and Archeeological ; 
and in 1869 " Musa Burschicosa," a 
volume of songs for students and univer- 
sity men. In 1870 he put forth a volume 
of " War Songs of the Germans," with 
historical sketches. In 1872 he pviblished 
" Lays of the Highlands and Islands." 
Professor Blackie also appeared as a 
lecturer in the Royal Institution, London, 
where he combated the views of Mr. 
John Stuart Mill in moral philosophy, of 
Mr. Grote in his estimate of the Greek 
sophists, and of Professor Max Miiller in 
his allegorical interpretation of ancient 
myths. His principal philological papers 
appeared in a collected form in 1874, 
under the title of " Horaj Hellenica; -, " 
and in the same year he put forth a little 
volume of practical advice to young men, 
entitled " Self-Culture," which had a 
large sale in England, India, and 
America. His more recent works are 
"The Wise Men of Greece," 1877 ; " The 
Natural History of Atheism ; a defence of 
Theism against modern Atheistic and 
Agnostic . tendencies," 1877 ; " Lay 
Sermons : a series of discourses on im- 
portant points of Christian doctrine and 
morals," 1881 ; " The Language and 
Literature of the Highlands of Scotland, 
with poetical translations of some of the 
most popular pieces of Gaelic poetry," 
1875 ; " Altavona ; or, fact and fiction 
from my life in the Highlands," 1882. 
The foundation of a Celtic chair in the 
University of Edinburgh, for which by 
four years' considerable exertion he 
collected a sum of ,£12,000, is mainly 
owing to Professor Blackie. He resigned 
the chair of Greek in the University of 
Edinburgh in Aug., 1882. In 1883 he 
jjut forth his ripe views on the character 
and influence of Goethe, in "The 
Wisdom of Goethe." Then he pub- 
lished " The Scottish Highlanders "' 
and "The Land Laws," 1885; also " What 
History Teaches," 1886 ; in 1887 a " Life 
of Robert Burns," in the Great Writer 
series ; in 1888 a volume on his favourite 
theme of " Scottish Song," with bio- 
graphical notices and the music ; and in 
1889, " A Song of Lewes," being a series 
of historical ballads on the persons of 
representative men from Abraham to 
Wellington and Nelson ; and in 1890 
"Essays on subjects of Mox-al and Social 



Interest," in which he gives his life, 
conclusions on education, religion, 
politics, and other tojiics of the day. 
Latterly he has resumed his philological 
mission in behalf of Modern Greek ; has 
lectured on this subject at Oxford, Cam- 
bridge and Hayleybury ; and to the same 
effect has published papers in the Pro- 
ceedings of the Koyal Society, Edinburgh, 
in the Nineteenth Century, and in the 
Scottish Review. 

BLACKLEY, The Eev. Canon William 
Lewery, M.A., is the second son of the 
late Travers K. Blackley, Esq., of Ash- 
town Lodge, CO. Dublin, and Bohogh, co. 
Eoscommon. He was born at Lundalk, 
Ireland, Dec. 30, 1S30, and received part 
of his early education on the Continent. 
Having entered Trinity College, Dublin, 
in his sixteenth year, he obtained his 
B.A. degree in 1850, and his M.A. in 
1854, in which year he was ordained to 
the curacy of St. Peter's, SouthAvark ; 
shortly after, he became curate of Fren- 
sham, where he remained thii'teen years, 
and was then promoted by Bishop Sum- 
ner in 1867 to the rectory of North 
Waltham, Hants ; whence, in 1883, he 
was preferred, by Bishop Harold Browne, 
to the vicarage of King's Somboi'ne, in 
the same county, and to an Honorary 
Canonry in the Cathedral of Winchester. 
In 1889 he was appointed by the Dean 
and Chapter of Westminster, to the 
vicarage of St. James the Less, West- 
minster, which he now holds. In 1857 
he published his metrical translation from 
the Swedish, of Bishop Tegner's famous 
poem, " The Frithjof Saga." This was 
followed by the publication of his " Prac- 
tical German Dictionary," which, in its 
original and abridged forms, has passed 
through many editions. In 1867 he pub- 
lished his " Critical English New Testa- 
ment ; " and his volume on " Word Gossip" 
followed in 1869. He also, besides fre- 
quent contributions to all the leading 
Reviews, wrote, for the National Society, 
the Teacher's Manual, " How to Teach 
Domestic Economy," 1879 ; and " The 
Social Economy Reading Book," 1881 ; 
and his book on " Thi-ift and Indepen- 
dence, a Word to Working Men," was 
published by the S.P.C.K. in 1883. In 
Nov., 1878, he published an article in the 
'Nineteenth Century, under the title of 
" National Insurance, a cheap, practical 
and popular way of preventing Pau- 
perism," this immediately attracted 
public attention. A sermon, preached by 
Canon Blackley in Westminster Abbey, 
in Sept., 1879, on " Our National Im- 
providence," also attracted much notice. 
The Natignal Providence League was 

formed in 1880, for the purpose of edu- 
cating public opinion on the subject of 
National Insurance. Canon Blackley's 
proposals have reached far beyond this 
country, with the result that movements 
more or less upon his lines have been 
started in France, Switzerland, Italy, and 
New Zealand ; while a complete system 
of National Insurance has been estab- 
lished throughout the whole German 
Empire, securing sick pay, accident pay, 
and old age pensions to all workers. 

BLACKMORE, Kichard Doddridge, son 
of the Rev. John Blaekmore, was born at 
Longworth, Berkshire, in 1825. His 
maternal grandmother was a grand- 
daughter of Dr. Doddridge. He was edu- 
cated at Tiverton School, and Exeter 
College, Oxford, where he obtained a 
scholarship and graduated B.A. in 1847, 
taking a second class in classics. He was 
called to the Bar at the Middle Temple in 
1852, and afterwai-ds practised as a con- 
veyancer. He is the author of " Eric and 
Karine," " Epullia," " The Bugle of the 
Black Sea," and the following novels ; — 
" Clara Vaughan," 1864 ; " Cradock 
Nowell : a Tale of the New Forest," 
1866 ; " Lorna Doone : a Romance of Ex- 
moor," 1869 ; " The Maid of Sker," 1872 ; 
" Alice Lorraine : a Tale of the South 
Downs," 1875 ; " Cripps the Carrier : a 
Woodland Tale," 1876 ; " Ert'ma ; or. My 
Father's Sin," 1877 ; " Mary Anerley," 
1880 ; " Christowell ; a Dartmoor Tale," 
1882 ; " Tommy Upmore," 1884 ; " Spring- 
haven," and " Kit and Kitty." Mr. 
Blaekmore has also published " The Fate 
of Franklin," a poem, 186U ; " The Farm 
and Fruit of Old," a translation of the 
first and second Georgics of Virgil, 1862 ; 
and a translation of " The Georgics of 
Virgil," 1871. 

BLACKWELL, Elizabeth, was born in 
Bristol, Feb. 3, 1821. Her father, in 1832, 
removed to the United States, where he 
died in 1838, and, through misfortune, 
left his widow and nine childi-en almost 
penniless. Miss Blackwell aided in their 
support by teaching, studied medicine at 
Charleston, and at Philadelphia. She 
applied for admission to a number of 
medical schools, but was refused by all, 
except those of Castleton, Vermont, and 
Geneva, New York, and at the latter she 
matriculated in 1847, and in 1849 re- 
ceived the first medical degree conferred 
upon a woman in the United States. After 
her graduation she spent a year and a 
half in the Maternite Hosi^ital of Paris, 
and that of St. Bartholomew in London, 
and in 1851 established herself as a phy- 
sician, mainly in the treatment of women 



and children, at New York, where, in 
1S57, she founded the Infirmary for 
Women and Children. She has published 
" The Laws of Life," 1852 ; " Counsel to 
Parents on the Moral Education of their 
Children," 1879 ; and other professional 
works. In 1S59 she again visited Eng- 
land, and delivered a course of medical 
lectures. In 18G8 she returned to Eng- 
land, where she has since resided. She is 
connected with the Women's Medical 
College in London, and has taken an 
active part in other organizations for 
moral and social effort. 

BLAIKIE, Professor William Garden, 
CD., LL.D., son of an eminent lawyer, 
who afterwards rose to be Lord Provost of 
Aberdeen, was born at Aberdeen in 1820, 
and educated at the Grammar School and 
University of his native town. As soon 
as he was qualified, he received an ap- 
pointment to the parish of Drumblade ; 
but on the Disruption in 1843 he and his 
congregation joined the Free Church of 
Scotland. After a short ministry in the 
country he was invited to go to Edin- 
burgh, and there, in company with other 
young men of zeal, founded a Mission 
Church. In 1864 the L^niversity of Edin- 
burgh conferred on him the Degree of 
D.D., and a few years later he received 
the degree of LL.D. from the University 
of Aberdeen. In 1868 he was appointed 
Professor of Apologetics and Pastoral The- 
ology in New College, Edinburgh. In 1888, 
as " Cunningham Lecturer," he delivered 
a course of lectures on " The Preachers of 
Scotland," afterwards published. Dr. 
Blaikie was one of the chief promoters of 
" The Alliance of Reformed Churches 
holding the Presbyterian system," com- 
monly called " The Pan-Presbyterian," 
and was oae of the chief secretaries at 
each of the four meetings in Edinburgh, 
Philadelphia, Belfast and London. He 
has edited various jjeriodicals : he has 
also written " Better Days for Working 
People," " Personal Life of David Living- 
stone," " The Work of the Ministry," and 
numerous other works on theological and 
philanthropic subjects. He has contri- 
buted to many magazines and journals, 
including the Quiver, the Expositor; 
Harper, Macmillan, Good Words, Sunday 
at Home, &c. 

BLAINE, Hon. James Gillespie, Ameri- 
can statesman, was born at West Browns- 
ville, Washington County, Pennsylvania, 
Jan. 31, 183u. He entered the prepara- 
tory department of Washington College 
in his thirteenth year, and graduated in 
1847 at the head of his class. He then 
went to Kentucky, where he was Profes» 

sor of Mathematics in a military insti- 
tute. Here he met his wife, who was 
from Maine, and at her persuasion re- 
moved to Augusta, Maine, where he has 
since resided. Adopting journalism as a 
profession, he became part owner and 
editor of the Kennebec Journal in 1854, 
and editor of the Portland Daily Adver- 
tiser in 1857. He was one of the or- 
ganizers of the Republican party in 
Maine, and served in the State Legisla- 
ttire from 1858 to 1862, the last two 
years being Speaker. In 1862 he was 
elected a Representative in Congress, and 
was re-elected for each successive term 
until 1876. He was Speaker of the House 
of Rei^resentatives from 1869 to 1874, and 
was again the Republican candidate in 
1875, but was not elected as the Demo- 
crats wei-e then in control of that body. 
In 1876 Mr. Blaine was appointed U.S. 
Senator from Maine to fill a vacancy, and 
was subsequently elected for the term ex- 
piring in 1883. This position he resigned 
in March, 1881, to accept the Secretary- 
ship of State oifered him by Mr. Garfield. 
The assassination of the latter caused Mr. 
Blaine, with the rest of the Cabinet, to 
tender his resignation to Mr. Arthur, 
which was accepted, Dec. 1881. At the 
Republican National Convention in 1884, 
he was nominated for the Presidency, but 
owing to dissensions in his party, his 
Democratic opponent, Mr. Cleveland, was 
elected. During the administration of 
the latter, Mr. Blaine held no public 
ofiice biit occupied himself in completing 
the writing of his recollections of 
" Twenty Years in Congress " (2 vols., 
1884-86) begun by him on leaving the 
Cabinet, and in travelling in Europe. 
He returned to America in time to take 
part in the Presidential campaign of 
1886, in which he had declined to be him- 
self a candidate, in favour of the Repub- 
lican nominee. Gen. Harrison. On the 
election of President Harrison, Mr. Blaine 
was offered and accepted the position he 
had previously held in Mr. Garfield's 
Cabinet, the Secretaryship of State, an 
office which he still (1890) occupies. 

BLAIR, Lieut.-General, ~ James, C.B., 

ir.(fr., entered the army on June 10, 1844; 
Lieut., Mar. 19, 1848 ; Captain, Oct. 23, 
1857 ; Major, June 10, 1864 ; Lieut.-Col. 
June 10, 1870; Colonel, June 10, 1875; 
Major-Gen., July 2, 1885 ; Lieut.-General 
Jan. 9, 1889. Lie\it. -General J. Blair served 
throughout the Indian Mutiny campaign 
of 1857-59, and was present at the siege 
of Neemuch, siege and assault of Kotah, 
and pursuit of Tantia Topee (Medal with 
clasp, and Victoria Cross) ; he received 
the U.C. " tor having on two occasions 



distinguished himself by his gallant and 
daring conduct. First, on the night of 
Aug. 12, 1857, at Neemuch, in volunteer- 
ing to apprehend seven or eight armed 
mutineers, who had shut themselves up 
for defence in a house, the door of which 
he burst open. He then rushed in 
among them, and fox-ced them to escape 
through the roof ; in this encounter he 
was severely wounded. In spite of his 
wounds, he pursued the fugitives, but was 
unable to come up with them in conse- 
quence of the darkness of the night. 
Second, on Oct. 23, 1857, at Jeerum, in 
fighting his way most gallantly throxigh a 
body of rebels, who had literally sur- 
rounded him. After breaVing his sword on 
one of their heads, and receiving a severe 
sword cut on his right arm, he rejoined his 
ti'oop. In this wounded condition, and 
with no other weapon than the hilt of his 
broken sword, he put himself at the head 
of his men, charged the rebels most effec- 
tually, and dispersed them." 

BLAKE, The Hon, Edward, Q.C., LL.D., 
Canadian statesman, was born at Ade- 
laide, Ontario, Oct. 13, 1833, and became 
M.A. of Toronto University. 1858. He 
began the practice of law in 1859, and in 
1864 became a Queen's Counsel. In 1867 he 
was elected to the Ontario Legislature and 
also to the Dominion Parliament, and in 
1871-72 was Premier of Ontario. Thisposi- 
tion he retained for only one Session, being 
obliged to resign it on account of the pas- 
sage of the dual representation Act. He 
became a member, in 1873, of the Cana- 
dian Cabinet under the Mackenzie ad- 
ministration, serving for various periods 
as Minister of Justice and as President of 
the Council. Tiie Chancellorship of On- 
tario and the Chief Justiceship of the 
Supreme Court of the Dominion were 
offered to him, but he declined both. 
In 1878 he, with many other members of 
his party, was defeated for re-election, 
but he re-entered the parliament in the 
following year, and has since been 
generally recognized as the leader of the 
Liberal party. He was chosen Chancellor 
of the University of Toronto in 1876, and 
has repeatedly been re-elected since. The 
honour of knighthood was declined by 
him in 1877. In 1889 the degree of LL.D. 
was conferred upon him by the Univer- 
sity of Toronto. 

BLAKE, Henry Arthur, K.C.M.G., 
F.E.G.S., born at Corbally, Limerick, 
Jan. 18, 1810, is the eldest son of Peter 
Blake, Esq., County Inspector of Irish 
Constabulary, second son of Peter Blake, 
Esq., of Corbally Castle, Co. Galway (see 
title " Wallscourt," Burke's Peerage) j 

and Jane, daughter of John Lane, Esq., 
of Lanespark, Co. Tippei'ary (Capt. 17th 
Light Dragoons). He was educated at 
Dr. St. John's academy, Kilkenny, and 
Santry College ; entered the Eoyal Irish 
Constabulary Feb., 1859 ; Eesident Magis- 
trate 1876 ; was one of the five Special 
Eesident Magistrates (now Divisional 
Commissioners) selected in Jan., 1882, to 
concert and carry out measures for the 
pacification of Ireland ; had executive 
charge of the following counties — Kildare 
Co., Queen's Co., Meath, Carlow, Galway 
East and Galway West ; was Governor of 
Bahama 1884 to 1887 ; Governor of New- 
foundland 1877 to 1SS8, in which year he 
was appointed Governor of Queensland, 
but resigned his commission on return to 
England. He was appointed Captain- 
General and Governor-in-Chief of Jamaica, 
Jan. , 1889. He has contributed from time 
to time articles in The Westviinster Review, 
The Nineteenth Century, The Fortnightly, 
The St. James's Gazette, &c.; and has pub- 
lished " Pictures from Ireland," byTerence 
M'Grath. He married, 1st, in 1S62, Jane, 
eldest daughter of Andrew Irwin, Esq., 
Ballymore, Co. Eoscommon; she died in 
1866 ; 2nd, 1874, Edith, eldest daughter 
of Ealph Bemal Osborne, Esq., of Newton 
Anner, Co. Tipperary. 

BLASHILL, Thomas, Capt. H.A.C., son 
of Henry Blashill, Esq., of Sutton-on-HuU ; 
was educated at Hull and Scarborough, 
and professionally in London offices, and 
at University College. He is the Superin- 
tending Architect of Metropolitan Build- 
ings, and Architect to the London County 
Council, is a Member of Council of the 
Eoyal Institute of British Architects, and 
of the British Archseological Association ; 
a Past President (1862) of the London 
Architectural Association ; a Fellow of the 
Surveyors' Institution, and F.Z.S. He 
was elected a District Svu-veyor of Metro- 
politan buildings 1876, and Sajjerintend- 
ing Architect 1887. He has piiblished a 
" Guide to Tintern Abbey,'^ 1879, and has 
read papers " On Health, Comfort, and 
Cleanliness in the House," before the 
Society of Arts ; on " Oak and Chestnut 
in Old Timber Eoofs," before the Institute 
of Architects; on "Party- walls, &c.," 
before the Architectural Association ; on 
" Shoring," " The Growth and Seasoning 
of Timber," and on " English and Con- 
tinental Doors," before the Carpenters' 
Company ; and on " The Influence of the 
Public Authority on Street Architecture " 
before the Congress at Edinburgh in 1889. 

BLAVATSKY, Madame Helena Petrovna, 

the foundress of the " Theosophical 

. Society," was born at Ekaterin-^^low, in 



the south of Eussia, in 1831. She is, on 
her father's side, the daughter of Colonel 
Peter Hahn and grand-daughter of 
General Alexis Hahn von Eottenstern 
Hahn (a noble family of Mecklenburg, 
Gei-many, settled in Russia), and, on her 
mother's side, the daxighter of Helene 
Fadeef and grand-daughter of Privy 
Councillor Andrew Fadeef and of the 
Princess Helene Dolgorouky ; she is the 
widow of the Councillor of State, Nice- 
phore Blavatsky, a late high official at 
Tiflis under the Grand Duke Michael, 
then viceroy of the Caucasus. At the 
early age of seventeen, she was married 
to a husband of sixty, for whom she had 
no affection and to whom she engaged 
herself in a fit of girlish i^etulance. 
Three months, however, jjut an end to 
this unsuitable imion ; by mutual agree- 
ment they separated, Madame Blavatsky 
going to her father and then abroad. At 
Constantinople she had the good fortune 
to meet one of her friends, the Countess 
K , under whose protection she tra- 
velled for a time in Egyjjt, Greece and 
other jDarts of Eastern Europe. Ten 
years passed before she again saw her 
family, during which time her unquench- 
able love of travel and search for out-of- 
the-way knowledge carried her to all 
parts of the world. Colonel Hahn supply- 
ing his eccentric daughter with the 
requisite funds. In 1851 she started for 
Quebec to make acquaintance with the 
Ked Indians so graphically described to 
her imagination in the novels of Fenni- 
more Cooper. Disgusted by her personal 
acq\iaintance with the "noble red man," 
she went off to New Orleans, in quest of 
the Voodoos, a sect of negroes much 
given to magical practices. Thence she 
travelled through Texas to Mexico, and 
managed to see most of that insecure 
country, protected by her natural daring 
and fearlessness even in the roughest 
and most brutal communities. Leaving 
Mexico, with two companions of similar 
tastes, she sailed by the Cape and Ceylon 
to Bombay and attempted to enter Thibet 
by Neimul. Failing in this endeavour, 
she travelled through Southern India, 
and then on to Java and Singapore, 
whence she returned to Europe. The 
next two years were jiassed in the United 
States, but in 1855 Madame Blavatsky 
again went to India by Japan and the 
Straits, and with four compatriote made 
a second attempt to enter Thibet through 
Kashmir. Two of her comimnions were 
politely, but immediately conducted back 
to the frontier, and a third was prostrated 
with fever. In a suitable disguise, how- 
ever, and conducted by a friendly Tartar 
Shaman, she herself succeeded in cross- 

ing the frontier and penetrating the 
dreary deserts of that little known 
country. After some very strange ad- 
ventures and getting lost in the pathless 
wilds of Thibet, she was mysteriously 
reconducted to the frontier by a party of 
horsemen. The mutiny ti'outiles shortly 
afterwards beginning, she sailed from 
Madras to Java and thence again to 
Europe, and after spending some time in 
France and Germany returned home to 
Eussia in 1858. From Pskoff, Madame 
Blavatsky went to Tiiiis, where, riding 
one day in the forest, she was thrown 
from her horse and sustained a fracture 
of the spine which was the cause of a 
strange psychological exi^erience. For 
eighteen months she lived a complete 
dual existence, and considerably puzzled 
the clevez-est physicians who attended 
her. On her recovery in 18G3, she left 
the Caucasus and went to Italy, passing 
the following four years in Europe and 
experiencing a multiplicity of adventures. 
From 18G7 to 1870 she again visited the 
East. On her return, the vessel on which 
she was sailing from the Piraeus to 
Sjjezzia, and which was carrying a cargo 
of giuipowder, blew u]?, and Madame 
Blavatsky was one of the very few 
passengers saved. From Greece she went 
to Alexandria and thence to Cairo, where 
she established a Society for the in- 
vestigation of modern " Spiritualism" of 
which she then had had no experience ; 
but speedily threw it up in disgust, and, 
after spending some time at Boulak, re- 
turned to her family at Odessa in 1872. In 
1873 she again left Odessa for Paris and 
crossed to New York which she made her 
head-quarters for the next six years, be- 
coming a naturalized American. During 
this period, she investigated sonre of the 
most striking phenomena of American 
" Spiritualism " and in 1875 — together 
with Colonel Olcott, a well known and 
distinguished officer of the American 
army and a lawyer and journalist by 
profession, and other literary friends — 
founded the " Theosophical Society," 
with which her name has ever since been 
prominently connected. In defence of 
her oi:iinions, Madame Blavatsky in 1870 
published her first work, " Isis Unveiled, 
a Master-key to the Mysteries of Ancient 
and Modern Science and Theology," in 2 
vols. 8vo. In 1887 she settled in London, 
and started a Theosophical magazine, 
called " Lucifer, the Light-bringer," of 
which she is still editor together with 
Mrs. Annie Besant. In France she has 
been actively connected with three Theo- 
sophical reviews, viz. " Le Lotus," "La 
.....vue Theosophique," and " Le Lotus 
Bleu." In 1888 appeared the first two 



volumes of her greatest work, " The 
Secret Doctrine, the Synthesis of Science, 
Eeligion and Philosophy." This -was 
followed in 1889 by "The Key to Theo- 
sophy, a Clear Exj^sition in the Form of 
Questions and Answers of the Ethics, 
Science and Philosophy, for the Study of 
which the Theosophical Society has been 
founded ; " and by a smaller work, " The 
Voice of the Silence, or Fragments from 
the Book of the Golden Precepts." 

BLIND, Karl, was born at Mannheim, 
Sept. 4, 182G, and studied jurisprudence 
and ancient Germanic literature at Heidel- 
berg and Bonn. Active among students, 
working men, gymnastic associations, 
and the army, as a leader of Democratic 
circles, he was in 184tj and 1847 tried and 
imprisoned in Baden and Bavaria on 
charges of high treason, but acquitted. 
In 1848, at Karlsrixhe, he took a leading 
part in the preparations for a national 
rising. Arrested while endeavouring to ex- 
pand the movement into one for a German 
Commonwealth, he was freed Vjy the 
successes of the Revolution. During 
the Provisional Parliament at Frankfort, 
he insisted, at mass-meetings, on the 
abolition of the princely Diet, and the 
election of a provisional revohitionary 
executive. Wounded in a street-riot, he 
was proscribed after participating in the 
Eepublican rising led by Hecker. From 
Alsace he agitated for a new levy. 
Falsely accused of being implicated in 
the Paris Insurrection of June, he 
was imprisoned at Strassburg, and trans- 
ported in chains to Switzerland ; the Mayor 
of St. Louis generously preventing his sur- 
renderto the Baden authoriries, which had 
been planned by the French police. Dur- 
ing the first Schleswig-Holstein war, he, 
with Gustav von Struve, led, in Sept., 
1848, the second Eejjublican Revolution 
in the Black Forest. At the storming of 
Staufen, he fought on the barricade, 
and was among the last who left the town. 
Being made a prisoner through the 
treachery of some militiamen, he was 
court-martialled : his life being saved by 
the secret sympathy of two of the privates 
who wei-e members of the Court. Sen- 
tenced, after a State trial, lasting ten 
days, to eight years imprisonment in 
the spring of 1849, he was being secretly 
transported to the fortress of Mainz, 
when he was liberated by the people and 
soldiers breaking open the prison at 
Bruchsal. Heading the same day a 
hastily formed number of free corps, he I 
endeavoured, with Struve, to take Kastatt, 
and then entered the capital of Baden. He 
was a firm opponent of Brentano, the 
chief of the new Government, whom he 

accused of being in occult connection 
with the ejected dynasty — a fact after- 
wards proved when Brentano was de- 
clared a " traitor " by the Constituent 
Assembly. With Dr. Frederick Schutz 
he was sent on a diplomatic mission to 
Paris, accredited to Louis Napoleon, the 
then President of the Republic. There, 
in violation of the law of nations, he was 
arrested as being implicated in Ledru- 
Rollin's rising for the protection of the 
Roman Republic, and threatened with 
being sun-endered to the Prussian courts- 
martial if he continued to uphold his dip- 
lomatic quality. He refused to yield, 
and after several months of imprison- 
ment, was banished from France. After 
this, he lived in Belgium, with his wife, 
who has made many sacrifices for the 
popular cause, and also undergone im- 
prisonment. Xew prosecutions induced 
him to come with his family to England, 
whence he carried on a Democratic and 
National German Propaganda. After an 
amnesty in 1S62, the House of Deputies 
at Stuttgart gave him a banquet. He 
was the speaker of the London Germans 
at Garibaldi's entry. He promoted the 
Schleswig-Holstein movement in connec- 
tion with leaders of the Schleswig Diet, 
whose confidential communications he 
transmitted to the English Foreign 
Office; and he was at the head of the 
London Committee during the war of 
lS63-&i. At Berlin, his step-son met 
with a tragic death in the attempt 
on the life of Prince Bisraai-ck on 
May 7, 186(3. For many years, Karl 
Blind operated with Mazzini, Garibaldi, 
and other European leaders, and sup- 
ported the cause of Htmgai-y, Poland, the 
American Union, and the American Re- 
public ; for which thanks were expressed 
to him by President Lincoln, and Presi- 
dent Juarez. During the war of 1S7C- 
71, he supported his counti-y's cause. 
In England he has been a member of 
Executive Committees on Transvaal, 
Egyptian, and other affairs. Many poli- 
tical writings, and essays on history, 
mythology, and Germanic literature, 
published in Germany, England, America, 
Italy, and Spain, have proceeded from 
his pen. He has asserted himseK to bring 
about the national testimonial for the 
philosopher Feuerbach, and the monu- 
ments for the great minne-singer Hans 
Sachs, and for the famed minne-singer, 
Walther von der Yogelweide. 

BLOMFIELD, The Eight Eev. Alfred, 
D.D., Bishop of Colchester, is the youngest 
son of the late Dr. Charles James Blom- 
field. Bishop of London, and was born at 
Fulham, Aug. 31, 1833. From Harrow 

H 2 



school he proceeded to Balliol College, 
Oxford, where he obtained a first-class in 
classical moderations in 1853, and in 
Literm Humaniores in 1854. In the latter 
year he gained the Chancellor's Prize for 
Latin Verse. He was elected to a Fellow- 
ship at All Souls' College, and took the 
degree of B.A. in 1855 and M.A. in 1857. 
He was ordained priest in 1858 ; was 
curate of Kidderminster 1857-60; perpe- 
tual curate of St. Philip's, Stepney, 1862- 
65 ; vicar of St. Matthew's, City Road, 
1865-71 ; and vicar of Barking, Essex, 
1871-82. In 1869 he was chosen as a 
Select Preacher at Oxford. He was ap- 
pointed Archdeacon of Essex in 1878, and 
Archdeacon of Colchester in 1882. In 
the latter year he was also appointed 
Bishop of Colchester, as suffragan to the 
Bishop of St. Alban's, and he was conse- ^ 
crated in St. Alban's Cathedral by the 1 
Archbishop of Canterbury (June 24). A j 
few days befoi-e he had been created D.D., , 
honoris crmsa,bythe University of Oxford. 
He is the author of " Memoirs of Bishop 
Blomlield," his father, 2 vols., 1863 ; and 
" Sermons in Town and Country," 1871. 

BLOUET, Paul " Max O'Rell," was born i 
in Brittany (France), on March 2, 1848, j 
educated in Paris, and took his degree of | 
B.A. and B.Sc. in 1861 and 1865. He re- j 
ceived his commission in the French army 
in 1869 ; fought in the Franco-Prussian 
war, was made a prisoner at Sedan on 
Sept. 3, 1870 ; fought against the Com- 
mune ; was severely wounded, and pen- 
sioned. He came to England as newspaper 
correspondent in 1873 ; was appointed 
Head French Master of St. Paiil's School 
in 1876, and resigned his mastership in 
1881. He is the author of "John Bull 
and his Island," 1883; "John Bull's 
Daughters," 1884; "The Dear Neigh- 
bours," 1885 ; " Drat the Boys," 1SS6 ; 
"Friend MacDonald," 1887 ; and " John- 
athan and his Continent," 1889. He has 
also written educational works, amongst 
which is " French Oratory," 1883. Several 
orders, French and others, have been 
conferred on " Max O'Rell." During the 
years 1887, 1888, 1889, and 1890, he 
gave lectures in the United Kingdom, and 
in America, where he has paid two visits. 

BLUMENTHAL, Field-Marshal Leonard 
von, Chief of the General Staff of the 
Prussian Army, was born on July 30, 1810, 
at Schweldt, on the Oder. He was, like 
the majority of the leaders of the Prussian 
army, a soldier from childhood. Educated 
from 1820 to 1827 in the military academies 
of Culm and Berlin, he was entered on 
July 27, 1827, as Second Lieutenant in the 
Guard Landwehr regiment (the present 

Fusilier Guards), attended from 1830- 
1833 the general military school in 
Berlin, was from 1837-1845 Adjutant to 
the Coblenz Landwehr battalion, and be- 
came for the first time in 1816 Premier 
Lieutenant in the topographical division 
of the General Staff. In order that he 
might be thoroughly acquainted with 
technical military science, Blumenthal 
had been ordered for service during the 
following years to the Artillery Guards 
and the division of the Pioneer Guards. 
He had already, in March, 1848, taken 
part as Lieutenant in the Fusilier bat- 
talions of the 3 let Infantry Regiment in 
the street-fights in Berlin. Some months 
later, Blumenthal was transferred as 
Captain (Jan. 1, 1819) to the General 
Staff, to which he has, with slight inter- 
ruptions, belonged for about twenty-five 
years. In 1849 he took, as a member of 
the staff of General von Bonin, part in 
the Schleswig-Holstein campaign, and 
fought in the skirmishes at Auenbiill and 
Beuschau, in the battle of Colding, and 
in the affairs at Alminde, Gudsoe, and 
Tauloo-Church, and took, in the siege 
and battle of Fredericia, so active and 
conspicvious a part, that he was, on May 
14, 1849, promoted as Chief of the General 
Staff of the Schleswig-Holstein Army. 
His capabilities were regarded as being 
so brilliant, that in the following year 
(1850) he was named as General Staff 
officer of the Mobile Division under 
General von Tietzen in the electorate of 
Hesse. He was next sent, intriisted with 
special military propositions, to England, 
and was rewarded with the Order of the 
Red Eagle (fourth class, with swords). 
On June 18, 1853, advanced to the 
rank of Major in the Grand General 
Staff, Blumenthal was, as military com- 
panion and as General Staff officer of the 
8th Division, appointed to take part in 
the spring exercises of that year 
in Thuringia and at Berlin. His lin- 
guistic and departmental knowledge led 
to his being intrusted with further com- 
missions to England. In 1859 he was 
named the personal Adjutant of Prince 
! Frederic Charles. On July 1, 1860, he 
j became Colonel and Commander of the 
31st, later of the 71st Infantry Regiment. 
: In 1861 he accompanied General von 
Bonin to the British Court, and became 
then the conductor of the foreign officers 
at the autumn manoeuvres on the Rhine, 
and military companion of the Crown 
Prince of Saxony at the coronation in 
Konigsberg. Colonel von Blumenthal had 
been for some time Chief of the Staff of 
the Third Army Corps, when, on Dec. 15, 
1863, he was nominated the Chief 
of the General Staff of the combined 



Mobile Array Corps against Denmark, 
and then had the first opportunity of 
exhibiting his splendid abilities. The 
part which he took in that war, espe- 
cially at Missunde, in the storming of 
the trenches at Diippel, and the passage 
on to the island of Alsen, was so ex- 
tremely important, that on June 25, 1864, 
he was promoted to be Major-General, 
and received the Order pour le Merite. 
After the peace. General von Blumenthal 
commanded first the 7th and next the 
30th Infantry Brigade. In the Austrian 
war of 1K6G he was Chief of the General 
Staff of the Second Army of the Crown 
Prince, and for his distinguished services 
received the Oak-leaf of the Order pour le 
Merite (one of the rarest distinctions in 
the army) and the Star of Knight Com- 
mander of the Order of the House of 
Hohenzollern. On Oct. 30, 1866, he was 
designated Commander of the 14th Divi- 
sion in Diisseldorf, and accompanied the 
Crown Prince in the autumn of 1866 to 
St. Petersburg. When, on the outbreak 
of the war with France, the Crown Prince 
was intrusted with the supreme command 
of the Third Army, General von Blumen- 
thal was reqiiested to accept the impor- 
tant post of Chief of the General Staff ; 
and his Imperial Highness, when pre- 
sented by the Emperor of Germany with 
the Iron Cross, declared that the same 
distinction was equally due to General 
von Blumenthal. In 1871 he was sent to 
England to represent the German Empire 
at the autumn manoeuvres at CoVjham. 
It is unnecessary to add more than that 
von Blumenthal was made Field-Marshal 
in 1888, and is recognized as one of the 
most distinguished strategists of modern 

BLUNT, Arthur Cecil (known on the 
stage as Arthur Cecil), the son of a well- 
known solicitor, was educated at East 
Sheen, and at first intended for the army. 
But he soon displayed a great talent for 
music and acting, and first appeared as 
an amateur at the little theatre on Rich- 
mond Green, which had once witnessed 
the triumphs of Kean, and the debxd of 
Helen Faucit. In 1869 he appeared at 
the " Gallery of Illustration " in Mrs. 
German Keed's company, as Mr. Church- 
mouse in " No Cards," and as Box in the 
musical version of " Box and Cox." He 
acted for five years in Mrs. German Heed's 
company, and it was here that he attained 
that power of disguise of face and manner 
which has always been one of his chief 
characteristics. Mr. Cecil's principal 
parts on the stage proper have been Dr. 
Downward in Wilkie Collins's " Miss 
Gwilt ; " .Sir Woodbine Grafton in 

"Peril;" The Eev. Noel Haygarth in 
"The Vicarage;" John Hamond, M.P., 
in " Duty ; " Baron Verduret in 
" Honour ; " Baron Stein in " Diplomacy ; " 
Ned Guyon in the " Millionaire ; " and 
Mr. Posket in the " Magistrate ; " Mr. 
Cecil was joint manager with Mr. John 
Clayton, of the old Court Theatre, Sloane 
Square, from 1883 to 1887. At the New 
Court Theatre he has appeared under Mrs. 
John Wood's management in " Mamma " 
and "Aunt Jack," and is now ( 1890) playing 
the title role in " The Cabinet Minister." 

BLYTH, Sir Arthur, C.B., K.C.M.G., 
F.R.G.S., third son of the late William 
Blyth, of Birmingham, who married Sarah, 
the third daughter of the Rev. William 
Wilkins of Bourton-on-the-water, Glou- 
cestershire, was born in Birming- 
ham on March 19, 1823. He migrated, 
with his father, mother, and three 
brothers, to South Australia in 1839, 
leaving King Edward's School. Birming- 
ham, where he finished his education. 
He entered public life in South Australia 
as member for Tatata, under the Old Con- 
stitution, in 1855, and assisted in the 
passing of the New Constitution Act ; was 
Commissioner of Public Works in the 
Responsible Government, 1857, '58, '59, 
'60, Treasurer in 1S61, '62, '63 and '76, 
and Premier in 1872. He was Commis- 
sioner of Crown Lands and Immigration, 
1864, '65, '70, and '71, Chief Secretary 
1866, '67, Chief Secretary and Premier 
1873, '74, '75 ; was appointed Agent-Gen- 
eral for South Australia in London Feb- 
ruary 16, 1877 ; was a Commissioner for 
South Australia at the Paris Exhibition 
of 1878, and also Executive Commissioner 
at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition 
held in London in 1886 ; he was created a 
Knight Commander of the most distin- 
guished Order of St. Michael and St. 
George in 1877, and a Companion of the 
most honourable Order of the Bath, Civil 
Division, in 1886. 

BODDA-PYNE, nte Louisa Pyne, a 

popular English singer, daughter of a 
well-known singer, Mr. G. Pyne, was 
born in 1832, and was at a very 
early age the pupil of Sir George 
Smart, and made her first appearance 
about 1842. She sang in Paris with 
great success in 1847, appeared in opera 
in 1849, performed at the Royal Italian 
Opera in 1851, and visited the United 
States, where she was enthusiastically 
received, in 1854. After an absence of 
three years she returned to her native 
land, and was, in conjunction with Mr. 
Harrison, joint lessee for a short season 
of the Lyceum and Drury Lane, and from 



1858 till 1862 of Covent Garden Theatre. 
The enterprise having failed, she trans- 
feri'ed her services to Her Majesty's 
Theatre, and has frequently performed 
at Her Majesty's Concerts at Windsor 
Castle and Buckingham Palace. She is 
married to Mr. Frank Bodda. 

BODICHON, Mdme., wliose maiden name 
was Barbara Leigh Smith, the eldest 
daughter of the late Mr. Benjamin Smith, 
many years M.P. for Norwich, was born 
April 8, 1827, at Watlington, Sussex, and 
at an early age took a deep interest in 
social questions. In 1855-56 she started, 
in conjunction with some personal friends, 
a movement having for its object to secure 
to married women their own property and 
earnings ; and although their efforts did 
not prove successful in obtaining directly 
from Parliament the measvire they 
desired, they led to a change in the law 
of marriage and divorce. Miss Smith 
established at Paddington a school for the 
education of the daughters of artisans of 
the middle class. In July, 1857, she 
married M. Eugene Bodichon, M.D. 
(now deceased), and has since resided 
in Algeria. Madame Bodichon, by 
her efforts and munificent donation 
of ,£1000, was mainly instrumental, 
with Miss Emily Davies, in founding the 
now flourishing and well-known College 
for Women at Grirton, near Cambridge, 
where j^recisely the same course of aca- 
demical instruction which is afforded to 
men in the universities is given to female 
students. It is, however, as a charming 
and original water-colour artist that 
Madame Bodichon is best known to the 
public, her collection of water-colour 
drawings having been exhibited several 
times in London, at the Royal Academy 
and Dudley Gallery, also in Paris and 

BODY, George, D.D., Canon Missioner of 
Durham, was born at Cheriton, Eitzpaine, 
Devonshire, on January 7, 1840, and was 
educated at Blundell's School, Tivei-ton, 
under the head mastership of Rev. T. B. 
Hughes, M. A. From this school he passed 
as a Diocesan Strident, from the Diocese 
of Exeter, to St. Augustine's Missionary 
College, Canterbury. Through ill-health 
he had to give up his purj^ose of under- 
taking foreign missionary work, and 
passed from Canterbury to St. John's 
College, Cambi'idge, in October, 1859. In 
Lent, 1863, he was ordained Deacon, his 
first Curacy being at St. James's, Wednes- 
bury, in the Diocese of Lichfield. From 
Wednesbury he went to the Curacy of 
Sedgley, in the same Diocese, and from 
Sedgley to Wolverhampton. In 1870 he 

was appointed Eector of Kirby, Misper- 
ton, on the nomination of the Earl of 
Feversham, which benefice he held until 
1884. In 1883 he was called to the 
Diocese of Durham as Canon Missioner. 
From 1880-85 he represented The Arch- 
deaconry of Cleveland in the Convocation 
of York. In 1885 he was made D.D. of 
Durham (honoris causa), and in 1890 was 
elected a Vice-President of the Society of 
the Propagation of The Gospel in Foreign 
Parts as a recognition of his interest in 
foreign mission work. He has puplished 
many Sermons and two volumes of Lec- 
tures : (1) " The Life of Justification," in 
1870, and (2) " The Life of Temptation," 
in 1870, each of which is in its 7th edition. 

BOEHM, Sir Joseph Edgar, Bart., E.A., 
sculptor, was born in Vienna, July 6, 
1834, of Hungarian parents. His father 
was Director of the Mint in the Austrian 
Empire. He was educated at Vienna, 
and from 1818 to 1851 in England. He 
studied also in Italy, and for three years 
in Paris, but has been settled in England 
since 1862. He received the first Impe- 
rial Prize and exemption from military 
conscription in Vienna in 1856. He was 
elected a member of the Academy of 
Florence in 1875 ; an Associate of the 
Eoyal Academy of London in 1878 ; a 
member of the Academy of Rome in 1880 ; 
and a full Academician by the Royal 
Academy here in 1882. He was nomi- 
nated in 1881 Sculptor in Ordinary to the 
Queen, and he has delivered lectures on 
sculpture in the Royal Academy. In 
Aug., 1882, the gold medal given by 
Austria-Hungary at the Vienna Art 
Exhibition was awarded to him. Mr. 
Boehm executed a colossal statvie in 
marble of the Queen for Windsor Castle, 
in 1869 ; also a monument of the Duke of 
Kent in St. George's Chapel, and bronze 
statuettes of the Prince of Wales and all 
the Royal Family (for the Queen) ; also 
a colossal statue at Bedford of John 
Bunyau, 1872 ; and another in gilded 
bronze of the Duchess of Bedford for the 
Park, Woburn Abbey, 1874 ; a statue of 
Sir John Burgoyne in Waterloo Place ; a 
colossal equestrian statue of the Prince 
of Wales for Bombay, 1877 ; a colossal 
figure of an angel in marble for Castle 
Ashby for the Marquis of Northampton ; 
and an equestrian group in bronze for 
Eaton ; also a marble statiie of the 
late King Leopold of Belgium, for 
St. George's Chapel at Wiiidsor ; and 
he was commissioned by the Queen 
to execute a recumbent statue of 
the late Princess Alice and her 
daughter. Princess Maud, for the Royal 
Mausoleum at Frogmore, and a replica of 



it for Darmstadt. After the death of the 
Prince Imperial he was commissioned to 
execute a recumbent statue of him for 
Westminster Abbey ; but public opinion 
being strong against its being placed 
there, it was transferred to St. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. A statue, 12 feet high, 
of William Tyndall (the first translator 
of the Bible into English) has been exe- 
cuted by him for the Thames Embank- 
ment. He has also executed a marble 
bust of General Gordon as well as a 
recumbent statue of the General for St. 
Paul's ; likewise a colossal statue of the 
Queen for Sydney (Australia) ; and has 
received a command from Her Majesty 
for the effigy of H.R.H. the late Duke of 
Albany in Highland Costume for the 
Albert Chapel at Windsor, and busts for 
the Mausoleum and Balmoral Castle. In 
1889 Mr. Boehin was created a Baronet 
of the United Kingdom, and is at present 
(1890) engaged upon a fountain with 
mythological svibjects for the Duke of 
Bedford, an equestrian group for Baron 
Eothschild, and an equestrian statue of 
the late Lord Napier of Magdala, which 
is to be placed between the United Ser- 
vice Club and the Athenaeum. 

BOISSIEB, Professor Marie Louis Gaston, 

born August 15, 1823, at Nimes, was edu- 
cated at the Lycce of that town, and at 
the College Louis-le-Grand, Paris. In 
184G he became Professor of Rhetoric at 
Angouleme, and ten j'ears later was 
called to Paris as supplementary pro- 
fessor at the Lycce Charlemagne. In 
18G1 he iwoceeded to the College de 
France, as Professor of Latin Oratory. 
On June 8, 187(3, he was elected a 
member of the French Academy. M. 
Boissier has written " Le Poete Attius," 
ISoG ; " Une Etude sui- Terentius 
Varron," 1859 ; " Ciccron et ses Amis," 
180(3 ; " La Religion Romaine dAuguste 
aux Antonins," 1875 ; and many critical 
papers in the Revue des Deux Moncles, and 
the Revue de I' Instruct ion Publique. 

BONAPARTE, His Highness the Prince 
Louis-Lucien, is the fourth son of Lucien 
Bonaparte, Prince of Canino, brother of 
the Emperor Napoleon I. He was born 
at Thorngrove. near Worcester, on Jan. 4, 
1813, during the time that his father was 
prisoner on parole in England. After 
the battle of Waterloo, the family of the 
young prince removed into the Papal 
States, where he passed his early youth. 
Later on, he resided at Florence, and 
remained there until the revolution in 
1848, when he entered Fi*ance, and was 
elected deputy for Corsica, and shortly 
afterwards member of the Legislative 

Assembly. On Dec. 31, 1855, he was 
elected senator, and received the title of 
Highness, and, in 18G3, was nominated 
Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour. 
He is a D.C.L. of Oxford, and honorary 
Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature. 
His Highness was one of the founders of 
the Copenhagen Royal Society of 
Northern Antiqiuiries ; is honorary 
member of the St. Petersburg Imperial 
Academy of Sciences ; one of the twenty- 
five honorary members of the Scotch 
Society of Antiquaries ; and Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Philological Society of 
London. In 1884 the prince was placed 
on the English Civil List, and granted a 
pension of d£250 per annum, in recogni- 
tion of his eminence as a philologist. 
His works, most of which have been 
privately printed, embrace nearly all 
the Euro^jean languages, but it is the 
Basque language which he has made 
his special study. His earliest writings 
were chiefly upon chemical subjects, 
such as " Recherches chimiques sur 
le venin de la vipere," in the Gazzetta 
Toscana delle Scienze Medico-Fisiche of 
Florence, and "Recherches sur les 
valerianates de quinine et de zinc, sur le 
lactate de quinine, la phloridzinc et leur 
application a la Therapeutique,''' in the 
Journal de Chimie-Medicale. His jjliilo- 
logical publications have extended from 
1847 to the present time, and we can 
quote only a few : " Specimen lexici com- 
parativi omnium linguarum Europe- 
arum," Florence, 1847 ; " La verbe 
basque, par I'abbe Inchaiispe ; Langue 
basque et Langues finnoises,"' London, 
1802 ; " Carte des sept jirovinces basques, 
montrant la delimitation actuello de 
I'euskara et sa division en dialectes, 
sous-dialectes et varietes," London, 
1863 ; " Classification morphologique des 
Langues Europeennes," London, 1803 ; 
" Formulaire de prone en langue basque 
conserve nagucre dans I'eglise d'Arbonne, 
rcedite et suivi de quelques observations 
linguistiques siu- les sous-dialectes bas- 
navarrais et navarro-souletin de France 
et d'Espagne," London, 1800 ; " Orto- 
graphe applicable au patois de la Langue 
d'Oiil," London, 1807 ; " Le verbe basque 
en tableaux," London, 1809 ; " Beatrice. 
Notti tre. Per Giulio Luca in Partenabo 
(an anagram of the Italian spelling of his 
Highness's name) de' Cadolingi, cavaliere 
Etrusco. Osservazioni fonetiche, onde 
agevolare a'non Italiani, non che a molti 
Italiani, la corretta pronunzia toscana," 
London, 1879 ; " The simple sounds of all 
the Slavonic Languages compared with 
those of the jn-incipal Neo-Latin and 
Germano-Scandinavian Languages," Lon- 
don, 1880 ; " A list of the living Euro- 



pean Languages into which the Bible has 
been translated and printed," London, 
1881 ; " Descuhtrimicnto de manuscriptos 
bascos en Ingleterra," Pamplona, 1884 ; 
" Linguistic Islands of the Neapolitan 
and Sicilian Provinces of Italy, still 
existing in 1889, with eleven maps," 
Hertford, 1890. 

BOND, Edward Augustus, C.B., LL.D., 
F.S.A.; son of the Eev. Dr. Bond, of 
Hanwell, Middlesex, was born Dec. 31, 
1815. He was educated in his father's 
house, and at Merchant Taylors' School, 
London. In 1832 he received an appoint- 
ment under the Commissioners of Public 
Eecords. In 1838 he entered the British 
Museiim as an Assistant in the Depart- 
ment of Manuscripts. He was aiapointed 
Librarian of the Egerton MSS. in 1852, 
Assistant-Keeper of the MSS. in 1854, 
and Keeper of the Department in 186G, 
In Aug., 1878, he was appointed Principal 
Librarian of the British Museum, and 
resigned the office in July, 1888. As 
Keeper of the MSS., Mr. Bond designed, 
and, with the help of his staff, completed 
in 1870, a Class-Catalogue of the several 
collections of manuscripts in the British 
Museum, and subsequently he published 
a Catalogue of all the Manuscripts, 
Papyri, and Charters acquired during the 
years 1854-75, in two 8vo volumes ; 
also a series of Facsimiles of Anglo-Saxon 
and other Ancient Charters in the 
Museum, with exact Eeadings, in four 
parts. He has contributed papers to the 
Archseologia of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, including an "Account of 
Money-lending Transactions of Italian 
Merchants in England in the Thirteenth 
and Fourteenth Centuries," 1839. He 
passed through the press, for the Oxford 
Commissioners, the " Statutes of the 
University," in 3 vols. 8vo, 1853 ; edited 
for the Hakluyt Society, in 1856, Dr. 
Giles Fletcher's " Eusse Common 
"Wealth," and Sir Jerome Horsey's 
" Travels in Eussia ; " edited for Govern- 
ment " The Speeches in the Trial of 
Warren Hastings," 4 vols. 8vo, 1859- 
61 ; and for the EoUs Series of Chro- 
nicles, the "Chronicon Abbatise de 
Melsa," in 3 vols. In 1870, conjointly 
with his colleague, Mr. E. M. Thompson, 
he founded the Palseographical Society, 
of which he is President, and, in collabo- 
ration with that gentleman he has edited 
the series of " Facsimiles of Ancient 
Manuscripts and Inscriptions," pi'oduced 
by the Society. The University of Cam- 
bridge conferred on Mr. Bond the 
honorary degree of LL.D. in 1879. He 
was made a Companion of the Bath in 
the year 1885 ; and he has received the 

Order of the Crown of Italy. In the year 
1847 he married Caroline Frances, eldest 
daughter of the Eev. Eichard Harris Bar- 
ham, author of the "Ingoldsby Legends." 

BOND, The Right Rev. William Bennett, 
M.A., LL.D., Bishop of Montreal, was 
born at Truro, in 1815. He received his 
education in various public and private 
schools in Cornwall and in London, and at 
an early age emigrated to Newfoundland, 
where he studied for the ministry with 
Archdeacon Bridge ; and at Montreal, to 
which he hiu meantime repaired, was, in 
1840, orlained a deacon, and in 1841 a 
priest. For several years, tinder the 
direction of the late Bishop Mountain, of 
Quebec, he organised many mission 
stations in the Eastern Townships of the 
Province of Quebec ; was incumbent of 
Lachine for a number of years ; and 
assistant minister in St. George's, 
Montreal, of which he finally became 
incumbent. He maintained his connec- 
tion with this parish for the long period 
of thirty years, successively becoming 
Archdeacon of Hochelaga and Dean of 
Montreal. On the resignation of Bishop 
Oxenden, he was in 1879 elected by the 
synod of the diocese to the Bishopric of 
Montreal. Bishop Bond is President of 
the Theological College of the Diocese of 
Montreal, and is an LL.D. of the Univer- 
sity of McGill College. 

BON GAULTIER. See Martin, Sir 

BONGHI, Ruggiero, Italian writer and 
statesman, was born at Naples, March 20, 
1828. At the age of eighteen he pub- 
lished a translation of Plotinus, which 
was followed in 1846 by a translation, 
with critical notes, of Plato's "Philibe." 
At the beginning of the revolutionary 
movement of 1848 he established a 
journal in Florence, II Naxionale, and 
took an active part in the events up to 
1849, for which he was exiled from the 
kingdom of Naples. He then foi'med a 
close friendship with Manzoni and 
Eosmini, and again took up his philo- 
sophic studies. In 1857 he published an 
important translation of Aristotle's Meta- 
physics, and in 1858 a new edition of the 
works of Plato. In 1859 he was made 
Professor of Philosophy at the new 
Academy at Milan, and the following 
year entered the Italian Parliament. In 
1863 he started at Turin a journal. La 
Stampa, in the cause of moderate demo- 
cracy, and in 1864 was appointed Pro- 
fessor of Greek Literature in the Univer- 
sity of that city. The next year he went 
to Florence as Professor of Latin, and 



became a member of the Superior Council 
for Teaching. Subsequently he returned 
to his Chair at the Academy at Milan, 
and there edited La Perseveranza. From 
Milan he went to the University at Kome 
as Professor of Ancient History, and 
thence to Naples in 1872 to assume 
direction of the Unitd Nationale. On the 
3rd October, 1874^, Signor Bonghi was 
appointed Minister of Public Instruction 
in the Minghetti Cabinet. He has done 
much to promote education in Italy, and 
has written much and admirably on the 
questions of Church and State. Besides 
the works already mentioned he is the 
author of " Lettere critiche sul perche la 
letteratura italiana no e poiwlare in 
Italia," 1873, 3rd edit. ; " Storia della 
finanza italiana," 1864-68 ; " La Vita e i 
Tempi di Valentino Basini," 1869; "Frati, 
Papi e Ee," 1873; "Leone XIII. e 
I'ltalia," 1878 ; " II Congresso di Berlino 
e la crisi d'Oriente," 1878 ; " Francesco 
d'Assisi," 1884. 

BONHETJS, Mademoiselle Bosalie, called 
Rosa, an artist unrivalled amongst her 
own sex for the minute and spirited 
delineation of the various forms of animal 
life, was bom at Bordeaux, March 22, 
1822. The daughter of a French artist 
of some distinction, she profited by the 
instructions of her father, who was her 
sole adviser in the mechanism of painting. 
As the avocations of her family compelled 
them to reside in Paris, the indulgence of 
her own particiilar tastes in the choice 
of subjects for study was somewhat diffi- 
cult of attainment, and she derived her 
early instruction from a study of such 
animal life as could be seen by her in the 
streets and abattoirs of Paris. In 1841 
she entered upon her career by exhibiting 
two pictures, " Chevres et Moutons " and 
" Les Deux Lapins," which established 
her reputation. These were followed by 
a succession of highly finished composi- 
tions, amongst which may be cited the 
celebrated " Labourage Nivemais," which 
was completed in 1849, and has been 
added to the collection in the Luxem- 
bourg. She attends the horse-markets 
both in France and abroad, adopting the 
masculine garb, which is not ill-suited to 
the decided character of her face, and 
enables her to inspect and to purchase 
her subject with less interruption and 
remark. She has fitted up an ante- 
chamber divided only by a partition from 
her studio, as a stable for the convenience 
of the various animals domesticated 
therein, and has established a small fold 
in its immediate vicinity for the accbm- 
modation of sheep and goats. It is owing, 
in a measure, to this conscientious 

examination of the developments of 
animal life that she has produced such 
masterpieces of representation as the 
" Horse Fair," a picture which formed 
the chief attraction at the French Exhi- 
bition of pictures in London during the 
season of 1855, and which almost mono- 
polized for a time the attention of artists 
and connoisseurs. In 1855 she sent to 
the Universal Exhibition in Paris a new 
landscape of large dimensions, " The 
Haymaking Season in Auvergne." Rosa 
Bonheur has evinced in her works a 
wonderful power of representing spirited 
action, which distinguishes her from 
other eminent animal painters of the day, 
and which endows her pictures as compo- 
sitions with extraordiuary interest. 
Several of this lady's productions have 
been engraved for the English public. 
Since 1849 she has directed the gratui- 
tous School of Design for Young Girls of 
Paris. She obtained a first-class medal 
in 1848, and another in 1855. She was 
decorated with the Legion of Honour, 
June 10, 1865, and in 1868 she was 
appointed a member of the Institute of 
Antwerp. During the siege of Paris in 
1870-71, her studio and residence in 
Fontainebleau were spared and respected 
by special order of the Crown Prince of 
Prussia. Two important pictures by 
this artist, "A Foraging Party," and 
"On the Alert," were exhibited at the 
Antwerp Academy in 1^79, and in 
London in 1881. " The Lion at Home," 
exhibited ia London, 1882, was a result 
of the painter's study of a fine couple of 
Nubian lions which were presented to her 
by a friend. In Jan., 1880, the King of 
the Belgians conferred the Leopold Cross 
on Mdlle. Rosa Bonheur, who was the 
firat lady to receive this distinction ; and 
in the following month she received from 
the King of Spain the Commander's 
Cross of the royal Order of Isabella the 
Catholic, this being the first instance 
in Spain of such a distinction being con- 
ferred upon a woman . 

BONNAT, Leon, a French painter and 
Member of the Institute, was born at 
Bayonne, June 20, 1833, was a pupil of 
Madrazo and Leon Cogniet, and in 1857 
obtained the second prize at Eome for his 
" Resurrection de Lazare." Since that 
time he has been a constant exhibitor at 
the annual Salons. Among his works 
may be mentioned " Le bon Samaritain," 
1859; "Adam et Eve trouvant Abel 
mort," 1861 ; " Pelerins dans I'eglise 
Saint Pierre de Rome," 1864; " Rib era 
dessinant a la porte de I'Ara Coeli a 
Rome," 1867. After a tour in the East 
he produced the "Assumption," 1869; 



" Femme fellah et son enfant," 1870 ; 
" Femnies d'Ustaritz," 1872, and many 
others which have been rendered jjopular 
through engravings. M. Eonnat ob- 
tained two medals of the second class in 
1861 and 1867, and the Medal of Honour 
in 1869. In 1867 he was decorated with 
the Legion of Honour. For many years 
he has confined himself to portraiture, 
and his best portraits, such as those of 
Thiers and Victor Hugo, have gained for 
him great and wide celebrity. 

BONNEY, Professor, The Rev. Thomas 

George, D.Sc. (Cantab.), LL.D. (Mon- 
treal), F.E.S., F.S.A., F.G-.S., &c., son of 
late Rev. T. Bonney, M.A., was born 
July 27, 1833, at Eugeley, and educated 
at Uppingham School and St. John's 
College, Cambridge, where he gi-aduated 
as 12th Wrangler and 16th in second 
class classics in 1856. He was elected in 
1859, to a Fellowship, which he still 
holds. From 1856 to 1861 he was Mathe- 
matical Master at Westminster School, 
but returned to Cambridge in the latter 
year. During his residence there he was 
active in securing for Natural Science a 
due place in Academic studies and pro- 
moting reforms in the University. He 
was appointed a tutor of the College in 
1868, and was lecturer in Geology. In 1877 
he was elected Professor of Geology at 
University College, London, and in 1881, 
on being api^ointed Secretary of the 
British Association, finally quitted Cam- 
bridge to reside at Hampstead. He re- 
signed the latter post in 1885, was Presi- 
dent of the Geological Section at the 
Meeting in 1886, and delivered one of 
the Evening Discourses in 1888. He was 
for six years Secretary of the Geological 
Society, and aftei'wards President. In 
1889 he received the Wollaston Medal. 
He has been also President of the Min- 
eralogical Society. In Geology, Prof. 
Bonney has chiefly devoted himself to 
Petrological and Physical questions, and 
has written numerous papers printed in 
the Quarterly Journal of the Geological 
Society, the Geological Magazine, the pub- 
lications of the Royal Society, &c. He is 
a member of the Alpine Club, and has 
been its President. On Alpine subjects, 
he is the author of " Outline Sketches in 
the High Alps of Dauphine," 1865 ; " The 
Alpine Regions," 1868 ; besides furnish- 
ing the text to several illustrated works 
on the Alps, Norway, &c. He has also 
contributed largely to several works of 
descriptive topograi^hy, such as " Pic- 
turesque Europe," " Our Own Country," 
" English Cathedrals," &c. , and translated 
Pierotti's " Jerusalem Explored," 1864 ; 
and " Customs of Palestine," 1864. Or- 

dained in 1857, Professor Bonney was 
one of the Cambridge Preachers at the 
Chapel Royal, Whitehall, 1876-8, and has 
been five times a special preacher before 
the University of Cambridge, on the last 
occasion being Hulsean Lecturer. These 
lecttires, " On the Influence of Science on 
Theology," have been published (1885), 
besides two other small volumes and 
several detached sermons. He is an 
Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of 
Manchester, and an Honorary Canon of 
that Cathedral. 

BOOTH, Edwin, American actor, was 
born at Bel Air, near Baltimore, Mary- 
land, Nov. 15, 1833. He is a son of the 
late Junius Brutus Booth, and was 
trained for the dramatic profession under 
his father's guidance. Having filled a 
few minor parts, he made his first regular 
appearance on the stage as Tressel, in 
" Richard III. ," at Boston, in 1849, and 
in 1851 performed the character of 
Richard III., at New York, in place of 
his father, who had been suddenly taken 
ill. After a tour through California, 
Aiistralia, and many of the Pacific Islands, 
he re-appeared at New York in 1857, 
visited England and the Continent in 
1861, and returning to New York com- 
menced a series of ShaksiJerean revivals 
at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1863. 
After a series of engagements in Boston, 
Philadelphia, and other large cities, he 
began, in 1868, the erection of a new 
theatre in New York, which was opened 
Feb. 3, 1869 ; but the cost of the building, 
in which Mr. Booth had invested all his 
means, prevented ultimate pecuniary 
success, and the theatre passed from his 
hands and was finally pulled down (1882). 
For several years he virtually retired 
from the stage, but near the close of 1877 
he began in New York a series of per- 
formances. He rarely undertakes any 
except the leading characters of Shak- 
spere: Hamlet, Othello, lago, Shylock, 
and Richard III., Hamlet being his most 
admired impersonation. In 1881 he went 
to England, where he remained for two 
years, and where he alternately took the 
parts of Othello and lago with Mr. Irving. 
In the early part of 1883 he played Shak- 
sperean parts at Berlin and Hamburg. 
He published in 1877-78 an edition of the 
principal plays in which he has appeared, 
with the text as adapted by himself for 
stage use, and with introductions and 
notes by William Winter (15 vols.). 

BOOTH, The Rev. William, General of 
the Salvation Army, was born at Notting- 
ham, April 10, 1829, and educated at a 
private school in that town. He sttidied 



theology with the Eev. Wm. Cooke, D.D., 
became a minister of the Methodist New 
Connexion in 1850, and was appointed 
mostly to hold special evangelistic ser- 
vices, to which he felt so strongly drawn 
that when the Conference of 1861 re- 
quired him to settle in the ordinary cir- 
cuit work, he resigned, and began his 
labours as an evangelist amongst the 
churches wherever he had an opportunity. 
Coming in this capacity to the East End 
of London he observed that the vast 
majority of the jjeople attended no place 
of worship, and he started " The Chris- 
tian Mission " in July, 1805. To this 
mission, when it had become a large or- 
ganisation, formed upon military lines, 
he gave in 1878 the name of " The Salva- 
tion Army," under which it soon became 
widely known, and grew rapidly imtil it 
had in Dec, 1885, 1,322 corps, at stations 
established in the United Kingdom, 
France, the United States, Australia, 
India, the Cape of Good Hoi:ie, Canada, 
and Sweden. 3,076 officers or evangelists 
are entirely employed in and supported 
by this Army under the General's abso- 
hite direction, and they hold upwards of 
25, -496 services in the open air and in 
theatres, music halls, and other buildings 
evei-y week. The General has published 
several hymn and music books, voKimes 
entitled " Salvation Soldiery," " Training 
of Children," and " Letters to Soldiers," 
describing his views as to religious life 
and work. " Holy Living," and " Orders 
and iiegulations for the Salvation Army," 
are some of the smaller publications 
issued by him for the direction of the 
Army as to teaching and sei'vices. 
He also contributed an article on " The 
Salvation Army," to the Contemporary 
Review for Aug., 1882. Mrs. Booth 
shared largely in all the General's 
efforts, and further explained their views 
in " Practical Religion," " Aggressive 
Christianity," " Godliness," " Life and 
Death," and " The Salvation Army in 
relation to Church and State." She died 
of cancer, in Oct.. 1890, after a painfiil ill- 
ness borne with Christian fortitude. The 
General's eldest son is his Chief of Staff, 
managing all the business, his eldest 
daughter with her husband directs the 
work in France, the second son com- 
mands the forces in America, the 
third son is in charge of the 
work in Great Britain, the second 
daughter, together with her husband, 
supervises the operations in India and 
Cej'lon, the third daughter, as Field 
Commissioner, conducts mass meetings in 
the chief English cities, the fourth 
daughter is at the head of the Women's 
Training- Depots established in various 

parts of London, so that each 
member of the family is actively em- 
ployed in some branch of the Army's ser- 
vice. The General established The War 
Cry as a weekly gazette of the Army in 
1880. It is now published weekly in 
England, similar papers being published 
at each Colonial and Foreign head-quar- 
ters, so that there are now 28 weekly 
War Cry's, with a united circulation of 
over 558,000. En Avant in Paris, Strids 
Ropet in Stockholm, the Jangi Pokar 
(Gujarati) edition in Gujarat, a Tamil 
one in Madras, a Singhalese one in 
Ceylon, and an English and Marathi 
edition in Bombay. Belgium, Holland, 
and Germany also publish separate edi- 
tions in their respective languages. In 
Nov.. 1S90. he published a volume entitled 
" Darkest London," containing a scheme 
for the enlightenment and industrial sup- 
poi't of the lower classes. This has met 
with almost universal support ; H.E..H. 
the Prince of Wales, the Archbishops 
and Cardinals, and many others having 
testified their approval of the scheme. 

BORTHWICK. Sir Algernon, Bart., M. P., 
is the son of the late Mr. Peter Borth- 
wick, formerly member for Evesham. 
When a young man he went to Paris as 
correspondent to the Morning Post (with 
which his father was connected), and was 
present at the Coup cVEtat in Dec, 1851. 
On the death of his father in 1853 he 
came to London and undertook the 
management of the Morning Post, subse- 
quently becoming owner of the property. 
Sir Algernon was the chief promoter of 
the Owl, a paper which appeared during 
the parliamentary session of 1864, and 
created a great sensation on account of 
the bold way in which State secrets were 
revealed and discussed. The authorship 
was kept a secret for many years, and 
the paper itself came to an end in 1870. 
In 1880 Mr. Borthwick offered himself as 
a Conservative candidate for the borough 
of Evesham, formerly represented by his 
father ; he was, however, defeated by a 
small majority and did not enter Parlia- 
ment till 1885, when he was returned for 
South Kensington. At the general election 
of 1886 Sir Algernon was again returned 
for South Kensington. He is President 
of the Press Fund, and also of the News- 
paper Society ; vice-President of the In- 
stitute of Journalists, and a Fellow of 
King's College, London. Sir Algernon 
married, in 1870, Alice Beatrice, youngest 
daughter of the late Lady Theresa Lewis, 
and niece of the Earl of Clarendon and 
of Earl Eussell. 

BOBTOK, General Sir Arthur, G.C.B., 



G.C.M.G., is the youngest son of the late 
Rev. John Drew Borton, rector of Blofield, 
Norfolk, by Louisa, daughter of the Kev. 
Thomas Carthew, of Woodbridge, Suffolk. 
He was boi-n at Blofield in 1814, and edu- 
cated at Eton and at the Royal Military 
College at Sandhurst. He entered the 
army in 1832, became captain in 1841, 
and served with the 9th Regiment in the 
Afghanistan campaign of 1842, and the 
Sutlej campaign of 1845-G. He became 
lieutenant-colonel in 1853, was jjromoted 
to colonel in 18u4, and served in the 
Crimea in command of the above regi- 
ment. His subsequent promotions were : 
— major-general 18G8, lieutenant-general 
1875, colonel of the 1st West Indian Re- 
giment 187C, of the 9fch — the Norfolk Regi- 
ment — in 1889, and general 1878. He was 
nominated a Companion of the Order of 
the Bath (Military Division) in 1854, and 
was promoted to a Knight Commander- 
ship of the same Order in 1877, and 
Knight Grand Cross in 1884. From 1878 
to 1884 he was Governor and Commander- 
in-Chief of the island of Malta, and is a 
Knight of the Legion of Honour, and the 
3rd class of the Medjidieh. General Sir 
Arthur Borton married, in 1850, Caroline, 
daughter of the late Rev. John Forbes 
Close, rector of Morne, County Down. 

BOSISTO, Joseph, C.M.G., was born 
March 21, 1827, at Hammersmith. He 
became a druggist, and emigrated to Ade- 
laide, South Australia, in 1848, where he 
remained for three years, and established 
the wholesale business of Messrs. Faulding 
& Co. After a short attack of the gold 
fever in 1851, he went to Melbourne, and 
began business at Bridge Road, Rich- 
mond. The business, at first almost 
purely a pharmaceutical one, soon 
developed into a regular manufacturing 
concern, and upon its founder dis- 
covering the remarkable antiseptic jjro- 
perties of the eucalyptus trees, it 
developed into a large undertaking. 
The Pharmaceutical Society of Victoria 
was founded by Mr. Bosisto in 1857, with 
the aid and cordial co-operation of a few of 
the chief pharmacei\tists of Victoria, and 
has proved to have exerted a highly bene- 
ficial influence in the development of phar- 
maceutical and therapeutical knowledge 
throughout the Colony. Mr. Bosisto has 
sat as a Municipal Councillor for over 12 
years, in the course of which time he held 
the oflSce of Mayor for two consecutive 
periods. He was elected Chairman of 
the Richmond Magisterial Bench for five 
years successively, was returned to Par- 
liament in 1874, and has always been 
placed at the head of the poll in the elec- 
tions which have occurred since. Mr. 

Bosisto was appointed President of the 
Royal Commission of Victoria at the 
Colonial and Indian Exhibition, 1886. 

BOTTOMLEY, James Thomson, M.A., 
F.R.S., F.R.S.E., was born at Fortbreda, 
County Down, Ireland, on Jan. 10, 1845. 
His father was William Bottomley, mer- 
chant of Belfast, and Justice of the 
Peace ; his mother was second daughter 
of the late Dr. James Thomson, Professor 
of Mathematics in the University of 
Glasgow, and a sister of Sir William 
Thomson, F.R.S., and Professor James 
Thomson, F.R.S., both professors in 
Glasgow University. Mr. Bottomley 
was educated partly at a private school 
and partly at the Royal Belfast Academical 
Institution. His parents intended that he 
should enter the then Established Church 
in Ireland, and he was sent to Trinity 
College, Dublin, with that object ; but 
when he had jjassed through half of his 
undergraduate course, the desire of fol- 
lowing a scientific career became| so 
strong that he was permitted to pursue 
his bent. He then became a pupil, and 
subsequently an assistant, of the late Dr. 
Thomas Andrews, F.R. S., Professor of 
Chemistry in Queen's College, Belfast — 
studying with him Chemistry and Chemi- 
cal Physics, and devoting much attention 
at the same time to Mathematics and 
Natui-al Philosophy. He finally took the 
degree of B.A. in Trinity College, Dublin, 
and the degrees of B.A. and M.A., with 
first-class Honours and Gold Medals in 
Natural PhilosoiDhy and Chemistry, in 
the Queen's University in Ireland. After 
a year's residence in Glasgow, with his 
uncle, Sir William Thomson, where he 
studied Chemistry under the late Dr. 
Thomas Anderson, and Physics in the 
Natural Philosophy Laboratory, Mr. 
Bottomley was appointed Demonstrator 
in Chemistry at King's College, London, 
under the late Dr. W. A. Miller, F.R.S. 
He held this ofiice only one year ; for, to 
his great disappointment, his health be- 
came injuriously affected in the Chemical 
Laboratory, and he was glad, with the 
consent of Dr. Miller, and at the wish of 
Professor W. G. Adams, to be transferred 
to the post of Demonstrator in Natural 
Philosophy in King's College. In 1870 
he removed to Glasgow to take i^art in 
the teaching of the Natural Philosophy 
Class in the University, iinder a special 
arrangement made for that purpose. Sir 
William Thomson being at that time 
actively engaged in the great work of 
laying some of the submarine cables ; and 
Mr. Bottomley has continued to assist, 
and when necessary represent, Sir 
William Thomson since that time. He 



is the author of original papers as " Con- 
duction of Heat," " Radiation of Heat/' 
" Elasticity of Wires, &c.," which have 
been published in " The Philosophical 
Transactions of the Eoyal Society," "The 
Royal Society Proceedings," Philosophical 
Magazine, " Proceedings of the British 
Association," and elsewhere. He is also 
the author of elementary text-books on 
"Dynamics." and on "Hydrostatics," 
and of " Four Figure Mathematical 
Tables." He is Fellow of the Royal 
Society, of the Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, and of the Chemical Society, Mem- 
ber of the Institution of Electrical 
Engineers, and of the Physical Society. 

BOUCHAEDAT, Apollinaire, pharmaceu- 
tist, member of the Academy of Medicine, 
was born at I'lsle-sur-le-Serein (Yonne) 
about 1810, studied medicine in Pai-is 
whilst very young, and was named a 
Fellow of that facility in 1832. He was 
pharmaceutist-in-chief at the hospital of 
Saint- Antoine, and in 1834 was appointed 
to the same functions at the Hotel Dieii, 
which he fulfilled until 1855, when he re- 
signed, in order to devote himself to 
scientific works. In 1838 he disputed 
with much talent the chair of pharmacy 
and organic chemistry in the facidty of 
Medicine with M. Dtimas. In 1845 he 
was appointed a member of the Council 
of Health, and created a Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour. He became a member 
of the Academy of Medicine in 1850, and, 
after competition, obtained the chair of 
Hygiene in 1852. In addition to numer- 
ous botanical and medical " memoirs," 
which have been published collectively 
under the titles of " Recherches sur la 
Vegetation," M. Bouchardat has written 
a " Cours de Chimie Elementaire, avec ses 
principales Applications a la Medecine et 
aux Arts," published in 1834-5 ; " Cours 
des Sciences Physiques," in 1841-4 ; 
" Elements de Matiere Medicale et de 
Pharmacie," in 1838 ; " L'Annuaire de 
Therapeutique," since 1841 ; " Nouveau 
Formulaire Magistral," in 1840; " For- 
mulaire Veterinaire," in 1819; "Opus- 
cules d'Economie Rurale," in 1851 ; 
" Archives de Physiologie," in 1854 ; 
and Repertoire de Pharmacie, published 
monthly since 1847. He has written a 
series of interesting works upon vines and 
wines. " L'Influence des Eaux Potables 
sur la Production du Goitre et du Cre- 
tinisme ; " a work upon " Diabetes," and 
numerous " Memoirs," presented to the 
Academy of Medicine, and " Traite 
d'Hygiene Publique et Privee basee sur 
I'Etiologie," 1881. 

BOUGHTON, Georire Henry, A.R.A., was 

born in Norfolk, in 1833. His family 
w0nt to America about 183G and he passed 
his youth in Albany, New York, where he 
early developed an artistic taste. In 1853 
he came to London, and passed several 
months in the study of art. Returning 
to America, he settled in New York, and 
soon became known as a landscape painter. 
In 1859 he went to Paris, where he devoted 
two years to study, and in 1861 he opened 
a studio in London. He was elected an 
Associate of the Royal Academy, June 
19, 1879. Among his best works are : — 
" Winter Twilight," " The Lake of the 
Dismal Swamp," "Passing into the 
Shade," " Coming into Church," " Morn- 
ing Prayer," " The Scarlet Letter," " The 
Idyl of the Birds," " The Return of the 
Mayflower," " Councellors of Peter the 
Headstrong," and " A Morning in May, 
Isle of Wight." Mr. Boughton has of 
late years made a special study of the 
picturesque aspects of the old Puritan 
life of New England, and many of his 
recent works have illustrated it. He has 
also visited Holland, and painted a num- 
ber of Dutch scenes, and, with Mr. Edwin 
Abbey, is the author of "A Sketching 
Tour in Holland," 1885. He has fre- 
quently exhibited at the National Aca- 
demy of New York, and was made a 
member of that Academy in 1871. 

BOUGTIEREATI, Guillaume Adolphe, a 

French painter, and Member of the 
Institute, was born at La Rochelle, Nov. 
30, 1835. He began life in a business 
house at Bordeaux, but obtained per- 
mission to attend the drawing school of 
M. Alaux for two hours a day. His 
fellow-pupils treated him with contempt 
on account of his business connections, 
and when, at the end of the year, he 
gained the first prize, the excitement was 
so great that a riot ensued, and a formal 
protest was made by the pupils against 
his receiving it, but without effect. He 
then turned all his attention to painting, 
and entered the studio of Picot in Paris, 
and later entered the Ecole des Beaux 
Arts, where his progress was rapid. In 
1S50 he went to Rome, and in 1854 ex- 
hibited " The Body of St. Cecilia borne 
to the Catacombs," since which time he 
has occupied a leading position among 
the artists of the Modern French School. 
His next great work was " Philomela and 
Procne," 1861. Both these pictures are 
now in the Luxembourg. " Mater Afflic- 
torum," or " Vierge Consolatrice," 1876, 
was purchased by the French Govern- 
ment for 12,000 francs. Among his 
pictures exhibited at the Salon may be 
mentioned "The Bather," 1870; "Har- 
vest Time," 1872; "The Little Marau-" 



ders," 1873 ; " Homer and his Guide/' 
1874 ; " Flora and Zephyrus," 1875 ; 
"Pieta," 1876; "Youth and Love/' 
1877 ; " The Scourging of Our Lord/' 
1880 ; " The Virgin with Angels/' 1881 ; 
" Slave carrying a Fan/' 1882 ; " The 
Youth of Bacchus/' 1885 ; and " Byblis/' 
1886. M. Bouguereau executed the 
mural paintings in the St. Louis Chapel 
of the Church of St. Clotilde, and in the 
Church of St. Augustine. Many of his 
pictures have been engraved by Francois. 

BOULANGER, General George Ernest 
Jean Marie, French ex-Minister of War, 
was born at Eennes, 1837. His mother, 
who is still alive, is a native of Wales. 
In 1856 he was appointed Sub-Lieutenant 
in 1st Regiment of Algerian Tirailleurs. 
From that time his military career has 
been very distinguished, and his advance 
in his profession unusually rajsid. In 
1857 he took part in the Kabyle expedi- 
tion. In 1859 he was wounded at Turbigo, 
and received tlie decoration of the Legion 
of Honour after tliree years' service. In 
1861 he was with the expedition in Cochin 
China. During the Franco-Prussian war 
he acted as Chief of Battalion in tlie army 
of Paris, and was wounded at Champigny. 
In 1880 he was ajDpointed Brigadier- 
General, in which position he began to 
show signs of a great talent for organisa- 
tion. He was, moreover, sent to the 
United States as head of the mission on 
the Centenary of Independence. For a 
short time he was attached to the War 
Office as Director of Infantry, which posi- 
tion he quitted to proceed as General of 
Division in Africa. In twenty months he 
returned to the War Office as Minister, 
Jan. 7, 1886. During his tenure of pre- 
vious offices he had shown great zeal and 
determination. His activity had led in 
some instances to dispute. Such had 
been the result in Timis of his arbitrary 
resolution to exalt the military over the 
civil authority. During his early career 
he had moreover been in close relations 
with the Extreme Left in politics, and his 
appointment was i-egarded as a concession 
to the power of M. Clemenceau. His re- 
publican sympathies were shown by the 
energy with which he urged forward the 
expulsion of the Princes from France, 
though it was afterwards proved that he 
had written in almost fulsome terms of 
gratitude to the Due d'Aumale, his supe- 
rior officer, when promoted Brigadier- 
General. The General is an energetic and 
capable organiser, and was, before his 
downfall described as the rising hope of the 
party of " La Revanche " in France. At the 
election of 1888 the General was elected 
for the Nord by 172,528 votes as against 

75,901 for his most successful opponent. 
In July of that year he fought a duel with 
M. Floquet, and was severely wounded in 
the throat. He was idolised by the 
populace as the coming man who was to 
save France from the blunders of incom- 
petent statesmen ; bvit having been 
charged by the Senate with api^ropriating, 
while Minister of War, ^10,000 of public 
money for purposes of his own propaganda, 
he fled first to Brussels, and then to 
London, in order to avoid arrest. He is 
at present residing in Jersey. It is said 
that "the sinews of war," for the support 
of Boulangerism, were supplied by the 
Duchesse d'Uzes, and amounted to 
3,000,000 francs. 

BOULEY, Henri, a French veterinary 
surgeon, born in Paris in 1814, professor 
of clinical medicine and surgery at the 
school at Alfort, and since 1855 a member 
of the Academy of Medicine (veterinary 
section), was appointed Inspector-General 
of Veterinary Schools, Jan. 6, 1866. He 
is the author of the following works : — • 
" Causes Gcnerales de la Morve dans nos 
Regiments de Cavalerie," 1840 ; " Traite 
de rOrganisation du Pied du Cheval," 
1851 ; " De la Peripneumonie Epizootique 
du gros Betail," 1854 ; " Nouveau Diction- 
naire Pratique de Mcdecine, de Chirurgie, 
et d'Hygiene Vetorinaires," 1855-72, vols. 
i. to x., in conjunction with M. Raynal ; 
" Dictionnaire Lexicographique et De- 
scriptif des Sciences Medicale et Vcteri- 
naire," 1863, conjointly with Messieurs 
Raige-Delorme, Charles Daremberg, J. 
Mignon, and Charles Lamy ; " Peste 
bovine," a report presented to the Min- 
ister of Agriculture, 1867; and "La 
Rage, nioyens d'en eviter les dangers, et 
de prevenir sa i^ropagation," 1870. He 
has likewise published several notices 
and memoirs ; and edited, since 1844, the 
Reports, " Bulletin de la Societe Centrale 
de Medecine Veterinaire." M. Bouley 
was made a Knight of the Legion of 
Honour, Dec. 25, 1841, and promoted to 
the rank of Officer, Dec. 9, 1865. He 
was elected a member of the Academy of 
Sciences in 1868, and was nominated a 
member of the commission ajipointed to 
organise the Institut Agronomique, Aug. 
11, 1876. 

BOTJRKE, The Rigrht Hon. Robert, M.P., 
P.C., third son of the 5th Earl of Mayo, was 
born at Hayes, co. Meath, June 11, 1827, 
and educated at Enniskillen School, at 
Hall Place, Kent, and at Trinity College, 
Dublin. Called to the Bar at the Inner 
Temple in 1852, he went the South Wales 
Circuit, and attended the Knutsford 
sessions for twelve years. Mr. Bourke 



also had a large business at the Parlia- 
mentary Bar. He was elected M.P. for 
Lynn Regis, in the Conservative interest, 
at the general election of Dec, 1868, and 
continued to represent that borough in 
the House of Commons until 1886. When 
Mr. Disraeli came into power in February, 
1874, Mr. Bourke was appointed Under- 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 
and he held that oflBce till April, 1880, 
when he was added to the Privy Council. 
In 1880 he was commissioned to go to 
Turkey to arrange the external debt of 
that country, and succeeded in effecting a 
settlement of the question. In 1885 he 
resumed his former place at the Foreign 
Office under Lord Salisbuiy, and remained 
thei-e till the defeat of the Government in 
Jan., 1886. On the retirement of Sir M. 
E. Grant-Duff, in 1886, Mr. Bourke was 
appointed Governor of Madras. He has 
travelled in America, India, and the Holy 
Land, and contributed his views upon 
these countries to various magazines. 
Mr. Bourke is also the author of " Parlia- 
mentary Precedents." He married, in 
1863, Lady Susan Georgiana, eldest 
daiighter of the first Marquis of 

BOWEN, The Right Hon. Sir Charles 
Synge Christopher, P.C, F.E.S., Hon. 
D.C.L. of Oxford University and Hon. 
LL.D. of the University of Edinburgh, 
one of the Lords Justices in the Court of 
Appeal, is a son of the Eev. Christopher 
Bowen, of Freshwater, in the Isle of 
Wight, formerly i-ector of St. Thomas's, 
Winchester, by Catharine Emily, 
daughter of Sir Richard Steele, Bart. 
He was born at Wollaston, Gloucester- 
shire, in 1835, and educated at Rugby and 
at Balliol College, Oxford. He carried 
off three of the great University prizes, 
including the Hertford and Ireland 
scholarships, and, together with several 
distinguished contemporaries, he was 
placed, in 1858, in the first class in 
classical honoui-s. Called to the Bar at 
Lincoln's Inn in 1861, he joined the 
Western Circuit. He was senior member 
of the " Triick Commission " in 1870, was 
appointed Junior Standing Counsel to the 
Treasury, in 1872, and Recorder of Pen- 
zance in the same year. Though he never 
" took silk," he acqviired a leading posi- 
tion in his profession, and in June, 1879, 
he was appointed a judge of the Queen's 
Bench Division of the High Court of 
Justice on Mr. Justice Mellor's retirement 
from the Bench, and was knighted by the 
Queen at Windsor, June 26. In May, 
1882, he was appointed a Lord Justice in 
the Court of Appeal in the room of the 
late Sir John Holker, and sworn of the 

Privy Council. He was formerly Fellow 
and now is Visitor of Balliol College, 
Oxford. He is the author of an historical 
essay entitled " Delphi," of a pamphlet 
" On the Alabama Question," and of a 
translation of part of Virgil into English 
Verse. He married, in 1862, Emily 
Frances, daughter of the late Mr. James 
Medows Ren del, F.R.S. 

BOWEN, The Rt. Hon. Sir George Fer- 
guson, G.C.M.G.. Hon. D.C.L., and Hon. 
LL.D., the eldest son of the late Rev. 
Edward Bowen, born in 1821, was edu- 
cated at the Charterhouse and Trinity Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he obtained a scholar- 
ship in 1840, and graduated B.A. as first- 
class in classics in 1844. In the same 
year he was elected to a fellowship of 
Bi'asenose College, and became a member 
of Lincoln's Inn. He was Chief Secre- 
tary to the Government of the Ionian 
Islands from 1854 to 1859, and was ap- 
pointed in that year the first Governor of 
the new colony of Queensland, in Austra- 
lia, comprising the north-eastern portion 
of the Australian continent. He was 
appointed, in 1868, Governor of New 
Zealand ; and in May, 1873, Governor of 
Victoria. He was Governor of Maiu'itius 
from 1875 to 1883, when he was ajipointed 
Governor of Hong Kong. He retired on 
his pension in 1887 ; but, in 1888, he was 
appointed Royal Commissioner at Malta 
to make arrangements respecting the 
new Constitution granted to that island. 
Sir George is the author of " A Handbook 
for Travellers in Greece," — one of 
Murray's Handbooks ; " Mount Athos, 
Thessaly, and Epii-us: a Diary of a 
Journey from Constantinople to Corfu," 
1852 ; " Ithaca in 1850 ; " and " Imperial 
Federation," 1886, &c. A full accoiuit of 
his public services will be found in 
" Thirty Years of Colonial Government," 
being a selection from the " Despatches 
and Letters of the Right Hon. Sir G. F. 
Bowen, G.C.M.G., Hon. D.C.L. Oxford, 
Hon. LL.D. Cambridge. Edited by 
Stanley Lane-Pool." Sir George Bowen 
is a member of the Governing Bodies of 
the Imperial Institute, and of Charter- 
house School, and married, in 1856, the 
Countess Roma, only surviving daughter 
of Count Roma, G.C.M.G., then President 
of the Senate of the Ionian Islands. 

BOWMAN, Sir William, Bart., M.D., 
LL.D., F.R.S. , consulting-surgeon to the 
Royal London Ophthalmic Hospital, 
Moorfields, some time surgeon to King's 
College Hospital, and Professor of Physi- 
ology and General and Morbid Anatomy 
at King's College, London, is a son of the 
late John Eddowes Bowman, F.L.S., 



F.Ci.S., and was born at Nantwich, July 
20, 1816. Having received his medical 
education, i^artly at King's College, 
London, he began practice as a surgeon 
in the West-end of London, but gradually 
diverged more and more into the 
ophthalmic branch of his j^rofession. 
The Royal Medal in Physiology was 
awarded to him by the Eoyal Society in 
1S12. He has been a Vice-President of 
that society, and three times on its 
council. He is a corresponding member 
of the Royal Academy of Science of 
Turin and of Stockholm, of the Royal 
Academy of Medicine of Sweden and of 
Belgium, of the Societe Philomathique, of 
the Societe de Chirurgie, and of the 
Societe de Biologie in Paris, of the Royal 
Medical Society, and the Medico-Chirur- 
gical Society of Edinburgh, of the 
Philosophical Society of Cambridge, and 
of the medical societies of Geneva, 
Dresden, Athens, Kieff, Pesth, and Mas- 
sachusetts. He received the honorary 
degree of M.D., Dublin, in 1867, and that 
of LL.D., Cambridge, in 1880, and Edin- 
burgh, in 1881. He was first President 
of the Ophthalmological Society of the 
United Kingdom, is Vice-Chairman of 
the Clerical, Medical and General Life 
Assurance Society, a member of the 
council of King's College, London, of the 
council of St. John's House Training 
Institution for Nurses, and of the council 
of the Nightingale Fund. He succeeded 
the late Wm. Spottiswoode, P.R.S., as 
Hon. Secretary of the Royal Institution of 
Great Britain during three years ; and 
was created a baronet in 1884. He is the 
author of some important surgical works 
on the eye : " Lectures on the Parts con- 
cerned in the Operations of the Eye," 
" Observations on Artificial Pupil," and 
of " The Physiological Anatomy and 
Physiology of Man " (the latter in con- 
junction with the late Dr. Todd), as well 
as of papers in the "Philosophical Trans- 
actions," and "The Cyclopaedia of 
Anatomy." He has gradually retired 
from practice. 

BOWRING, Edgar Alfred, C.B., a 

yovmger son of the late Sir John Bowring, 
was born in 1826, and educated at Uni- 
versity College, London. He entered the 
civil service in the Board of Trade in 1841, 
and filled in succession the post of private 
secretary to the Earl of Clarendon, to Earl 
Granville, and to Lord Stanley of Alder- 
ley. He was appointed Precis Writer and 
Librarian to that department in 1848, and 
Registrar in 1853, biit retired from the 
service on the abolition of his office at the 
end of 1863. He acted as Secretary to 
the Royal Commission for the Great 

Exhibition of 1851, and held that appoint- 
ment until his election as M.P. for Exeter 
at the general election of 1868. His 
services were so highly appreciated by 
the late Prince Consort, the President of 
the Commission, that, immediately after 
H.R.H.'s decease, her Majesty was 
pleased to nominate Mr. Bowring a 
Companion of the Order of the Bath, civil 
division. Mr. Bowring lost his seat for 
Exeter at the general election of Feb., 
1874. He is the author of an English 
poetical version of " The Book of Psalms," 
English versions of the poetical works of 
Schiller, Goethe, and Heine, and (jointly 
with Lord Hobart) of a reply to the 
" Sophisms of Free Trade," by Mr. 
Justice Byles. Besides having been a 
frequent contributor to periodical litera- 
ture, he is understood to have translated 
two small volumes of German hymns, 
selected by the Queen, and privately 
printed for her Majesty's use, one volume 
on the death of the Duchess of Kent, and 
the other on that of Prince Albert. 

BOYD, The Rev. Andrew Kennedy 
Hutchison, D.D. and LL.D., born at 
Auchinleck, Ayrshire, of which parish his 
father was incumbent, Nov., 1825, was 
educated at King's College, London, and 
at the University of Glasgow, where he 
obtained the highest honours in philo- 
sophy and theology, and was author of 
several prize essays, taking the degree of 
B.A. in April, 1846. He was ordained in 
1851, and has been incumbent suc- 
cessively of the parishes of Newton-on- 
Ayr, Kirkpatrick-Irongray, in Galloway, 
St. Bernard's, Edinburgh, and of the 
University city of St. Andrew's, which he 
still holds. He first became known as a 
writer, by papers which appeared in 
Fraser's Magazine, under the signature 
of A.K.H.B. Of these, the most im- 
portant have been reprinted ; the best 
known cf these being " The Recreations 
of a Country Parson " (three series). 
Dr. Boyd is also the author of many 
volumes of sermons, under the titles of 
" The Graver Thoughts of a Country 
Parson," and " Counsel and Comfort 
spoken from a City Pulpit," " Present- 
day Thoughts : Memorials of St. Andrew's 
Sundays," 1870 ; " Towards the Sunset," 
1883 ; " What Set Him Right," 1885 ; 
and "The Best Last" in 1888. He 
received the degree of D.D. from the 
University of Edinburgh in 1864, and of 
LL.D. from the University of St. 
Andrew's in 1889. In May, 1890, he was 
elected Moderator of the General 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland. 

BOYESEK, Professor Hjalmar Hjortbt 

BdYtii— BRA^OUENii. 


was bom at Frederlksvaern, Norway, 
Sept. 23, 1848. He went to the United 
States in 1869, and became a Professor of 
Latin and Greek at Urbana University, 
Ohio. From 1874 to 1880 he was Pro- 
fessor of German at Cornell University ; 
and since 1881 has held a similar position 
at Columbia College, New York ; and is 
now (1890) Professor of Germanic Lan- 
guages and Literature. He has published 
" Tales from Two Hemispheres," 1876 ; 
"Gunnar," 1873 ; "A Norseman's Pilgrim- 
age," 1875 ; " Goethe and Schiller," 
1878 ; " Falconberg," 1878 ; " Ilka on the 
Hill-top," and " Queen Titania," 1881 ; 
" Idyls of Norway," 1882; "Daughter of 
the Philistines," 1883 ; " The Story of 
Norway," 1886; '• The Modern Vikings," 
1887 ; " Vagabond Tales," and " The 
Light of Her Countenance," 1889 ; and 
is also the author of a play " Alpine 
Eoses," 1883, which ran for 100 nights at 
the Madison Square Theatre, New York. 

BOYLE, The Very Rev. George David, 

Dean of Salisbury, is the eldest son of the 
late Right Hon. David Boyle, Lord 
Justice-General and President of the 
Court of Session in Scotland, by his 
second marriage with Camilla Catherine, 
eldest daughter of the late Mr. David 
Smythe, of Methven, Perthshire, and was 
born in 1828. He was educated at the 
Edinburgh Academy, the Charterhouse, 
and at Exeter College, Oxford (B.A. 
1851, M.A. 1853). Between 1853 and 
1860 he held in succession the curacies 
in Kidderminster and Hagley. He was 
incumbent of St. Michael's, Handsworth, 
from 1S61 to 1867, and rural dean of 
Handsworth, 1866-67. He was appointed 
vicar of Kidderminster in 1867, and 
rural dean in 1877, and he was honorary 
canon of Worcester from 1872 till 1880, 
when he was appointed Dean of Salisbury. 
Dean Boyle is the author of "Aids to 
the Divine Life," " Eichard Baxter," and 
editor of " Characters and Episodes of 
the Great Rebellion from Clarendon." 
He married, in 1861, Mary Christiana, 
eldest daughter of the late Mr. William 
Robins, of Hagley, Worcestershire. 

BOYS, Charles Vernon, F.E.S., was born 
at Wing, near Oakham, Rutland, and is 
the youngest son of the Rev. Charles 
Boys, who last year (1889) completed 
his fiftieth year as rector of the parish. 
Mr. C. V. Boys was educated at Marlboro' 
College and at the Royal School of Mines, 
of which he is an associate. He was ap- 
pointed Demonstrator in 1881, and 
Assistant Professor of Physics in 1889, at 
the Normal School of Science and Royal 
School of Mines, South Kensington and 

Jermyn Street. He is the author of 
several papers published by the Royal 
Society, the Physical Society, the Royal 
Institution, and the Society of Arts ; of 
which the more important, or the best 
known, are on integrating and other 
calculating machines, on quartz fibres, on 
the "radio-micrometer," and other instru- 
ments for measuring radiant heat, and on 
the " Cavendish" experiment. The radio- 
micrometer is so sensitive to caloric rays 
that it registers the heat of a candle 
when at a distance of more than two 
miles ! and Professor Boys is able to melt 
a piece of quartz and spin it into fibres 
so fine that each is only 100,000th of an 
inch in diameter, therefore a piece of 
quartz the size of a walnut could be spun 
into a thread that would go more than 
six times round the world ! He is the 
author also of the article "Tricycle," in 
the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," and of the 
supplement of Guthrie's " Electricity and 
Magnetism." He is a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, Officer of Public Instruc- 
tion of France, Hon. Demonstrator and 
Librarian of the Physical Society of 
London, and Member of the Royal Institu- 
tion, London. 

BRABOUBNE (Lord), The Bight Hon. 
Edward Hugessen Knatchbull-Hagessen, 
P.C., is a son of the late Right Hon. Sir 
Edward Knatchbull, Bart., of Mersham 
Hatch, Kent (many years M.P. for East 
Kent, and at one time Paymaster of the 
Forces under Sir Robert Peel), by his 
second marriage with Fanny Catharine, 
daughter of Edward Knight, Esq., of 
Godmersham Park, Kent, and of Chawton 
House, Hampshii-e. He was bom at 
Mersham Hatch, April 29, 1829, and 
educated at Eton and at Magdalen Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he graduated in 1850. 
He entered the House of Commons as M.P. 
for Sandwich in April, 1857, and repre- 
sented that constituency in the Liberal 
interest until his elevation to the peerage. 
He withdrew his support from the Glad- 
stone Government in consequence of their 
Irish legislation and abandonment of the 
Transvaal in 1881, and formally joined 
the Conservative party in 1885. He was 
a Lord of the Treasury from June, 1859, 
till May, 1866 ; Under-Secretary of State 
for the Home Department from Dec, 
1868, to Jan., 1871 ; and Under-Secretary 
for the Colonies from the last-named 
date to Feb., 1874. He was Chairman of 
the Treasury Commission which sat in 
Dublin in 1866 (the other members being 
Sir Richard Mayne, Sir Donald Mac- 
gregor. Col. Ward, and Mr. Law), to 
inquire into the condition of the Irish 
Constabulary, which at that time had no 



fewer than 1500 vacancies. The result of 
the investigation was an increase of 
their pay^ and improvement of their 
condition, the force being thus restored 
to its former popularity. Mr. Knatch- 
bull-Hugessen was sworn of the Privy 
Council March 24, 1873 ; and in May, 1880, 
he was created Lord Brabourne, of Bra- 
bourne, in the county of Kent. His 
lordship is a magistrate and deputy- 
lieutenant for Kent, and he assumed 
the name of Hugessen by Eoyal licence. 
His publications are : — " Stories for 
my Children," 1869 ; " Crackers for 
Christmas," 1870; "Moonshine," 1871; 
"Tales at Tea-time," 1872; "Queer 
Folk," 1873 ; " Whispers from Fairy- 
land," 1874; "River Legends, or Eiver 
Thames and Father Rhine," 1874 ; 
" Higgledy-Piggledy ; or. Stories for 
Everybody and Everybody's Children," 
1875 ; " Uncle Joe's Stories," 1878 ; 
," Other Stories," 1879; "Mountain 
Sprite's Kingdom," 1881; "Ferdinand's 
Adventure," 1883 ; and " Friends and 
Foes from Fairyland," 1885. He has 
also edited " Letters of Jane Austen " 
(his maternal great-aunt), 1885, and 
published two pamijhlets, " Life, Times 
and Character of Oliver Cromwell," 1877 ; 
and " The Truth about the Transvaal," 
1881. He married, in 1852, Anna Maria 
Elizabeth, younger daughter of the Rev. 
M. R. Southwell, vicar of St. Stephen's, 
St. Albans. 

BRACKENBURY, Lieut.-General Henry, 
C.B., R.A., born at Bolingbroke, Lincoln- 
shire, Sept. 1, 1837, was educated at 
Tonbridge, Eton, and Woolwich. He 
was appointed to the Royal Artillery in 
April, 1856 ; and served in the suppres- 
sion of the Indian Mutiny in 1857-58. 
Subsequently he was appointed to the 
staff of the Royal Military Academy at 
Woolwich, first as officer for discipline^ 
then as Instructor in Artillery, finally as 
Professor of Military History. He served 
throughout the Franco-German war as 
chief representative of the British 
National Society for aid to sick and 
wounded in war, received the Iron Cross 
from the Emperor of Germany, and was 
made Officer of the Legion of Honour by 
the French Government, and Knight of 
the First Class of the Bavarian Order of 
St. Michael. Being apjiointed Military 
Secretary to Sir Garnet Wolseley, he 
served with him throughout the Ashanti 
Campaign, 1873-4. He served as a 
member of a special mission to Natal in 
1875 ; was assistant Adjutant-General to 
the Cyprus Expeditionary Force in 1878 ; 
and raised and organised the Cyprus 
Military Police. In 1879 he accompanied 

Sir G. Wolseley to South Africa as 
Military Secretary, and later succeeded 
Sir G. Colley as Chief of the Staff, in 
which capacity he served tliroughoiit the 
closing operations of the Zulu war and 
the campaign against Sekukuni. In 1880 
he was appointed Private Secretary to 
the Viceroy of India, and returned to 
England with the Earl of Lytton, on his 
resignation. He was Military Attache 
to the British Embassy at Paris from 
Jan., 1881, to May, 1882, when he was 
appointed Assistant Under-Secretary for 
Ireland, to deal with all matters relating 
to police and crime in that country. He 
resigned the latter post, however, on 
July 19, 1882. In 1884 he was appointed 
Deputy Adjutant-General of the Nile 
Expeditionary Force ; and subsequently 
Brigadier-General and second in com- 
mand of the River Column of the Expedi- 
tion. When General Earle was killed 
during the action of Kirbekan, General 
Brackenbury assumed command of the 
Column, and conducted it to near Abu 
Hamed, whence it was recalled by Lord 
Wolseley, down the rapids to Korti. He 
was promoted to be a Major-General, June 
15, 1885, for distingiiished service in the 
field; and Lieut.-General, April 1, 1888. He 
was appointed head of the Intelligence De- 
partment of the War Office, 1st Jan., 1886. 
In 1888 he was appointed a member of a 
Royal Commission under the Chairman- 
shi}) of Lord Hartington to inquire into 
the administration of the Naval and 
Military DejDartments of the State. He 
is the author of " Fanti and Ashanti," 
1873 ; " Narrative of the Ashanti War ; " 
" Tlie River Column ; " and of several 
military pamphlets. 

BRADDON, Edward Nicholas Coventry, 
son of Henry Braddon of Skirdon Lodge, 
Cornwall, was born June 11th, 1829 ; 
educated at private schools and by private 
tutor, and at the London University ; 
went to India in 1847 to the mercantile 
house of his cousins, Messrs. Bagshaw 
and Co. (afterwards Braddon and Co.), 
Calcutta. After eight years spent in 
mercantile pursuits he was engaged in 
civil engineering in charge of an Assistant 
Engineer's length of the East India Rail- 
way, during which time he led a small 
force of volunteers against the insurgent 
Santhals ; he subsequently served as a 
volunteer with the 7th N. I. against the 
rebels, and on the close of the rebellion 
pursued and captured 14 of the leading 
Santhals implicated in the murder of 
several Europeans and natives. As some 
recognition of these services he i-oceived 
the appointment of Assistant Commis- 
sioner in charge of the Deoghur District, 



Santhal Pergunnahs, Oct. 1857. He 
served under Sir George Yule as a 
volunteer against the rebel Sepoys in the 
Purneah and adjoining districts (Mutiny 
medal and favourable mention in dis- 
patches). Raised a regiment of Santhals, 
for which service he was thanked specially 
by the Lieut. -Governor of Bengal. In 
April 18G2, Mr. Braddon was jjromoted 
to be Superintendent of Excise and 
Stamps, Oudh ; subsequently made In- 
spector General of Registration, and 
Superintendent of Trade Statistics in that 
Province, and during 18 months acted in 
addition as Revenue Secretary to the 
Financial Commissioner. Retired from 
the service, Mr. Braddon made Tasmania 
his home. He arrived there in Mayj 
1878, and was elected in July, 1879, a 
member of the Hoixse of Assembly for 
West Devon. That seat he retained 
through four elections iintil he left Tas- 
mania as Agent General. In 188G he was 
appointed leader of the Opposition. In 
1887 he took office in a new administration 
as Minister of Lands and Works and 
Education. On Oct. 29, 1888, he was 
appointed Agent General for Tasmania. 
Mr. Braddon has contributed many 
articles to reviews, magazines and news- 
papers. His one published work, " Life 
in India, "came out in 1870. 

BEADDON, Mary Elizabeth. See Max- 
well, Mrs. John. 

BRADFORD, Sir Edward Ridley Col- 
bourne. K. C.S.I. , Commissioner of Police in 
succession to Mr. Monro, is a son of the 
late Rev. W. M. K. Bradford, rector of 
West Meon, Hants, by Mary, daughter of 
the late Rev. H. C. Ridley, and he was born 
in 1836. He entered the Madras Army in 
1853, became lieutenant in 1S55, captain 
in 1865, major in 1873, lieutenant-colonel 
in 1879, and colonel in 1SS3. Sir Edward 
Bradford served with the 11th Light 
Dragoons in the Persian campaign from 
Feb. 21 till June 8, 1857, in the Jubbul- 
pore district during 1857, and afterwards 
in the Xorth- Western Provinces in 1858, 
with General Michel's force in Mayne's 
Horse against Tantia Topee in that year. 
He was present at the general action of 
Scindwha and the action and pursuit at 
Karai, and served with General Xapier's 
columns in Mayne's Horse from Dec, 
1858, to Sept. 1859, and was present in 
several actions with the enemy, gaining 
the medal, and being twice thanked in 
despatches. The new Commissioner has 
held the position of Resident Firat Class 
and Governor-General's Agent for Raj- 
pootana, and has been Chief Commis- 
■ fiioner in Ajmere. He has since his 

return to this country been secretary of 
the Political and Secret Department of 
the India Office. Sir Edward, who was 
appointed A.D.C. to the Queen last year 
(1889), accompanied H.R.H. the Duke of 
Clarence and Avondale on his recent visit 
to India. He has lost one of his arms, the 
resiilt of an encounter with a tiger some 
years ago. 

BRADFORD Earl of, The Eight Hon. 
Orlando George Charles Bridgeman, was 
born April 24^, 1819, succeeded his father 
as third earl, March 22, 1865, and 
married, April 30, 18-14, Selina Louisa, 
youngest daughter of the first Lord 
FoiTCiSter. His Lordship is Captain of 
the South Salopian Yeomanry Cavalry, 
has been Vice-Chamberlain to the Queen's 
Household, and held the office of Lord 
Chamberlain of the Household under 
Lord Derby's third Administration, from 
July, 1866, to 1868. He held the office of 
Master of the Horse to the Queen from 
Feb., 1874-, to May, 1880, and again under 
Lord Salisbury's first administration from 
June, 1885, to Jan. 1886. 

BEADLAUGH, Charles. M.P., son of 
Mr. Charles Bradlaugh, a solicitor's clerk, 
was born in the East-end of London, 
Sept. 28, 1833. He was educated at 
elementary schools in Bethnal Green and 
Hackney Road; and afterwards became 
s u ccessively errand -boy, coal- dealer, 
Sunday-School teacher, and a free-thought 
lecturer. In Dec. 1850, he enlisted in the 
7th Dragoon Guards, and served for 
some time in IreLand. He became 
Orderly-room clerk, got his discharge, 
and in 1853 returned to London, becoming 
clerk to a Mr. Rogers, a solicitor. 
Having become confii'med in his Secularist 
views he began to write and lecture 
regularly, adopting the pseudonym of 
" Iconoclast." He lectui-ed at the Hall 
of Science, City Road ; wrote abundantly, 
and in a few years was well-known 
throughout the country for his discussions 
with clergy and others on public plat- 
forms. In 1868 he began his efforts to 
enter Parliament, and after three times 
contesting Northampton in vain, was 
returned for that borough in 1880, his 
colleague being Mr. Labouchere. Since 
his entering Parliament, his name has 
been chiefly heard in connection with 
his claim to take, or to dispense with, the 
oath of allegiance. He lost his seat once 
by judicial decree, once by his expulsion 
by the House, and the third time because 
he resigned in order to appeal to his 
coastituency against the House, and was 
thrici, after fierce contests, re-elected ; 
subsequently the Affirmation Bill was 

I 2 



brought in, but, in spite of one of Mr. 
Gladstone's finest speeches, was lost by a 
majority of 3. Finally, however, after 
the Parliament of 1880-85 was dead, Mr. 
Bradlaugh (who had been again elected by 
Northampton) was allowed to take his 
seat in peace. He has since then taken 
a prominent part in debate, and has 
signalised himself by successfully moving 
for the establishment of a Labour Bureau 
which has since proved very useful. In 
1887 he procured the appointment of a 
E.oyal Commission on Market rights and 
tolls, and carried an Act extending and 
amending the truck laws. In 1888 he 
carried through Parliament a bill giving 
to all persons the right to aiBrm instead 
of taking oath. In 1889 he was nominated 
a member of the Royal Commission on 
Vaccination, and was selected by the 
Indian National Congress to represent in 
Parliament the views of the Congress 
party. Mr. Bradlaugh has ahso headed 
the agitation against perpetual pensions, 
and has latterly strongly opposed the 
promulgation of socialism. 

BRADLEY, Professor Andrew Cecil, 
son of the Eev. Charles Bradley, of St. 
James's, Clapham, was born at Claphani, 
March 26, 1851. He was educated at 
Cheltenham College, whence in 1869 he 
passed as an Exhibitioner to Balliol 
College, Oxford. Having taken his 
degree, with a first class in honours, in 
1873, he was in the following year elected 
to a fellowship in Balliol College, and 
soon afterwards gained the Chancellor's 
prize for an English Essay. He was 
elected to a lectureship in philosophy, 
and continued as a teacher at Balliol 
until the beginning of 1882, when he 
became Professor of Modern Literature 
and History at the newly-founded 
University College, Liverpool. Here he 
remained until July, 1889, when, on the 
resignation of Professor Nichol, he was 
appointed Eegius Professor of English 
Language and Literature in the Univer- 
sity of Glascow. Besides various literary 
and philosophical articles and addresses, 
he is the author of an essay on Aristotle's 
Conception of the State, published in Mr. 
Evelyn Abbott's " Hellenica." He is also 
the editorof the " Prolegomena to Ethics," 
a work left unfinished by Professor Green, 
who was his tutor at Oxford. 

BRADLEY, The Very Rev. George Gran- 
ville, D.D., LL.D., Dean of Westminster, 
is one of the sons of the Rev. Charles 
Bradley, who was for many years vicar 
of Glasbury, in the county of Brecon, 
and some time incumbent of St. James's 
Episcopal Chapel at Clapham, Surrey. 

He was born in 1821, and educated under 
Dr. Arnold at Rugby, from which school 
he was elected to an open scholarship 
at University College, Oxford, where he 
was a favourite pupil of Dean Stanley, 
who at that time was tutor. He took 
his bachelor's degree in Easter Term, 
1844, as a First Class in Classical honours, 
and in 1845 obtained the Chancellor's 
prize for a Latin essay, his subject being 
" The Equestrian Order in the Roman 
Republic." Having been elected to a 
Fellowship in 1844, he proceeded M.A. in 
1847. Mr. Bradley was one of the assist- 
ant masters of Rugby School for some 
years, under Dr. Tait and his successor. 
Dr. Goulburn, and was elected in 1858 to 
the Headmastership of Marlborough 
College, on the preferment of his prede- 
cessor. Dr. Cotton, to the bishopric of 
Calcutta. Mr. Bradley was ordained deacon 
in 1858 by the Bishop of London, and 
priest in the same year by the Bishop of 
Salisbury. In Dec. 1870, he was elected 
to the mastership of University College, 
Oxford, in the place of the late Dr. 
Plumptre. The honorary degree of LL.D. 
was conferred upon him by the University 
of St. Andrew's, Feb. 25, 1873. He was 
appointed examining chaplain to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury in 1874 ; was 
Select Preacher at Oxford, 1874-75 ; and 
held the post of Honorary Chaplain to 
the Queen 1874-75 ; of Chaplain in 
Ordinary 1876-81. In Oct. 1880, he was 
nominated a member of the Oxford 
University Commission, in the place of 
Lord Selborne resigned. He obtained a 
canonry in Worcester Cathedral in Feb. 
1881 ; and in Aug. the same year he was 
tippointed by the Crown to the Deanery 
of Westminster, in succession to the late 
Dean Stanley. The degree of D.D. was 
conferred upon him at Oxford, Oct. 28, 
1881. In 1882 he delivered at Edinburgh 
a series of lectures, afterwards pub- 
lished under the title of " Recol- 
lections of Arthur Penrhyn Stanley," 
1883. Since the death of Mr. Theodore 
Walrond in 1887, Dr. Bradley has been 
entrusted with the task of preparing for 
publication the memoirs and letters of 
Dean Stanley. In 1885 he published 
a volume of Westminster Abbey Lectures 
on the Book of Ecclesiastes, and in 1887 
a similar volume on the Book of Job. 
He is also the writer of a book on Latin 
Prose, which has had a large circulation. 
Dr. Bradley mai*ried, in 1849, Marian 
Jane, fifth daughter of the Rev. Benjamin 
Philpot, formerly Rector of Great Cres- 
singham, Norfolk. One of his daughters, 
Margaret L. Woods, wife of the President 
of Trinity College, Oxford, is the authoress 
of " A Village Tragedy," 1887 ; another. 



Miss E. T. B., of the memoirs of Lady 
Arabella Stuart, 1889. 

BBADT, Professor George Stewardson, 
born in 1832, at Gateshead-on-Tyne, was 
educated at Ackworth School, Yorkshire, 
Tulketh Hall, Lancashire, and at the 
University of Durham College of Medi- 
cine, Newcastle-upon-Tyne; M.D., and 
LL.D. (hon.) St. Andrews ; F.R.S. ; 
Corresponding Member of the Zoological 
Society of London, and Academy of Nat. 
Science, Philadelphia, &c. Professor of 
Natural History in the Durham College 
of Science, Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; Hon. 
Physician to the Sunderland Infirmary. 
His principal published works are as 
follows: "A Monograph of the Eecent 
British Ostracoda" in Transactions of 
the Linnean Society, 1868 ; " A Mono- 
graph of the Post Tertiary Entomostraca 
of Scotland and Parts of England and 
Ireland " (Palaeontographical Society, 
1874 — jointly with H. W. Crosskey and 
D. Robertson) ; " A Monograph of the 
fossil Ostracoda of the Antwerp Crag " 
(Transactions of the Zoological Society of 
London, 1875) ; " A Monograph of the 
free and semiparasitic Copepoda of the 
British Islands," 3 vols. (Ray Society, 
1877-80) ; " Report on the Ostracoda of 
the ' Challenger ' Expedition " (1880) ; 
" Report on the Copepoda of the 
'Challenger" Expedition" (1884) ; "A 
Monograph of the Marine and Fresh- 
water Ostracoda of the North Atlantic 
and of North Western Europe : Section 1, 
Podocopa" (Transactions of Royal 
Dublin Society, vol. iv. 1889 — jointly 
with the Rev. Canon Norman, D.C.L.), 
besides numerous contributions to 
Medical and Scientific Journals. 

BEADY, Henry Bowman, LL.D., F.E.S., 
F.Gr.S. &c., born at Gateshead-on-Tyne, 
1835 ; is a son of Henry Brady (a medical 
man in large practice at Gateshead), by 
Hannah, daughter of Ebenezer Bowman 
of One Ash Grange, Derbyshire, both 
deceased. He was some time Lecturer 
on Botany in the Newcastle College of 
Medicine in connection with Durham 
University ; has been for many years a 
member of the Council and of the Board 
of Examiners of the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Great Britain ; and was a 
member of the Council of the Royal 
Society, 1888-1889. He has published a 
large number of memoirs on scientific 
subjects, chiefly on the Foraminifera ; of 
which the most important are " A Mono- 
graph on Carboniferous and Permian 
Foraminifera (the genus Fusulina ex- 
cepted)/' Palaeontographical Society, 1§7§, 
4t9, 12 plates ; and the f' Report Qn ^he 1 

Foraminifera of the ' Challenger ' Expedi- 
tion," 2 vols. 4to, 116 plates. 

BRADY, The Rev. William Maziere, 
D.D., j'oungest son of the late Sir N. W. 
Brady, and nephew to Sir Maziere Brady, 
Baronet, late Lord High Chancellor of 
Ireland, was born at Dublin in 1825, and 
educated at Trinity College, Dublin, 
where he was a prizeman in classics. He 
was appointed Chaplain to several suc- 
cessive Viceroys, and became rector of 
Farrahy, co. Cork, in 1851 ; he held after- 
wards the vicarage of Newmarket, in the 
same county, and became rector of Kil- 
berry and vicar of Donoughpatrick, 
Meath. Dr. Maziere Brady has written 
much upon various historical, antiquarian, 
and political subjects in many of the 
newspapers and magazines of the day, 
and notably in Fraser and the Con- 
temporary Review. His sermon preached 
in the Chapel Royal, Dublin, towards the 
end of Lord Carlisle's vice-royalty, in 
which he openly denounced the State 
Church in Ix-eland, which applied the 
whole of the ancient ecclesiastical reve- 
nues for the benefit of a mere fraction of 
the people, excited astonishment, and 
was strongly censured by the organs of 
the Conservative party, and led to Dr. 
Brady's omission from the list of chap- 
lains under Lord Kimberley's lieutenancy. 
The chief works published by Dr. Brady 
are " Clerical and Parochial Records of 
Cork, Cloyne, and Ross," 3 vols. ; " Re- 
marks on Irish Church Temporalities ; " 
"Facts or Fictions:" "The McGilli- 
cuddy Papers ; " " The Irish Reforma- 
tion ; " " State Papers concerning the 
Irish Church in the Time of Queen 
Elizabeth ; " and " Essays on the English 
State Church in Ireland," 1869. Dr. 
Brady's writings undoubtedly facilitated 
the progress of Mr. Gladstone's Irish 
Church Abolition Bill, and were copiously 
quoted in and out of Parliament. His 
work on the Irish Reformation went 
through five editions, and provoked 
innumerable replies. Upon the passing 
of the Irish Church Act, Dr. Brady, 
whose health had been seriously affected 
by an attack of bronchitis, went to Rome, 
and from the archives there extracted 
many particulars concerning the eccle- 
siastical affairs of England, Scotland, and 
Ireland, He afterwards resigned his 
rectory of Donoughpatrick, and was 
received into the Roman Catholic Church 
by Mgr. Kirby, of the Irish College at 
Rome, in May, 1873. He has since 
written a work on " The Episcopal 
Succession in England, Scotland, and 
Ireland," the third volume of which was 
published at Rome in 1877. 



BEAHMS, Johannes, musical composer, 
was born May 7, 1833, at Hamburg, 
where his father played the double-bass 
in the oi-chestra. He i-eceived his first 
instructions in music from his father, 
and then studied under Eduard Marxsen. 
Schumann's warm recommendation in the 
Neue Zeitschrift far Mxisik (Oct. 28, 1853) 
called the attention of musicians, of the 
public, and of the publishers to the 
young man, who subsequently made slow 
but constant progress on the road to 
permanent artistic fame. After several 
years of activity as director of music at 
the court of Lippe-Detmold he devoted a 
considerable pei-iod of time to assiduous 
study and composition in his native town. 
Thence he proceeded, in 1862, to Vienna, 
which city became his second home ; for 
although he quitted it after holding for 
one year the post of director of the Sing- 
ing Academy (1864), he never felt at ease 
in the other towns which he visited — 
Hamburg, Zurich, Baden-Baden — and 
accordingly, in 1869, he returned to the 
Austrian capital. He conducted, from 
1872 to 1874, the concerts of the Society 
of Amateur Musicians, until Hei-beck, 
who had in the meantime resigned 
his post of Court Director of Music, 
resumed the functions of that oflice. 
Brahms then resided for some time away 
from Vienna, chiefly near Heidelberg, 
but returned in 1878. Undoubtedly 
Brahms is entitled to rank among the 
greatest comi:)osers now living. At first 
he followed the " New German " school 
which had been inaugurated by Schumann 
in the journal mentioned, but when the 
heated judgment of youth had been suc- 
ceeded by calmer reflection, he inclined 
more to the classical school, so that now he 
is criticised by the Baireuther Blatter, and 
recognised by conservative institutes as a 
classical composer. In fact he combines 
in himself the different styles, and may 
be claimed both by musical progressists 
and by classicists as belonging to them. 
Although Brahms attracted public notice 
in consequence of Schumann's recommen- 
dation, the recognition of his genius in 
wider circles dates only from the year 
1868, when his "Deutsches Eequiem" 
(Op. 45) was produced. Among his later 
works are "Einaldo," a cantata; 
" Schicksalslied; " " Tritimphlied ; " 
" Ehapsodie " from Goethe's " Hartz- 
reise ; " besides string-quartets, sym- 
phonies, and a great number of songs, 
duets, choi'uses, concertos, motets, trios, 
sextetts, &c. His songs, in which he 
mainly follows Schumann's style, have 
become popular all over the world, as are 
those compositions in which he embodies 
Hungarian national melodies, A sonata i 

of his in D minor, Op. 108, for piano and 
violin, was performed for the first time in 
London, in May, 1882. 

BEAMWELL, Sir Frederick Joseph, 
Bart., D.C.L., F.E.S., Past President of 
the Institution of Civil Engineers, 
youngest son of the late George Bram- 
well, banker, was born in the year 1818. 
From his earliest boyhood he showed 
great interest in mechanics, as evinced 
by his endeavours to rej^eat, in a rough 
model, the steam engines and winding 
machinery which he had seen at the age 
of nine in use in the construction of the 
St. Katharine's Dock. In 1834 he was ap- 
prenticed to one of the old school of 
mechanical engineers, John Hague, with 
whom he served his time, and with whom 
he continued for a few years as principal 
draughtsman; then, after a varied ex- 
perience in the employment of others, in 
1853 he began business on his own ac- 
count as a civil engineer. In 1856 he was 
elected an Associate of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers ; in 1862 was transferred 
to fall membership of that body ; in 1867 
was elected a Member of its Council, and 
in 1884-85 had the honour of filling 
the position of President, having pre- 
viously been, in the years 1874-75, 
President of the Institution of Mechani- 
cal Engineers. In 1881, on the formation 
of the present Ordnance Committee, he 
was appointed one of the two lay 
members of that Committee. He has 
also, in the exercise of his profession, and 
at the instance of the Government, served 
on several committees which have been 
appointed for various purposes. Having 
been for some years a member of the 
British Association, he was, in 1872, 
made President of Section G (Mechanical 
Section), and was selected to refill this 
office on the occasion of a visit of the 
Association to Montreal in 1884, and was 
elected President of that body for the 
year commencing with the Bath meeting, 
Sept. 1888. In 1873 he was elected a Fellow 
of the Eoyal Society, and in the year 1878 
served on its Council. Having been a 
member of the Board of Managers of the 
Eoyal Institution for some time, he was, 
on the retirement of Sir William Bow- 
man, in 1885, appointed to the position of 
Honorary Secretaiy of that body. In 
1884 he was nominated by H.E.H. the 
Prince of Wales to the position of C hair- 
man of the Executive Council of the 
Inventions Exhibition which was held in 
tlie following year. On the formation of 
the City and Guilds of London Institute 
for the Advancement of Technical 
Education, he was appointed by the Gold- 
smiths' Company as one of their repre- 



sentatives, being at that time Prime 
Warden of the Company, and was elected 
by the Executive Committee of the Insti- 
tute to be their Chairman. Tn 1881 he 
received the honour of knighthood in 
connection with his services in the pro- 
motion of technical education, and, in 
188G, the honorary degree of D.C.L. 
from Oxford. In 1889 he was created a 

BRAMWELL Lord). The Right Hon. 
Sir George William Wilsher, P.C., son of 
the late Mr. George Bramwell, banker, was 
born in London, in 1808. In early youth 
he was placed in his father's covmting- 
house; where he acquired a practical 
knowledge of the business of banking, 
which in after years proved of great 
value to him. Having resolved to try 
the legal profession, he practised for 
some time as a pleader, and was, in 1838, 
called to the Bar. and went the Home 
circuit. He gradually obtained a large 
business as a lawj-er and pleader : in 1849 
was a member, with Sir J. Jervis, Sir A. 
Cockburn, Mr. Wille.';, and Mr. Baron 
Martin, of the Common Law Procedure 
Commission, which resulted in the 
Common Law Procedure Act of 1852. In 
1851 he became a Queen's Counsel, and 
was a member of the Commission for 
inquiring into the law of partnership. 
Differing in opinion with the majority of 
the Commission, he recommended the 
adoption of a law of limited liability 
as now existing. In answer to the objec- 
tion that persons might deal with 
limited liability companies believing 
them to be unlimited, Mr. Bramwell 
suggested a distinguishing addition to 
their name as " limited." This advice 
was adopted, and gave great satisfaction. 
Mr. Bramwell was, in 1856, made a 
Baron of the Exchequer, and received the 
honour of knighthood. In Oct. 1876, 
he was made a Judge of the intermediate 
Court of Appeal, and sworn of the Privy 
Council. He retired from the bench at 
the close of the year 1881, when a com- 
plimentary banqiiet, attended by the 
judges and the principal members of the 
legal profession, was held in his honour. 
In Feb. 1882, he was raised to the peerage 
by the title of Baron Bramwell, of 
Hever, in the county of Kent. Lord 
Bramwell's frequent letters to the Times, 
whether in his own name or signed " B/' 
have generally attracted attention. 

BRAMWELL, John Milne, M.B.,bom at 
Perth, N.B., May 11, 1852, is the son of 
James Paton Bramwell, M.D., of Perth, 
and was educated at Perth Grammar 
§chool, and the University of Edinburgh, 

where he took the degree M.B. and 
CM., 1873. Immediately after gradua- 
ting, he was appointed surgeon in the 
Liverpool, Brazil and River Plate Mail 
S.S. Co., remained a year in the Com- 
jDany, made three voyages to Brazil and 
River Plate, then settled in Goole as 
partner with Malcolm Morris (now 
Lecturer on Skin Diseases, St. Mary's 
Hospital, London), and has remained in 
Goole ever since. He has recently 
devoted much stxidy to Hypnotism, to 
which his attention was first drawn by 
seeing, when a child, hypnotic experi- 
ments performed by his father. He read 
Dr. Gregory's book on the subject, and a 
translation from the German book by 
Reichenbach, and never lost interest in 
the subject ; biit he commenced its serious 
study only six years ago, and has read all 
important Continental literature bearing 
upon it. He introduced it into his 
private practice about fifteen months ago ; 
at first cautiously and amongst personal 
friends. Last July he visited Nancy, and 
observed the methods employed there, 
and at La Salpetriere at Paris. Their 
methods of inducing hypnosis diii'er. He 
combined the two methods, and found 
the result far more successful than that 
obtained by either of the French Schools, 
and pushed hypnotic pi'actice more boldly 
after returning from France, and has 
ti'eated, up to date, about 500 cases. He 
induced hypnosis in every instance, and 
has treated every kind of disease that 
presented itself : Deafness, Chorea, 
Epilepsy, Neuralgia, Rheumatism, Rheu- 
matic Fever, TyjDhoid Fever, Stammer- 
ing, Drunkenness, Insomnia, Chronic 
Constipation, &c. The result has 
been cure or benefit in all cases. On 
March 28, 1890, he gave to medical men 
at Leeds demonstration of hypnotism as 
an Anaesthetic, a I'eport of which was 
published in The Lancet and The British 
Medical Journal of April 5, 1890. Mr. 
Bramwell's publications are : — " Extrac- 
tions under Hypnotism;^' The Journal 
of the British Dental Association, March 15, 
1890 ; and an article in Health on Hypno- 
tism May 16, 1890. He has been for 
some time engaged in writing a book 
on " Hypnotism," in which the statistics, 
&c., differ widely from any hitherto 

BRANDES, George, a Danish author of 
Jewish family, was born at Copenhagen, 
Feb. 4, 1842. He studied in the Univer- 
sity of his native city, 1859-64, ap- 
plying himself first to Jurisprudence and 
then to philosophy and aesthetics. In 
1862 he gained the gold medal of the 
University by an essay on " Fatalism 



among the Ancients," and afterwards 
passed the examination for his degree 
with the highest distinction. As soon as 
he had graduated he left Denmark and 
spent several years in different countries 
on the Continent. He was at Stockholm 
in 1865 ; passed the winter of 1866-67 at 
Paris ; was in Germany in 1868 ; and in 
France and Italy in 1870-71. He pub- 
lished " Dualisraeni von nyeste Filosofi " 
(" The Dualism of the Philosophy of the 
Present Time ") in 1866, with reference 
to the relations between science and faith 
— a work which exposed him to violent 
attacks from the orthodox party ; 
" Esthetic Studies," 1868 ; " Criticisms 
and Portraits," 1870 ; and " French 
jEsthetics at the Present Day," 1870. On 
returning from his travels he became a 
private tutor in the University of Copen- 
hagen, and delivered the series of lectures 
which were published at Copenhagen in 
5 vols., 1872-82, under the title of 
" Hovedstromninger i det 19 Aarhun- 
dredes literatur " (" The Great Literary 
Currents of the Nineteenth Century"), 
and were subsequently translated into 
German by himself. He has given 
Danish translations of John Stuart 
Mill's essay on the " Subjection of 
Women," 1869 ; and his " Utilitarianism " 
1872 ; and edited " Soren Kierke- 
gaard," 1877 ; and " Danske Digtere " 
(Danish Poets), 1877. In Oct. 1877, 
Brandes left Denmark and settled in 
Berlin, where he diligently studied and 
made himself master of the German lan- 
guage. At Berlin he composed the 
biographies " Esajas Tegner " and " Ben- 
jamin d'Israeli," both published in 1878. 
In the spring of the year 1883 he re- 
turned to Denmark, his fellow-country- 
men having guaranteed him an income of 
4,000 crowns for ten years, with the single 
stipulation that he should deliver public 
lectures on literatixre at Copenhagen. 
He has further published " Ferdinand 
Lassalle," 1881 ; " Men and Works," 1883 ; 
" The Men of the modern Literary Revi- 
val," 1883; "Ludwig Holberg," 1884; 
" Berlin," 1885 ; "Impressions of Po- 
land," 1888 ; " Impressions of Russia," 
1888 ; and 2 volumes of " Essays," 
1889. English translations of his works, 
edited in England and America, are " Lord 
Beaconsfield," 1880; "Eminent authors 
of the nineteenth century," 1886; and 
"Impressions of Russia," 1889. 

BRANDIS, Sir Dietrich, Ph.D.. K.C.I.E., 
F.R.S., son of Dr. Christian August 
Brandis, Professor of Philosophy at the 
University of Bonn, by Caroline, daughter 
of Bernhard Housmann of IJanover, was 
^orR fit iJwH; OT the 31st Mar?h} 1824, 

He was educated at the high school 
(gymnasium) of Bonn, and from 1837 to 
1839, while in Athens (where his father 
had been called to assist in organizing 
the University), was educated by Dr. 
Ernst Curtius, now Professor at Berlin. 
He studied at the Universities of Copen- 
hagen, Gottingen, and Bonn ; took his 
degree as Doctor of Philosophy at Bonn 
in 1848, was lecturer of Botany at that 
University from 1849 to 1855 ; was ap- 
pointed by Lord Dalhousie, then Governor 
General of India, Superintendent of 
Forests in Pegu, which appointment he 
gained in January, 1856. The charge of 
the Forests of Tenasserim and Martaban 
was added in 1857. On the amalgama- 
tion of the provinces he was appointed 
Superintendent of Forests in British 
Burmah. In November 1862 Dr. Brandis 
was called to Calcutta to organize Forest 
administration in the provinces imme- 
diately under the Government of India, 
and in 1864 he was appointed Inspector 
General of Forests to the Government of 
India. On several occasions he was de- 
puted to assist in the organization of 
Forest business in the minor Presidencies, 
viz.: to Sind in 1868, to Bombay in 1870, 
and to Madras in 1881. While on fur- 
lough to recruit his health, Dr. Brandis 
published (in 1874) a Forest Flora of 
North-West and Central India. In 1878 
he founded the Indian Forest School at 
Dehra Diin in North-West India, lor the 
education of natives of India for the 
post of forest rangers. In 1883 he retired 
from the service. Of his numerous 
official publications the most important 
are a " Report on the Attaran Forests," 
published at Calcutta in 1861, and a 
" Report on the Forest administration in 
the Madras Presidency," published at 
Madras in 1883. In 1878 Dr. Brandis 
was created a Companion of the Indian 
Empire, and in 1887 the honour of a 
Knight Commander of the same order 
was conferred upon him. In 1874 Dr. 
Brandis was made an Honorary Member 
of the Scottish Arboricultural Society, and 
in 1875 he was elected a fellow of the 
Royal Society. Of the numerous papers 
contributed by him to scientific periodi- 
cals may be mentioned : " On the Distri- 
bution of Forests in India," " Ocean 
Highways," 1872 ; " Progress of Forestry 
in India," Transactions Scottish Arbori' 
cultural Society, 1884 ; " Regen und Wald 
in Indien," Bev,tsch Meteorologische Zeit- 
schrift, October, 1887. 

BRASSEY, (Lord) Thomas, K.C.B., first 
Baron, son of Thomas Brasaey, the 
wellrkflown contractor for public works, 
y|fa.^ bgrii at ^t^fford iq 183Q, ftn4 §4vi» 



cated at Kugby and University Col- 
lege, Oxford, graduating in honours in 
the modem law and history school. He 
was elected for Devonport in 1865, 
has represented Hastings from 1868 
to 1886, and was appointed Civil Lord 
of the Admiralty in 1880, and Secretary 
to the Admiralty in 1884. He is the 
author of " Work and Wages," " Lectures 
on the Labour Question," " English Work 
and Foreign Wages," " British Seamen," 
"The British Navy," in 5 volumes, and 
" The Xaval Annual," a serial publication, 
commenced in 1886. He has published 
numerous pamphlets on political, econo- 
mical, and naval questions. Lord 
Brassey began his career in Parliament 
by seconding a motion by Mr. Thomas 
Hughes in 1869 for an inquiry into the 
Labour Laws. In 1871 he began the first 
of a series of speeches on Naval Adminis- 
tration. The subjects dealt with have 
included the defence of the commercial 
harbours, the organization of thiS Comp- 
troller's Department and of the Dock- 
yards, the principal reform advocated 
being a more decentralized management. 
In treating of ship-building policy, the 
objections to extreme dimensions have 
been strongly urged. The question of 
the Naval Reserves was brought forward 
by Lord Brassey in Parliament on several 
occasions, and he succeeded in obtaining 
the consent of the Admiralty to the en- 
rolment of a second class reserve, for 
which the fishing population would be 
eligible. The present strength of the 
force is 10,000. He also took an active 
part in establishing the Eoyal Naval Ar- 
tillery Vokuiteers. Lord Brassey moved 
for a select committee on the Euphrates 
Valley Railway in 1871, and for a Eoyal 
Commission on Marine Insurance in 1875. 
In 1879 he seconded Mr. Chaplin's motion 
for the appointment of a Eoyal Conimis- 
sion on Agriculture. In 187-4-5 he served 
on the Eoyal Commission on unsea- 
worthy ships, and in 1885 he was ap- 
pointed a member of the Commission on 
the defence of the coaling stations. As 
a yachtsman. Lord Brassey has made 
many distant voyages. In 1876-7 he 
went round the world in the " Sunbeam." 
In 1884 he visited the West Indies, and 
in 1886-7, India, Australia, and the Cape. 
A series of letters by him on the state of 
the defences of the coaling stations on the 
route to Australia by the Suez Canal, and 
to India by the Cape of Good Hope, was 
published in the Times. He was the 
first yachtsman who obtained a Board of 
Trade certificate for competency to navi- 
gate as master. The late Lady Brassey 
was the author of the well-known work, 
''YQ^a^e of \ib,e ' Sunl^eam,' " and qth^r 

popular books of travel. She died Oct. 
14, 1887. At the general election of 1886 
Lord Brassey withdrew from Hastings 
and offered himself as a Gladstonian 
Liberal for one of the divisions of Liver- 
pool He was defeated, and on the resigna- 
tion of Mr. Gladstone's Government he 
was raised to the peerage. Lord Brassey 
has taken an active part in the organi- 
zation of the Imperial Federation league. 
He introduced the deputation to Lord 
Salisbury at whose instance the conven- 
ing of the colonial Conference of 18S7 was 
considered by the Government. On Sept. 
8, 1890, Lord Brassey married the Hon. 
Sybil de Vere Capell, youngest daughter 
of the Viscountess Maiden, and grand- 
daughter of the Earl of Essex. 

BBAZIL, President of the Republic of, 

see FoNSECA, Marshal Deodoro da. 

BREAL, Michel Jules Alfred, a French 

philologist, was born at Landau, Bavaria, 
of French parentage, March 26, 1832. 
He received his early education in 
France, and studied Sanskrit at Berlin, 
under Professor Weber. Eeturning to 
Paris, he joined the staff at the 
Bibliotheque Imperiale, and in 1862 
obtained the Academy's prize for his 
•' L'Etude des Origines de la Religion 
Zoroastrienne." In 1864 he was made 
Professor of Comparative Grammar at 
the College of France. M. Breal was 
elected a Member of the Institute Dec. 3, 
1875, and made Director at the Ecolo 
des hautes etudes. In 1879 he was 
appointed Inspector-General of Public 
Instruction for high-class teachers. 
Among his works are " Hercule et Cacus, 
Etude de Mythologie comparee," 1863 ; 
translation of the " Grammaire comparee 
des Langues Indo-Europeennes," 1867- 
72 ; " Quelques Mots sur I'lnstruction 
publique en France," 1872 ; "L'Enseigne- 
raent de la Langue Fran9aise," 1878; 
"Excursions pedagogiques," 1880; "La 
Reforme de I'orthographie Franijaise," 

BEECHIN, Bishop of. See Jebmtn, The 
Eight Eev. Hugh Willoughbt. 

BEEITMANN, Hans. See Leland, 
Charles Godfrey. 

BRETT, Hon. Reginald Baliol, was bom 
in London June 30, 1852, and is the 
eldest son of Lord Esher, Master of the 
Eolls. He was educated at Cheam 
School, in Surrey, and at Eton, and 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated in 1874, and took his M.A. 
de^re^ in 18.J7. At; t^e en4 Qf 1ih?it yesff 



he was appointed Private Secretary to 
the Marquis of Hartinf^ton, then the 
leader of the Liberal party. At the general 
election in 1880, Mr. Brett was returned 
to Parliament for f'almouth, defeating 
Sir Julius Vogel, the late Prime Minister 
of New Zeahxnd. Mr. Brett continued 
for a time to act as unpaid secretary to 
the Marquis of Hartington, who was 
appointed Secretary of State for India in 
Mr. Gladstone's Government. At the 
general election of 1885, Mr. Brett con- 
tested Plymouth, and was defeated by 
Sir Edward Clarke, M.P. Mr. Brett is the 
author of several articles in the Fortnightly 
Review, and of certain letters to the Times 
on political questions of the day. In Sept. 
1879, he married Eleanor, the youngest 
daughter of M. Sylvain Van de Weyer, 
one of the founders of Belgian independ- 
ence, a member of the Provisional 
Government of 1830, and for many years 
subsequently Belgian Minister at the 
Court of St. James. 

BREWER, The Rev. E. Cobham, LL.D., 

second son of John Sherren Brewer, Esq., 
" a man of Kent," was born May 2, 1810, 
in Eussell Square, London, and educated 
by private tutors. He proceeded to 
Trinity Hall, Cambridge, in 1832, ob- 
tained the Freshmen's Prizes for Latin 
and English Essays, and took his degree 
in the Civil Law, First Class, in 1835. 
He was ordained deacon in 1834, jjriest 
in 1836, proceeded to the degree of LL.D. 
in 184.0, and devoted himself to literature. 
In 1850 was published his " Guide to 
Science," which soon attained a large 
circulation, and was translated by himself 
into French. Dr. Brewer has published 
also a " Dictionary of Phrase and Fable " 
(21st edition, 1889) ; " Eeader's Hand- 
book " (12th edition, 1888) ; "Theology 
in Science," " History (political and 
literary) of France," 1863 ; " History 
(political and literary) of Germany," 
1881 ; " Dictionary of Miracles," 1881 ; 
" Historic Note Book," 1890 ; about thirty 
educational books, and a number of 
pamphlets under various pseudonyms. 

BRIALMONT, General Alexis Henri, a 
Belgian military engineer, and writer on 
military subjects, son of General Laurent 
Mathieu Brialmont, was born at Venloo, 
in the province of Limburg, May 25, 1821. 
He quitted the military school at Brussels 
with the rank of sub-lieutenant in 1843. 
Being connected, as an engineer officer, 
with the management of the fortifications, 
he was appointed to carry out the works 
at the fortress of Diest. From 1847 to 
1850 he was private secretary to General 
Chazal, then Minister of War, In 1855 

he left the corps of engineers and became 
a member of the staff, attaining to the 
rank of Captain in 1857. In due course 
he became Major-General, and in 1877 
Lieutenant-General. He was appointed 
Inspector-General of Fortifications and of 
the Sapjjers and Miners in Belgium in 
1875. Lieut. -General Brialmont has 
written many works on military history 
and tactics. The following are the 
in-incipal : — " Eloge de la Guerre, ou 
refutation des doctrines des Amis de la 
Paix," 1 vol. in 12mo, 1849 ; " Prrcis 
d'Art niilitaire," 4 vols, in 12mo, 1850 ; 
" Considerations politiques et militaires 
sur la Belgique," 3 vols, in 8vo, 1851-52 ; 
" Histoire du Due de Wellington," 3 
vols, in 8vo, 1856 ; " Agrandissement 
general d'Anvers," 1 vol. in 8vo, with 
atlas, 1858 ; " Complement de I'CEuvre 
de 1830," 1 vol. in 8vo, 1860 ; " Etudes sur 
la Defense des [Etats et sur la Foi-tifica- 
tion," 3 vols, in 8vo, with atlas, 18G3 ; 
" Etudes sur TOrganisation des Armees," 
1 vol. in 8vo, 1867 ; " Traite de Fortifica- 
tion polygonale," 2 vol. gr. 8vo, with 
atlas, 1869 ; " La Fortification a fosses 
sees," 2 vols. gr. in 8vo, with atlas, 1872 ; 
"La Fortification improvisee," 1 vol. in 
12mo, 1870 ; " Etudes sur la Fortification 
des Capitales et I'investissement des 
Camps retranches," 1 vol. ,gr. in 8vo, 
1873 ; " La Defense des Etats et les 
Camps retranches," 1 vol. in 8vo, 1876 ; 
" La Fortification du champ de bataille," 
1 vol. gr. in 8vo, with atlas, 1879 ; 
" Manuel de Fortification de Campagne," 
1 vol. in 8vo, 1879 ; " Etude sur les 
Formations de Combat de I'lnfanterie, 
I'attaque et la defense des positions 
retranches," 1 vol. in 8vo, 1880 ; 
" Tactique des trois Armees," 2 vols, in 
8vo,with atlas, 1881 ; " Situation militaire 
de la Belgique, travaux de defense de la 
Mouse," 1 vol. in 8vo, 1882 ; " Le general 
Todleben, sa vie et ses travaux," 1 vol. in 
12mo, 1884 ; " La Fortification du temps 
present," 2 vols. gr. in 8vo, with atlas, 
1885 ; " Influence du Tir plongeant et des 
Obus-torpilles sur la Fortification," 1 vol. 
gr. in Svo, with atlas, 1888 ; " Les regions 
fortifiees," 1 vol. gr. in Svo, with atlas, 
1890 ; and forty pamphlets on political 
and military subjects, published from 
1846-90. General Brialmont made the 
principal fortifications of Antwerp in 
1858 ; the fortifications of Bucarest in 
1883, as well as those of Liege, and of 
Namur in 1887. 

BRIDGE, John Frederick, Mus. D., 
Organist at Westminster Abbey, was born 
Dec. 5, 1844, at Oldbury, Worcestershire, 
educated at Kochester Cathedral School, 
under John Hopking, and afterwards 



became a pupil of Sir John Goss. He 
was appointed Organist of Holy Trinity 
Chtircli, Windsor, in 18G5 ; of Manchester 
Cathedral in 18G9 ; Professor of Harmony 
at Owens College, Manchester, in 1871 ; 
Permanent Deputy Organist of West- 
minster Abbey in 1875 ; and succeeded to 
the full ottices of Master of the Choristers 
and Organist in 1882. He is also Pro- 
fessor of Harmony and Counterpoint at 
the Eoyal College of Miisic. Dr. Bridge 
has composed the oratorio " Mount 
Moriah ; " a cantata " Boadicea ; " 
" Hymn to the Creator " (the song of St. 
Francis), produced at the Worcester 
Festival, 1884 ; " Eock of Ages " (Latin 
translated by Mr. Gladstone), produced 
at the Birmingham Festival, 1885 ; 
"Callirhoe" at the Birmingham Festival, 
1889 ; church music and part songs. He 
is the author of theoretical works on 
Counterpoint, Double Counterpoint, and 
Canon, and "Organ Accompaniment" — 
all published in Novello's series of 

BRIDGMAN, Frederic Arthur, figure 
painter, was born at Tuskegee, Alabama, 
Nov. 10, 1847. His father died when he 
was three years of age, and when 
ten his mother took him North, and he 
lived for a few yeai-s in Massachusetts. 
He then entered the American Bank 
Note Company (New York) . to learn 
engraving, residing at Brooklyn, where 
he studied painting in evening art- 
schools. Although he made rapid pro- 
gress as an engraver, he preferred to 
adopt painting as his art, and so resigned 
his position in the Bank Note Company ; 
and in 18G6, assisted by friends, went to 
Paris, where he studied under Gerome in 
the Ecole des Beaux-Arts for three years. 
From 1866 to 1871 he spent some time in 
Brittany. In 1871 he passed six months 
in London, and the next two years in the 
Pyrenees, on the Spanish border. The 
winter of 1872-73 was passed in Algiers, 
and that of 1873-74 in Egypt, Nubia, and 
on the Nile. In 1877 he received a medal 
in the Paris Salon, and also one at the 
International Exhibition of 1878. Soon 
after he was made a member of the 
Legion of Honour. An exhibition of his 
works was held at New York in 1881, and 
again in the spring of 1890. For twenty 
years pictures by him have appeared at 
nearly every exhibition of the Royal 
Academy, London. " Winters in Algeria," 
written and illustrated by him, appeared 
in 1889, 

BRIERLY, Sir Oswald Walters, E.W.S., 
F.E.G.S., marine painter to the Queen, is 
the son of the late Thomas Brierly, Esq., 

of an old English family bearing arms 
granted in 1615, and was born at Chester. 
He was on board H.M.S. " Eattlesnake " 
during her surveys of the Great Barrier 
Eeef of Australia, the Louisiade Archi- 
pelago, and part of New Guinea, and in 
the "Meander" with Cajjt. the Hon. 
Henry Keppel, visited New Zealand, 
Tongatabu, Tahiti, and many other 
places ; has cruised in different parts of 
the world for eleven years on board 
various of H.M. ships — an island of the 
Louisiade, and a point in Avistralia are 
named after him, Brierly — was during the 
first year of the Eussian war present at 
all the operations with the fleet in the 
Baltic, and afterwards on shore and with 
the fleet in the Black Sea, and at opera- 
tions in the Sea of Azoff ; he was present 
by command on board the Eoyal yacht at 
the great naval review at the close of the 
Eussian war to make sketches for the 
Queen. In 1867 he was with H.E.H. the 
Duke of Edinburgh in his voyage round 
the world in the " Galatea," and his 
sketches of the crviise were exhibited at 
South Kensington ; in 1868 he was 
attached to the suite of the Prince and 
Princess of Wales during their trip up 
the Nile ; he has painted many important 
histoi'ical marine pictut'es, the principal 
of which have been engraved. He has 
been awarded the 4th class Medjidieh, 4th 
class Osmanieh, and the Turkish war 
medal, and is an Officer of the Eedeemer 
of Greece. He was formerly J. P. for 
Auckland, New South Wales, and is at 
present Curator of the Painted Hall, 
Greenwich. In 1886 he received the 
honour of knighthood. 

BRIGHT, Jacob, M.P., son of the late 
Mr. Jacob Bright and brother of the late 
Eight Hon. John Bright, was born in 
1821 and educated at the Friends' School, 
York. He sat for Manchester from 1867 
to 1874, and again from 1876 to Nov. 
1885, when he was defeated ; he was 
returned in 1886 for the South- West 
Division of Manchester. Mr. Jacob 
Bright has identified himself with the 
chief Eadical movements of his time, and 
has for many years been in favour of 
Home Eule for Ireland. He obtained the 
Municipal vote for women in 1869, and 
has always supported their efforts to 
obtain the parliamentary vote. In 1883 
he succeeded in preventing the ratifica- 
tion of a treaty which proposed to give 
both banks of the Congo to Portugal. 
Mr. Gladstone then made the unprece- 
dented promise that the treaty should 
not be ratified without the consent of the 
House of Commons. Nothing more was 
heard of the treaty, and shortly after- 



wards freedom of commerce on the Congo 
was secured by the African Conference at 

BRIGHT, The Kev. William, D.D., was 

born at Doncaster, Dec. 14, 182i. From 
Eugby School he was elected scholar of 
University College, Oxford, where he 
graduated in the first class in classics in 
1846. The next year he was elected a 
fellow of his college, and gained the 
Johnson Theological Scholarship and the 
Ellerton Theological Prize, and in 1849 
he proceeded M.A. Applying himself to 
the study of divinity, he was ordained 
deacon in 1848, and pi-iest in 1850, and in 
the succeeding year became theological 
tutor in Trinity College, Glenalmond. 
He returned to Oxford in 1859, and was 
afterwards appointed tutor of University 
College. He was promoted in 1868 to 
the Eegius Professorship of Ecclesiastical 
History, and to the canonry of Christ 
Church, which is attached to that chair. 
The University conferred upon him the 
degree of D.D. in 1869. He became 
Proctor for the Chapter in convocation in 
1878, and on subsequent occasions, and 
Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of 
Lincoln in 1885. Dr. Bright's works are, 
" Ancient Collects selected from various 
Rituals," 1857 ; "A History of the Church, 
from the Edict of Milan to the Council 
of Chalcedon," 1860 ; " Select Sermons of 
St. Leo on the Incarnation, with his 
' Tome ' translated with notes," 1862, 
1886 ; " Faith and Life : Readings from 
Ancient Writers," 1864. In collaboration 
with the Rev. P. G. Medd, M.A., he 
published, in 1865, a Latin version of the 
Book of Common Prayer ; " Hymns and 
other Verses," 1866 and 1874 ; reprints of 
" Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History," 
" St. Athanasius's Orations against the 
Arians," " Socrates' Ecclesiastical His- 
tory," " Select Anti-Pelagian Treatises of 
St. Augustine," and " St. Athanasius's 
Historical Writings," with introductions, 
in 1872, 1873, 1878, 1880, and 1881 ; 
" Chapters of Early English Church 
History," 1878, 1888; ''Later Treatises 
of St. Athanasius, translated, with notes 
and appendix," in the " Library of the 
Fathers," 1881 ; " Notes on the Canons of 
the First Four General Councils," 1882 
" Private Prayers for a Week," 1882 
" Family Prayers for a Week," 1885 
" lona, and other Verses," 1886. " Ad- 
dresses on the Seven Sayings from the 
Crosg," 1887 ; and " The Incarnation as a 
Motive Power," 1889. 

BRISSON, Eugene Henri, a French 
politician, born July 31, 1835, at 
Bourses, i^ -^he §911 ftf a lawyer in that 

city, studied law in Paris, and entered 
the profession in 1859. He wrote for the 
Temps and the Avenir National, and estab- 
lished in 1868, in conjunction with MM. 
Lacour and Allain - Targe, the Revue 
Politique. As a democratic candidate at 
the elections in 1869 he was unsuccessful 
in obtaining a seat in the Corps Legis- 
latif, but after the Revolution of the 
4th Sept., 1870, he was appointed Deputy 
Mayor of Paris by the Government for 
the National Defence. This position he 
resigned on Oct. 3. On Feb. 8, 1871, he 
was elected as representative of the 
Seine in the Assembly, and submitted a 
proposition of amnesty for all political 
crimes. At the General Elections in 
Feb., 1876, he was elected for the 10th 
arrondissement of Paris, and followed in 
the new Chamber the same political line. 
He was one of the 363 deputies who 
refused a vote of confidence to the 
Broglie Cabinet. At the opening of the 
session of 1879, M. Brisson was elected 
Vice-President, and was named President 
of the Budget Commission on Feb. 27 of 
the same year. He succeeded M. Qam- 
betta as President of the Chamber Nov. 3, 
1881, and was re-elected in 1883. He 
accepted the office of Prime Minister on 
the fall of M. Ferry in 1885, but, after 
a few months gave place to M. de 

BROADHURST, Henry, M.P., son of a 
journeyman stonemason, was born at 
Littlemore, near Oxford, in 1840, and 
received some education at a village 
school there. He worked as a journey- 
man stonemason up till the year 1872, 
when he became Secretary of the Labour 
Representation Leagiie. In 1875 he was 
appointed Secretary of the Parliamentary 
Committee of the Trades Union Con- 
gress. During the agitation on the 
Eastern Question he took a leading part 
in the organization of meetings, &c., in 
support of Mr. Gladstone's policy. He 
was elected member of Parliament for 
Stoke-on-Trent in 1880 ; was a member of 
the Royal Commission on Reformatories 
and Industrial Schools in 1881-2 ; served 
on the Royal Commission on the Housing 
of the Working Classes in 1884-5 ; and at 
the general election of 1885 he was 
returned for the Bordesley Division of 
Birmingham. In Feb., 1886, he was 
appointed Under-Secretary of State for 
the Home Department in Mr. Gladstone's 
Ministry. At the general election of 
1886 he successfully stood for West Not- 
tingham. He took a leading part in the 
passing of the Employers' Liability Act, 
1880, and many other measures affecting; 
the ii^di;jstrial (jlasegs, He i§ tti« authgy 



of the Leasehold Enfranchisement Bill 
and the Sites for Chapels Bill, and 
during the sessions of 1884-5 he had 
charge of the Deceased Wife's Sister 

BBOCK, Thos., A.R.A., sculptor, was 
born in 1847, at Worcester, where his 
father was a decorator. He was educated 
first at the Government School of Design 
in that city, then came to London and 
studied at the Royal Academy, where he 
obtained both silver and gold Medals. 
He became a pupil and afterwards an 
assistant of the late J. H. Foley, the 
sculptor. After Mr. Foley's death he 
completed the numerous works left 
unfinished by him, the chief of these 
being the O'Connell monument in Dublin. 
Among Mr. Brock's ideal works may 
be mentioned " Salmacis," " Hercules 
Strangling Antaeus," statuettes of Paris 
and CEnone, and a large equestrian 
group, ' ' A Moment of Peril," purchased 
for the nation by the Eoyal Academy. 
He exhibited at the Eoyal Academv in 
1889 "The Genius of Poetry." Among 
portrait statues may be named Kichard 
Baxter, Robert Raikes, Sir Rowland Hill, 
Sir Richard Temple, Sir Erasmus Wilson, 
and the poet Longfellow (the latter for 
the Westminster Abbey Memorial). He 
was elected an Associate of the Royal 
Academy Jan. 16, 1883. 

BRODBICE. The Hon. George Charles, 
LL.B., D.C.L., Warden of Merton College, 
Oxford, is the second son of the late Vis- 
count Midleton, formerly Dean of Exeter, 
and was born at Castle Rising, Norfolk, 
May 5, 1831. He was educated at Eton 
School, and at Balliol College, Oxford, 
taking his degree in 1854, and being 
elected a Fellow of Merton College in 
1855. He obtained a double first-class 
at Oxford, as well as the English Essay 
Prize and the Arnold Historical Prize. 
He also carried off, in 1858, the Law 
Scholarship at the University of London, 
■where he took the degree of LL.B. In 
1885 he was created D.C.L. of Oxford by 
a University decree. He was called to 
the Bar from Lincoln's Inn in 1859, and 
for some years practised as a barrister on 
the Western circuit. In conjunction 
with Mr. Fremantle, he edited in 1865 
"The Ecclesiastical Judgments of the 
Privy Council." In 1877 Mr. Brodrick 
was unanimously elected by the School 
Board for London to fill a death vacancy, 
being the first member so elected. He 
long served on the Council of the London 
Society for the Extension of University 
Teaching, and he Ib a member of the 
governing body of Eton College. He 

took an active part in promoting the 
University Tests Act, and other measures 
of academical, and generally of edu- 
cational, interest. In Feb., 1881, he was 
elected Warden of Merton College in the 
place of the late Dr. Bullock-Marsham. 
Mr. Brodrick is known to have contributed 
largely, but for the most part anony- 
mously, to the daily Press and leading 
periodicals. A selection of articles pub- 
lished under his own name, together 
with two more elaborate treatises on 
" Primogeniture " and " Local Govern- 
ment," and other occasional essays, were 
re-published in a volume entitled " Poli- 
tical Studies " in 1880. In the following 
year he published a work entitled " Eng- 
lish Land and English Landlords," being 
an inquiry into the origin, structure, and 
proposed reform of the English Land 
system ; and he afterwards discussed the 
Irish Land question, and the claim of 
Tenant-right for British farmers, in three 
articles which appeared in Fraser's 
Magazine ioT 1881-2. Mr. Brodrick is also 
the author of articles on " The Progress of 
Democracy in England," and " Democ- 
racy and Socialism," which appeared in 
the Nineteenth Century during 1883 and 
1884. His latest contributions to litera- 
ture are mainly connected with academi- 
cal history, including a volume entitled 
"Memorials of Merton College," a com- 
pendious " History of the University of 
Oxford," and several papers on kindred 

BBODBICK, Hon. William St. John Fre- 
mantle, M.P., eldest son of Viscount Midle- 
ton, and nephew of the Hon. G. C. Brod- 
rick, Warden of Merton College, was born 
in 1856 and educated at Eton and at 
Balliol College, Oxford, where he gradu- 
ated B.A. 1879, and M.A. 18S2. He was 
also President of the Oxford Union Debat- 
ing Society. He represented West Surrey 
in the parliament of 1880-85, and after the 
passage of the Redistribution Act success- 
fully stood for the Guildford Division of 
the county, which he still represents. 
He served on the Royal Commission on 
Prisons in Ireland, 1883-1885. In Lord 
Salisbury's second administration, 18S6, 
Mr. Brodrick was appointed Financial 
Secretary to the War Office. He married 
Lady Hilda Charteris, third daughter of 
the Earl of Wemyss. 

BBOQLIE, Charles Jacque« Victor Al- 
bert, Due de, eldest son of the eminent 
French statesman Achille Charles Leonce 
Victor, Due de Broglie (who died Jan. 
25, 1870), was born in Paris, Jime 13, 
1821. He was educated in the University 
of Paris, where, at an early age, he 



gained a high reputation as a publicist, 
and became one of the editors of the 
Corres'pondant , in which journal he de- 
fended Eoman Catholic interests and the 
doctrines of moderate constitutional 
liberalism. He was elected a member of 
the French Academy in 1862. He was 
secretary of the French embassies in 
Madrid and Rome, prior to the revolution 
of 1848 ; he then retired from public life, 
in consequence of his political opinions, 
until Feb., 1871, when he was elected 
Deputy for the department of the Eure, 
and nominated byM. Thiers' s government 
French Ambassador, in London. On his 
retirement from the ambassadorship, he, 
as the acknowledged leader of the Con- 
servative party in the National Assembly, 
moved the order of the day which led to 
the resignation of M. Thiers and the 
acceptance by Marshal MacMahon of the 
Presidency of the Republic, April 24, 
1873. The Due de Broglie then became 
Minister of Foreign Affairs and Presi- 
dent of the Council ; and for more than 
a year he directed the policy of the new 
government, but having undertaken a 
project of a new Constitution, including 
the establishment of a Grand Council or 
Second Chamber, which was to be in- 
vested with the power of dissolving the 
Assembly, he was defeated on a question 
of procedure, and resigned with his 
ministry. May 16, 1874. At the elections 
of Jan. 30, 1876, M. de Broglie was 
elected a Senator by the department of 
the Eiire : his term of office expired in 
1885. On May 17, 1877, he succeeded M. 
Jules Simon as President of the Council 
of Ministers, Keeper of the Seals and 
Minister of Justice, which posts he 
resigned in December of the same year 
after the elections had given a large 
majority to the Republican party. — As a 
writer, the Due de Broglie is well known 
by a translation of Leibnitz's " Religioiis 
System," 1846 ; his " Etudes Morales et 
Litteraires," 1853 ; "L'Eglise et I'Empire 
Romain au Quatrieme Siecle," 6 vols., 
1856, a work which passed through five 
editions; " Une Reforme administrative 
en Algerie," I860; "Questions de Re- 
ligion et d'Histoire," I860; "La Souve- 
rainete Pontificale et la Liberte," 1861 ; 
" La Liberte Divine et la Liberte 
Humaine," 1865 ; " Le Secret du Roi : 
Correspondance Secrete de Louis XV. 
avec ses Agents Diplomatiques," 2 vols., 
1878 ; Frederic II. et Marie Therese," 
1882; "Frederic II. et Louis XV., 
d'apres des documents nouveaux," 1885; 
"Marie Therese Imperatrice," 2 vols., 

BROOKE, The Eev. Augustus Stopford, 

born in Dublin in 1832, was educated at 
Trinity College, Dublin, where he gained 
the Downe prize and the Vice-Chancellor's 
prize for English verse. He graduated 
B.A. in 1856 and M.A. in 1858. He was 
curate of St. Matthew, Marylebone (1857- 
59) ; curate of Kensington (1860-63) ; 
minister of St. James's Chapel, York 
Street, St. James's Square (1866-75) ; and 
became minister of Bedford Chapel, 
Bloomsbury, June, 1876. He was 
appointed a Chaplain in Ordinary to the 
Queen in 1872. Mr. Brooke is the author 
of " Life and Letters of the late Frederick; 
W. Robertson," 1865 ; " Theology in the 
English Poets," 1874 ; " Primer of English 
Literature ; " and four volumes of 
" Sermons," 1868-77 ; " The Early Life of 
Jesus ;" and a volume of poems, 1888. 
He is at present, 1890, engaged on a 
"History of English Poetry." In 1880 
he seceded from the Church of England, 
his reason for this step being that he had 
ceased to believe that miracles were 
credible, and that, since the Established 
Church founded its whole scheme of 
doctrine on the mii-acle of the Incarna- 
tion, disbelief in that miracle put him 
outside the doctrines of the Church of 
England. Mr. Brooke has joined the 
Unitarian Church, and officiates at Bed- 
ford Chapel, Bloomsbury. 

BROOKS, The Rev. Phillips, D.D., 
was boi'n at Boston, Massachusetts, Dec. 
13, 1835, and received the degree of B.A. 
(Harvard University), 1855, and siib- 
soquently that of D.D. He studied in the 
Episcopal Theological Seminary at 
Alexandria, Virginia, was ordained in 
1859, and in the same year became rector 
of the Church of the Advent in Phila- 
delphia, where he remained until 1862, 
when he was transferred to the Church of 
the Holy Trinity. Since 1870 he has been 
rector of Trinity Church, Boston. Mr. 
Brooks, whose preaching is as highly 
valued in London as in the United States, 
is regarded as one of the most eloquent of 
the American Clergy, and is freqiiently 
chosen as the orator on public occasions. 
At the request of the late Dean Stanley, 
Dr. Brooks preached in Westminster 
Abbey ; and both Dean Stanley and 
Canon Farrar have preached for him 
in Boston. He is an active philan- 
thropist as well as a popular preacher. 
In May, 1886, he was elected Assistant 
Bishop of Pennsylvania, but declined the 
position. He has pviblished " Lectures 
on Preaching," 1877 ; " Sermons," 1878 ; 
" Influence of Jesus," 1879 ; " Candle of 
the Lord," 1881 ; " Sermons Preached in 
English Churches," 1883 ; and " Twenty 
Sermons," 1886. 

buoome— BEOuaH. 


BROOliE, Sir Frederick Napier, 
K.C.M.G., son of the late Kev. F. Broome, 
rector of Kenley, Shropshire, was born in 
Canada in 1842, educated at Whitchurch 
Grammar School in the above county, and 
emigrated to Canterbury, New Zealand, 
in 1857. Visiting England in 1864, he 
married Mary Anne, relict of the late Sir 
George Barker, E.A., K.C.B. [q. v.], and 
returned to his " sheep station " in New 
Zealand the following year, but in 1869 
he came back to England. Almost imme- 
diately on his arrival in London, Mr. 
Broome was employed by the Times, and 
was for five years a general contributor, 
reviewer, and art-critic to that journal, 
which he represented in Russia at the 
marriage of the Duke of Edinburgh, and 
on many other important occasions. He 
has contributed prose and verse to the 
Cornhill, Macmillan, and other magazines, 
and has published two volumes of poetry, 
" Poems from New Zealand," 1868, and 
'• The Stranger of Seriphos," 1869. In 1870 
Mr. Broome was appointed Secretary to 
the Fund for the Completion of St. Paiol's 
Cathedral ; in 1873, Secretary to the Royal 
Commission on Unseaworthy Ships ; in 
1875 Colonial Secretary of Natal, to which 
Colony he proceeded as a member of Lord 
(then Sir Garnet) Wolseley's special 
mission, and in 1877, Colonial Seci-etary 
of the Island cf Mauritius. He was 
appointed Lieutenant-Governor of the 
latter colony in 1880 ; and Governor of 
Western Australia in 1882. He was 
nominated a Companion of the Order of 
SS. Michael and George in 1877, and a 
Knight Commander in 1884. In 1885 
Sir Frederick visited England, and read 
before the Royal Colonial Institute 
a paper on Western Australia, which 
attracted much notice. For the first time 
on such an occasion at the Institute, 
H.R.H. The Prince of Wales took the 
chair, and a very large and distingmshed 
audience was present. In 1890, Sir 
Frederick again came to England to give 
evidence upon the Western Australia 
Constitution Bill before the House of 
Commons. This mission, undertaken at 
the request of the Legislatirre of the 
Colony, concluded Sir Frederick's seven 
years of oflBce in that Government. 
During this period the Colony had been 
greatly advanced by his exertions, and 
the departure of Lady Broome and him- 
self from Western Australia was the 
occasion of a remarkable manifestation of 
the esteem and affection of the Colonists. 

BROOME. Lady Mary Ann (formerly 
Lady Barker, under wMch name most of 
her books were published), is the eldest 
daughter of the late W. G. Stewart, Esq ; 

Island Secretary of Jamaica, in which 
island she was born. Sent to England at 
two years old, she returned to Jamaica in 
1850. In 1852 she married Captain 
(afterwards Colonel) G. R. Barker, Royal 
Artillery, who distinguished himself very 
highly in the Crimean War and the Indian 
Mutiny, and was made K.C.B. for services 
in the field. Lady Barker went to India 
to join Sir George in 1860, but he died 
that year, and she returned to England. 
In 1865 Lady Barker married Mr. Fred- 
erick Napier Broome, [q. v.] then of Can- 
terbury, New Zealand, and accompanied 
him back to the Middle Island. In 1869 
Mr. Napier Broome and Lady Broome 
returned to England. " Station Life in 
New Zealand," from Lady Broome's pen, 
was published in that year, and its success 
encouraged the author to write, in the 
following year, a small voliune for 
children, called " Stories About." This 
second woi-k was soon followed by "A 
Christmas Cake in Four Quarters," 
"Spring Comedies," "Travelling About," 
" Holiday Stories," " Ribbon Stories,'' 
" Sybil's Book," " Station Amusements 
in New Zealand," " Boys," "The White 
Rat," Sec, besides many articles for maga- 
zines. In 1874 Lady Broome published 
also a little book called " First Principles 
of Cooking," of which the circrdation has 
been large ; and almost immediately after 
its appearance she accepted the post of 
Lady Superintendent of the National 
Training School of Cookery, South Ken- 
sington. Lady Broome was also for some 
years editor of Evening Hours, a family 
magazine. Mr. Napier Broome having 
entered the Colonial service in 1875, Lady 
Broome's next experiences were of South 
Africa and Mauritius. Her life in the 
former country is described in " A Year.'s 
Housekeeping in South Africa," 1877. In 
1883, her husband having been appointed 
Governor of Western Australia, Lady 
Broome went to that colony, which is 
described in her last published book, 
"Letters to England," 1885. On leaving 
Western Australia in 1890, Lady Broome 
received an affectionate farewell from the 
people of the colony, by whom she was 
greatly beloved. 

BBOTTGrH, Lionel, comedian, was born 
at Pontypool, Monmouthshire, March lU, 
1S36, being the fourth son of Mr. Barna- 
bas Brough, and a younger brother of 
the well-known comic authors, " The 
Brothers Brough." His first employ- 
ment was in the capacity of o£Bce-boy to 
Mr. J. Timbs, in the Illustrated London 
News office, in Douglas Jerrold's time. 
Subsequently he published the first 
number of the Daily Telegraph, and for 


BEdtJGH^5N— fenOWN. 

five years he was connected with the 
Morning Star. Going to Liverpool with 
other members of the Savage Club to give 
amateur theatrical performances in aid 
of the Lancashire Relief Fund, he 
achieved so decided a histrionic success 
that he was offered a regular engagement 
by Mr. A. Henderson, and accordingly 
made his first professional appearance at 
the Prince of Wales's Theatre at Liver- 
pool in 18G4. His first appearance in 
London was at the Queen's Theatre in 
1867. Since that date he has played the 
principal low-comedy characters in 
London and all through the provinces. 
He has represented Tony Lumpkin, Bob 
Acres, Marplot, Touchstone, and many 
other well-known characters with great 
success. Mr. Brough was manager of 
Covent Garden Theatre for Mr. Dion 
Boucicault during the season in which 
" Babil and Bijou " was produced. He 
afterwards became, for a short time, joint 
lessee of the Novelty Theatre, Great 
Queen Street. 

BROUGHTON, Miss Rhoda, a popular 
English novelist, is the daughter of a 
clergyman, and was born Nov. 29th, 1840, 
in North Wales. Her principal works 
are : — " Cometh Up as a Flower," 1867 ; 
"Not Wisely, but Too Well," 1867; 
" Eed as a Rose is She," 1870 ; " Goodbye, 
Sweetheart, Goodbye," 1872 ; " Nancy," 
1873 ; " Tales for Christmas Ere," 1873 
(republished in 1879 under the title of 
" Twilight Stories ; ") " Joan," 1876 : 
"Second Thoughts," 1880 ; "Belinda." 
1883 ; and " Doctor Cupid," 1886. 

BROWN, Ford Madox, a painter, by some 
considered to belong to the Pre-Raphaelite 
school, was born at Calais, of English 
parents, in 1821. He is grandson of Dr. 
John Brown, of Edinburgh, founder of 
the Brunonian theory of Medicine, and 
father of the late Oliver Madox-Brown, 
the author of " Gabriel Denver." In 
1844 he sent two cartoons to Westminster 
Hall. In the competition in 1845 he was 
unsuccessful, though Haydon, in his 
Diary, speaks of his fresco as " the finest 
specimen of that difficult method in the 
Hall." Shortly after this he visited Italy. 
In 1848 he sent his " Wicliff reading his 
Translation of the Scriptures " to the 
Free Exhibition, near Hyde Park, where, 
in 1849, he exhibited " King Lear," one 
of his most characteristic works. At 
the Royal Academy, in 1851, he produced 
his large picture of " Chaucer at the 
Court of Edward the Third," which had 
been several years in progress. This 
picture, among those selected by Govern- 
ment for the Paris Exhibition of 1855, 

received the Liverpool priise of .£50 in 
1858, and is now in Australia, having been 
purchased for the Sydney Museum. At 
the Royal Academy, in 1852, was first seen 
his picture of " Christ washing Peter's 
Feet," which received the Liverpool 
prize in 1856, and was among the Art 
Treasures at Manchester in 1857. After 
1852, this artist, though exhibiting at 
times at Liverpool, Edinburgh, and other 
places, did not again come before the 
London public till 1865, when he opened 
an exhibition in Piccadilly of 50 pictures, 
and as many cartoons and sketches. 
Here for the first time were seen in the 
metropolis his pictures of " The Last of 
England," " The Autumn Afternoon," 
" WilhelmusConquistator,"and "Work." 
The last-mentioned was longer in hand 
than any of his other productions, and 
was considered by the painter and his 
admirers his chief work at that time. It 
now hangs in the Manchester Art Gallery, 
purchased by the Corporation. Since 
then he has produced "The Coat of Many 
Colours," " Cordelia's Portion," " Elijah 
and the Widow's Son," "Romeo and 
Juliet," "The Entombment," "Don 
Juan," and " Jacopo Foscari," at present 
in different private collections. Most of 
these last-named works formed part of 
the Royal Jubilee Exhibition at Man- 
chester in 1887, of which exhibition he, 
with his assistants, decorated the spandrels 
of the dome with eight huge canvases, 
each 35 feet long, each canvas represent- 
ing one of the industries of Lancashire. 
He completed in 1878 a picture of " Crom- 
well," representing the great Protector 
dictating the famous protest to the Duke 
of Savoy against the cruelties which that 
sovereign inflicted on the Vaudois Protest- 
ants. His last oil picture of importance 
is " Wyclif on Trial in old St. Paul's," a 
composition including more than a 
hundred figures, now one of a fresco 
series on which he has been engaged for 
eleven years in the Manchester Town Hall. 
The subjects already painted are : " The 
Romans building Mancunium," " The 
Baptism of Eadwine," " The Expulsion of 
the Danes," "Introduction of Flemish 
Weavers," "Wyclif on Trial," John of 
Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, defending him, 
" Weights and Measures Tested," "Crabtre 
Watching the Transit of Venus," "Chet- 
ham founds his School," "Kaye, inventor 
of the Fly-shuttle," " Dalton, inventor of 
the Atomic Theory," and " Stages of 
Cruelty," begim in 1856, and finished in 
1890. Mr. Madox Brown has also fre- 
quently lectured and written on art. 

BROWN, Pisistratus, 

See Black, 



BEOWN, John George. American fi^re 
painter, was born at Durham, England, 
Nov. 11, 1831. He began his art studies 
at the age of eighteen, at first at New- 
castle-on-Tyne, and afterwards spent a 
year at the Edinburgh Royal Academy. 
Removing to America, in 1853, he entered 
the schools of the National Academy of 
Design in New York, and in 185G opened 
a studio in Brooklyn, where he remained 
until 18G0, when he transferred his studio 
to New York City. He was made an 
Academiciiin in 18G3, and was one of the 
founders of the Water-Colour Society, of 
which for some years he was Vice-Presi- 
dent. He held the same officj in the 
Artists' Fund, in which also he was inter- 
ested. He has twice (in 1880 and in 1885) 
exhibited at the London Royal Academy. 
His principal pictures are : " His First 
Cigar," " Cvu-ling in Central Park," "The 
Longshoreman's Noon," " Tough Cus- 
tomers," " The Thrilling Moment," 'The 
Passing Show," " The Dress Parade," 
" The Three (Scape) Graces," " Left his 
Money on the Piano," " The Lost Child," 
"The Transit of Venus," "A Merry Air 
and a Sad Heart," " Clear the Track ! " 
" The Dog Show," " A Collection of 
Antiques," " As Good as New ! " " The 
Old Folks at Home," " Plotting Mischief," 
" Under the Weather," " The Wounded 
Playfellow," " A JoUy Lot," " The . 
Monopolist," " Day Dreams," " You're a 
Nice Pup," and " Watching the Clouds." 
A number of his works have been photo- 
graphed and engraved. 

BROWN, Robert ("Campsterianus"), 
M.A., Ph.D., F.L.S., &c., is the only son 
of Thomas Brown, Esq., of Campster, 
Caithness, where he was born, March 23, 
1842. After being educated privately, 
he studied in the University of Edin- 
burgh, where he gained several medals 
and other prizes, and in later years in 
the scientific schools and universities of 
Leyden, CoiDenhagen, and Rostock, re- 
ceiving from the latter the degree of 
Phil. Doc. (summa cum laude) his thesis 
being " Species Thujas et Libocedri quae 
in America-Septentrionale gignuntur." 
In 1861 he visited Jan Mayen, Spitz- 
bergen, Greenland, and the western 
shores of Baffin's Bay, discovering the 
now universally admitted cause of the 
discoloration of the Arctic Ocean, and 
numerou s other scientific facts . Bet wei n 
1863-6G he travelled for scientific purpo.^is 
in many of the least-known parts or 
America, and some of the Pacific Islands, 
from the West Indies and Venezuela to 
Alaska and Behring Sea Coast, as 
Botanist of the British Columbia Expedi- 
tion and Commander of the Vancouver 

Island Exploring Expedition, during 
which he introduced various new plants 
into Europe, and charted all the interior 
of Vancouver, then tmknown. His re- 
searches are recorded in numerous 
memoirs and volumes in English, German, 
and Danish. In 18G7 he visited Green- 
land, making, with E. Whymper, the first 
attempt by Englishmen to penetrate the 
inland ice, and formed those theoretical 
conclusions regarding its nature after- 
wards confirmed by Nansen. Since then 
Dr. Brown has travelled extensively in 
the Barbary States of North Africa, 
and has been Lecturer on Geology, 
Botany, or Zoology in the Royal 
High School, Edinburgh, and Heriot 
Watt College (School of Arts), Edin- 
burgh, the Mechanics' Institution, Glas- 
gow, and elsewhere. He is an honorary 
or ordinary member of many learned 
societies in this country, in America, and 
on the Continent, and has been President 
of the Royal Physical Society, Vice- 
President of the Botanical Society, and 
President of the Naturalists' Club, Edin- 
burgh ; and was in 1890 elected Vice- 
President of the Institute of Journalists. 
Among other new species discovered by 
him his name has been attached, by 
different English and foreign naturalists 
and geographers, to Aralia Browniana 
(fossil), Verrucaria Campsteriana, and 
Lecidea Campsteriana, and to Bi'own's 
Range, Mount Brown, and Brown's River 
in Vancouver Island, and to Cape Brown 
in Spitzbergen, and Brown's Island, north 
of Nova Zembla. In 187G he removed to 
London, in order to devote himself en- 
tirely to literary work. He is the author 
wholly or conjointly of about 26 volumes, 
and of a large number of scientific 
memoirs, and of nearly 3,000 articles 
and reviews in various languages. A 
list of his Ai'ctic memoirs are contained 
in Chavanne, Karpf, and Le Monnier's 
" Die Literatur iiber die Polar-Regi- 
onen," 1878 ; and, up to 1880, in Laurid- 
sen's " Bibliographia Groenlandica." 1890. 
His separate works are chiefly geographi- 
cal, ethnological, and natural history. 
The prin npal of these are : " Peoples of 
the World," 6 vols. ; " Countries of the 
World," G vols. ; '• Manual of Botany ; " 
"Our Earth," 3 vols. ; and "Science for 
All," 5 vols. He is at present, 1890, en- 
gaged in eliting "Leo Africanus " for 
the Hakluy: Society, and has annotated 
" Fellow's Adventures in Morocco." 

BROWN, Eohert, Jan., F.S.A., born at 
Barton-upon-Humber, July 6, 1844, was 
educated at Cheltenham College, and is 
known as a writer on archaic religion, 
mythology, and astronomy. His works are 


BEOWN— srowne. 

" Poseidon ; a Link between Semite, 
Ha mite, and Aryan," 1872; "The Great 
Dionysiak Myth," 2 vols., 1877-8 ; "The 
Religion of Zoroaster, considered in con- 
nection with Archaic Monotheism," 1879 ; 
" The Eeligion and Mythology of the 
Aryans of Northei-n Europe," 1880 ; 
" Language, and Theories of its Origin," 
1881 ; " The Unicorn," 1881 ; " The Law 
of Kosmic Order," 1882 ; " Eridanus : 
Eiver and Constellation," 1883 ; " The 
Myth of Kirke," 1883 ; " The Phainomena 
or ' Heavenly Display' of Aratos : Done 
into English Verse," 1885 ; " A Trilogy 
of the Life to Come," and other poems, 
1887; "The Etruscan Inscriptions of 
Lemnos," 1888 ; " The Etruscan Nume- 
rals," 1889 ; " Remarks on the Tablet of 
the Thirty Stars, or Babylonian Lunar 
Zodiac," 1890. 

BROWN, Tom, See Hughes, Thomas. 

BROWN, The Rev. William Haig, LL.D., 

born at Bromley, Middlesex, in 1823, was 
educated at Pembroke College, Cam- 
bridge, where he graduated in high 
honours in 184G, proceeding M.A. in 1849, 
and LL.D. in 1864. Having held for some 
time a fellowship and tutorship in his 
college and a temporary mastership at 
Harrow, he became, in 1857, Head Master 
of the Grammar School at Kensington, in 
connection with King's College, London, 
and was elected Head Master of Charter- 
house School in 18G3, on the retirement of 
the Rev. R. Elwyn. Under Dr. Haig 
Brown's mastership this famous school 
was moved from its old home in the heart 
of London to the hills above Godalming. 
In 18G9 Dr. Brown published " Sertum 
Carthusianum floribus trium seculorum 
contextum. Cura Gulielmi Haig Brown, 
Scholse CarthusiansB Ai-chididascali," and 
in 1879 a history of Charterhouse, called 
" Charterhouse Past and Present." 

BROWN-SEQUARD, Professor Ch. E., 
M.D. Paris, F.R.S., P.R.C.P. Lond., Hon. 
LL.D. Cantab., a physician and physio- 
logist, was born in the Mauritius, 1817. 
He has devoted his time since his gradu- 
ation almost exclusively to an extended 
series of exi^erimental investigations on 
important physiological topics, such as 
the conditions and functions of the 
different constituents of the blood, 
animal heat, the spinal cord in its normal 
and pathological states, the brain, the 
muscular system, the sympathetic nerves 
and ganglions,and the inhibitory and other 
influences of many parts of the body upon 
others. He has visited the United States 
(his father's country) many times, de- 
livering short coiirses of lectures, and in- 

structing private classes of physicians in 
his discoveries. Having been called in 
1860, to take charge of the then newly es- 
tablished hospital for the paralysed and 
epileptic in London, he had the honour 
of delivering the Croonian lecture at the 
Royal Society, and the Gulstonian lecture 
at the College of Physicians. He had 
previously, in 1858, had the great and 
exceptional honour of being invited to 
deliver six lectures at the College of 
Surgeons. He lived in London till 1864, 
and then went to the United States, 
where he was appointed Professor of the 
Physiology and Pathology of the Nervous 
System at Harvard University. Return- 
ing to Prance in 1869, he was appointed 
Professor in the Ecole de Medecine in 
Paris. In 1868 he founded, in Paris, with 
Drs. Charcot and Vulpian, the Archives de 
Physiologie normale et pathologique, of 
which he is now the sole editor. He has 
published a large number of lectures in 
the London Lancet on various kinds of 
paralysis of cerebral or spinal origin, and 
on other subjects, and also many essays 
and papers, giving the details of his 
discoveries, besides several works on 
epilepsy, on paralysis of the lower 
extremities, on the physiology and path- 
ology of the central nervous system, and 
on functional nervous affections. He has 
received several prizes from the French 
Academy of Sciences, of which he is a 
member, and, in 1878, was elected to 
the chair of medicine at the College de 
France. In 1881, he was awarded the 
Baly medal by the Royal College of 
Physicians of London. 

BROWNE, The Right Rev. Edward 
Harold, D.D. Cantab., Hon. D.C.L. and 
D.D. of Oxford, Bishop of Winchester, 
youngest son of the late Col. Robert 
Browne of Morton House, Bucks, born in 
1811, was educated at Eton, and at Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated as wrangler in 1832, obtained 
the Crosse Theological Scholarship in 

1833, the first Hebrew Scholarship in 

1834, and the Norrisian Prize for a theo- 
logical essay in 1835. He became fellow 
and tutor of his college ; afterwards in- 
cumbent of St. James's ; and of St. Sid- 
well's, Exeter, in 1841 ; was Vice-Prin- 
cipal and Professor of Hebrew at St. 
David's College, Lampeter, from 1843 to 
1849, when he was appointed Vicar of 
Kenwyn, Cornwall, and Prebendary of 
Exeter. The vicarage of Kenwyn he re- 
signed for that of Heavitree, Devonshire, 
in 1857. In 1854 he was elected Norrisian 
Professor of Divinity in the University 
of Cambridge, and in 1857 Canon Residen- 
tiary of Exeter Cathedral, when he re- 



sigfned the living of Heavitree. He was 
consecrated Bishop of Ely in March, 
1864. After the death of Bishop Wilber- 
force he was, in August, 1873, translated 
to the See of Winchester, and appointed 
prelate of the Order of the Garter. 
Bishop Browne has taken a warm interest 
in the " Old Catholic " movement in Ger- 
many, and attended the Congress of " Old 
Catholics " held at Cologne, in Sept., 
1872, and at Bonne in 1874. He was 
Chairman of the Committee employed on 
the Revision of the Translation of the 
Bible, O.T. He published in 1850-53 an 
" Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles," 
in two vols., since reprinted in one vol., 
8vo (12th edit., 1882), and re-edited for 
the use of the American Church by 
Bishop William, of Middletown, Con- 
necticiit ; three volumes of sermons 
preached before the University of Cam- 
bridge, one "On the Atonement and 
other Subjects," 1859 ; the second on 
" Messiah as Foretold and Expected," 
1862 ; the third in 1872 ; and a volume 
on the "Pentateuch and Elohistic Psalms, 
in reply to Dr. Colenso,"in 1863. Bishop 
Browne is the author of articles in " Aids 
to Faith," in " Smith's Dictionary of the 
Bible," and in the " Speaker's Commen- 

BROWNE, Professor, The Rev. George 
Forrest, B.D., son of George Browne, 
Proctor of the Ecclesiastical Court of 
York, and Anne, daughter of Rev. E. 
Forrest, Precentor of York Minster, was 
born at York, Dec. -4, 1833, and educated 
at St. Peter's School, York, and Catharine 
Hall, Cambridge ; gradviating in 1856. 
He was Mathematical Master at Glenal- 
mond, 1857; ordained Deacon, 1858; 
Priest, 1859, by the Bishop of Oxford ; 
and appointed Theological Tutor and 
Bell Lecturer in Ecclesiastical History in 
the Episcopal Chiirch of Scotland, 1862 ; 
Fellow and Lecturer of St. Catharine's, 
Cambridge, 1863. He vacated his Fellow- 
ship on his marriage with Mary Louisa, 
eldest daiighter of Sir J. Stewart Richard- 
son, Bart., of Pitfour Castle, Perthshire, 
and was rector of Ashley, 1869-74 ; Proctor 
of the Univei-sity, 1869-71, 1876-8, 1879-81 ; 
Secretary of the University Commission, 
1877-81 ; is a member of the Coiincil of 
the Senate (1874-90), the General Board 
of Studies, and various Boards and Syn- 
dicates. He has been Secretary of the 
Cambridge Local Examinations since 
1869, and of Local Lectxu-es since 1877, 
and editor of the official University Re- 
porter, Statuta, Ordinances, Endowments, 
&c. He has been University Preacher 
on various occasions, is a Magistrate fbr 
the Borough' of Cambridge, an Alderman 

of the County Council for Cambridgeshire, 
and a member of the Governing body of 
Selwyn CoUege. As a member of the 
Alpine Club, Mr. Browne published in 
the Cornhill Magazine various pajjers on 
Alpine expeditions ; on " Subterranean 
Ice," in Fraser, &c., and a book on "The 
Ice Caves of France and S\vitzerland," 
1864. He published " University Ser- 
mons," in 1879, 1880, and 1888; "The 
Venerable Bede," 1880; and since 1881 
has published a number of papers on 
" English Sculptured Stones of pre-Nor- 
man Type ; " he has been since 188S 
Disney Professor of Archaeology in the 
University of Cambridge. Professor 
Browne's chief claim to public notice lies 
in his work as the principal organiser of 
the Cambridge Local Examinations. 

BROWNE, Sir J. Crichton. See Ceich- 

BROWNE, General Sir Samnel James, 
K.C.B., K.C.S.I., r.C, was born in 1824, 
and entered the Bengal Staff Corps as an 
officer in the 46th Bengal Native Infantry, 
Dec. 22, IS'IO ; became Lieutenant, Oct. 
26, 1844 : Captain, Feb. 10, 1855 ; Brevet 
Major, July 20, 1858 ; Major, Feb. 18, 
1861 ; Brevet Lieut. -Colonel, April 26, 
1859; Lieut. -Colonel, Dec. 22, 1866; 
Brevet Colonel, Nov. 17j, 1864 ; Major- 
General, Feb. 6, 1870 ; Lieut.-General, 
Oct. 1, 1877 ; General, Dec. 1, 1888. Sir 
Samuel James Browne served throughout 
the Punjaub Campaign of 1848-49, and 
^v'as present at the passage of the Chenab, 
the actions of Ramnuggar, Sadvolapore, 
Chillianwallah, and Goojerat (medal with 
two clasps) ; was in command of the 
Punjaub Cavali-y and Corps of Guides ; 
served on the Derajat and Peshawur 
frontier from 1850 to 1869, including 
operations against Oomurzaie Wuzeerees 
in 1851-52 ; the Bozdar Belooch Expedi- 
tion in March 1857: the attacks on 
Narinjee (Eusofzai border) in July and 
Aiig., 1857; and in various minor 
skirmishes (medal with clasp) ; was in 
command of the 2nd Punjaub Cavalry 
during the Indian Mutiny Campaign of 
1858, including the siege and capture of 
Lucknow (Brevet of iVIajor), actions of 
Koorsee, Rooyah, and Allygunge, and 
capture of Bareilly. He commanded a 
field force of cavalry and infantry in 
the attack and defeat of the enemy in 
their position at Seerpoorah, and capture 
of their guns and camp (sevei-al times 
mentioned in despatches, and thanked by 
the Commander-in-Chief, and by Govern- 
ment, Brevet of Lieut. -Colonel, C.B., 
Victoria Cross, and medal with clasp). 
He received the ¥.C. "for having, at 

K 2 



Seerpoorah, in an engagement with the 
rebel forces under Khan Alie Khan, on 
Aug. 81, 1858, whilst advancing upon the 
enemy's position at daybreak, pvished on, 
with one orderly sowar, upon a 9-pounder 
gun that was commanding one of the 
approaches to the enemy's position, and 
attacked the gunners, thereby prevent- 
ing them from reloading and firing upon 
the infantry, who were advancing to the 
attack. In doing this a personal conflict 
ensued, in which Major Browne, Com- 
mandant of the 2nd Punjaub Cavalry, 
received a severe sword-cut wound on the 
left knee, and shortly afterwards another 
sword-cut wound, which severed the left 
arm at the shoulder, not, however, before 
he had succeeded in cutting down one of 
his assailants. The g\an was eventually 
captured by the infantry, and the gunner 
slain." In 1876 he was made K.C.S.I., 
and in the Afghan war of 1878-79 he 
commanded the 1st Division Peshawur 
Valley Field Force in the attack and 
capture of the Fort of Ali Musjid ; the 
forcing of the Khyber Pass in Nov., 1878, 
and subsequent operations till the end of 
the campaign (received the thanks of the 
Government of India, and of both Houses 
of Parliament, K.C.B., medal with clasp). 

BROU'NE, John Hutton Balfour, Q.C., 
brother of Sir James Crichton-Browne, 
M.D., LL.D., F.E.S., was born Sept. 13, 
1845, at Crichton House, Dumfries, Scot- 
land. His father was Dr. W. A. F. 
Browne, F.E.S., at that time Medical 
Superintendent of the Crichton Royal 
Institxition, Diimfries, but afterwards 
Commissioner in Lunacy for Scotland. 
His mother was a daughter of Dr. Andrew 
Balfour, of Edinburgh, a sister of J. H. 
Balfour, Professor of Botany in the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, and also connected 
with Dr. Hutton, the geologist, whose 
work on " The Theory of the Earth " 
made an epoch in the history of geology. 
He was educated at the Dumfries Aca- 
demy, and the University of Edinburgh, 
where he obtained high distinction in 
Philosophy and in Literature. He was 
for several years President of the Specu- 
lative Society, and at one time intended 
to become a Scotch advocate. In 1868 
he began to read for the English Bar, 
and was "called" to the Bar by the 
Middle Temple in June, 1870. He' went 
the Midland Circuit. In 1870 he pub- 
lished a work on the " Medical Jurisj^ru- 
dence of Insanity." In 187-1, having 
written and pviblished a work on the 
" Law of Carriers," he was appointed 
Registrar and Secretary to the Railway 
Commission, which appointment he held 
until 1881. He published in 1874 a work 

on " The Law of Rating,' ' and afterwards 
several other legal works. In 1880 he 
published a well-known work on the 
" Law of Railways." He went to the 
Parlianieniary Bar in 1874, and was 
made a Queen's Counsel in 1885. He 
has been engaged for the promotors in 
all the Bills for the formation of a Ship 
Canal to Manchester ; is, perhaps, the 
leading avithority on Gas and Water 
Bills, and conducted, as leader, the case 
of the Traders against all the Railway 
Companies, in 1889-90, in England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland, before the Board of 
Trade in settling the Classiiication of 
Articles, and the Schedule of Rates, 
tinder the Railway and Canal Traffic Act, 
1888. He is a Justice of the Peace for 
the county of Dumfries. In 1870 and 
1871 he wrote and published several 
works of fiction, which were fairly 
popular ; one, " For Yery Life," was pub- 
lished first in the St. James's Magazine, 
and was praised by Lord Beaconsfield, at 
that time Mr. Disraeli ; anoiher, " Men 
were Deceivers Ever," was dedicated to 
Carlyle, who was a countryman, almost a 
townsman, of the author ; another, " Sir 
Edward's Wife," went through several 

BROWNE. The Venerable Eolert William, 
M.A., Ph.D., F.G.S., the eldest son of 
William Browne, Esq., of Kennington, 
Stu-rey, born Nov. 12, 1809 ; was educated 
at Merchant Taylors' School, whence he 
was elected Scholar and Fellow of St. 
John's College, Oxford, and graduated 
B.A. in 1S31, taking double first-class 
honours. Having been Tutor of his 
college. Curate of St. Michael's, and 
Select Preacher in the University, he 
was appointed, in 1835, to the Professor- 
ship of Classical Literature in King's 
College, London ; and in 1836 to the 
Assistant Preacher ship of Lincoln's Inn. 
In 1843 he was made Chaplain to the 
Bishop of Lichfield ; in 1814, Senior 
Chaplain to the Forces in London ; in 
1845, a Prebendary of St. Paul's ; in 1854, 
Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of 
Bath and Wells ; in 1860, Archdeacon of 
Bath, and Rector of Weston-super-Mare ; 
and in 1863, Canon of Wells. He re- 
signed the rectory of Weston-super-Mare 
in 1876, in which year he was elected an 
honorary Fellow of King's College, Lon- 
don. Archdeacon Browne is the author 
of " Histories of Greece and Rome " in 
Gleig's School Series, and of two elaborate 
" Histories of Greek and Roman Litera- 
ture," for which the degree of Ph.D. was 
conferred upon him by the University of 
Heidelberg. He translated the Ethics of 
Aristotle, with an introductory essay and 



notes, for Bohn's Classical Series, and is 
the author of several smaller works and 
sermons. He is married to the eldest 
daughter of the late Eev. Sir Charles 
Hardinge, Bart., niece of the late Vis- 
coimt Hardinge, G.C.B. 

BRUCE. Sir Charles, K.C.M.G., son of 
Thoma.s Bruce, Esq., of Arnot, Kinross, 
was born in 1837, and educated at Harrow. 
He is the author of " Die Geschichte 
von Nala und Damayanti," a critical 
revision of the Sanscrit text, i^ulilished 
by the Imperial Academy of St. Peters- 
burg, 18G2, and of other Sanscrit and 
Vedic studies. He published in 1863 
a translation of " Nala tmd Damayanti " 
in English verse ; in 18(35, " The Story of 
Queen Guinivere, and Other Poems." 
He was appointed Assistant-Librarian at 
the British Museum in 18G3 ; Professor 
of Sanscrit, King's College, 1865 ; Eector 
of the Eoyal College, Mauritius, 1868 ; 
Director of Public Instruction, Ceylon, 
1878 ; was President of the Ceylon Branch 
of the Royal Asiatic Society ; appointed 
Colonial Secretary of Mauritius, 18S2 ; 
Lieut. -Governor and Government Secre- 
tary of British Guiana, 1885 ; and has 
on several occasions administered the 
Government of Mauritius and British 
Guiana, and was made K.C.M.G. in 1889. 

BKUCE, The Rev. John Collingwood, 
LL.D., D.C.L., F.S.A., born at Newcastle 
in 1805, was educated at his father's 
school, at Mill Hill Grammar School, and 
at the University of Glasgow. In 1826 
he took the degree of M.A., and became 
LL.D., in 1853. In 1882 he received the 
degree of D.C.L. from the University of 
Durham. Though educated for the 
ministry of the Presbyterian Church, he 
did not enter orders, biit joined his father 
in the management of his school. His 
father dying shortly afterwards, he con- 
ducted it on his own responsibility until 
the year 1858, when he retii'ed into 
private life. During the yeir 1S81 he 
held the oflBce of " Moderator " or Pre- 
sident of the Presbyterian Church of 
England. He has written " A Handbook 
of English History," which has gone 
through foiir editions. All the recent 
editions of the " Introduction to Geo- 
graphy and Astronomy," of which his 
father was the principal author, were 
prepared by him. In 1851 he published 
an historical and descriptive account of 
the " Roman Wall," in the North of 
England, a third edition of which 
appeared in 1866. Dr. Bruce, in 1856, 
published "The Bayeaux Tapestry Eluci- 
dated," containing a copy, on a reduced 
gcale, Qf tliQ entire t:ape§tr^^ JNIore re- 

cently he has published " A Handbook to 
Newcastle," and a "Handbook" for the 
use of pilgrims to the Roman Wall, 
which has gone through three editions. 
He has edited for the Society of Anti- 
quaries of Newcastle - upon - Tyne the 
" Lapidarium Septentrionale," a work in 
folio, which contains an account of all 
the monuments of Roman rule found in 
the North of England. This book was 
imdertaken at the request of the late 
Algernon, fourth Duke of Northumber- 
land, and, through the liberality of that 
nobleman and others, has been profusely 

BRUCH, Max, musical composer, was 
born at Cologne, Jan. 6, 1838, and re- 
ceived his musical instruction from 
his mother {nee Almenriider) who was a 
highly-esteemed teacher of music, and 
who often in her young days sang at the 
Rhenish musical festivals. At the age of 
eleven Bruch attempted compositions on 
a large scale, and at the age of fourteen 
he had already brought out a Symphony 
at Cologne. From 1853 to 1857 he held 
the Mozart scholarship at Frankfurt o/M., 
and in that capacity he was a special 
pupil of Ferdinand Hiller (then Conductor 
of the Cologne concerts and Director of 
the Cologne Conservatorium) in the 
theory of music and composition ; and of 
Karl Reinecke (till 185 i), and of Fer- 
dinand Breunnung in playing the piano. 
After a short stay in Leipzig, he I'esided 
from 1858 to 1861 as musical teacher at 
Cologne, and was assiduous in composing. 
On the death of his father, in 1861, he 
set out on an extensive tour of study, 
which after brief stays at Berlin, Leipzig, 
Vienna, Dresden, and Munich, ended at 
Mannheim, where his opera " Lorelei " 
(after the text written by Geibel for 
Mendelssohn) was produced in 1863. At 
Mannheim also, between 1862 .and 186i, 
he wrote the chorus-works, " Frithjof ," 
" Riimischer Triumphgesang," " Gesang 
der heiligen drei Konige," and " Flucht 
der heiligen Familie." In 1864-5 he was 
again on his travels, visiting Hamburg, 
Hanover, Dresden, Breslau, Munich, 
Brussels, and Paris. Then he brought 
out his " Frithjof " with success at Aix- 
la-Chaijelle, Leipzig, and Vienna. From 
1865 to 1867 he was musical director at 
Coblenz, and from 1867 to 1870 Director 
of the Court Orchestra at Sondershausen. 
At Coblentz he wrote, among other 
things, his well-known first concerto for 
the violin, and at Sondershausen two 
symphonies and portions of a Mass. The 
opera " Hermione," which was produced 
in 1872 in Berlin, where Bruch resided 
from 1871 to IS73, had only a svxce^ 



d'estime. The choral work^ or secular 
cantata, " Odysseus " likewise helongfs to 
the period of the composer's residence at 
Berlin. After he had been five years 
(1873-78) at Bonn, devotinf^ his time 
exclusively to composing " Arminius," 
" The Lay of the Bell/' and his second 
concerto for the violin, and after he had 
paid two visits to this country for the 
purpose of producing some of his works, 
he became, in 1878, on the resignation of 
Stockhausen, Director of Stern's Singing 
Academy at Berlin ; and in 1880 he was 
nominated to succeed Sir Julius Benedict 
as Director of the Philharmonic Society 
at Liverpool. In 1881 he married the 
vocalist. Miss Tuczek, of Berlin. 

BRUGSCH, Professor Heinrich Karl, 
Ph.D., a distingiiished philologist and 
Egyptologist, who by his researches on 
the subject of hieroglyphics has attained 
a Euroi^ean celebrity. He was born in 
Berlin, Feb. 18, 1827, and before leaving 
the Gymnasium evinced his fondness for 
Egyptological studies by writing a Latin 
treatise on the Demotic writing, 184'7. His 
early publications prociired for him the 
patronage of King Frederick William IV., 
under whose auspices he studied the 
monuments of Egyptian antiquity in the 
museums of Paris, London, Turin, and 
Leyden. In 1853 he made his first visit 
to Egypt, and was present at some of the 
important excavations conducted iinder 
the supervision of the French archaeo- 
logist, M. Mariette. Eeturning to Ber- 
lin, he was appointed Keeper of the 
Egyptian Museum there in 1854. In 
1860 he accompanied Baron Minutoli on 
his embassy to Persia, and after the 
deatli of the Baron he himself assumed 
the direction of the embassy. Siibse- 
qviently he was appointed Ordinary Pro- 
fessor of Oriental Languages in the 
University of Gottingen ; and in 1868 
Ordinary Piiblic Professor in the Philo- 
sophical Faculty of the same university. 
In Sept., 1869, Professor Brugsch re- 
turned to Egypt and succeeded 
M. Mariette as Keeper of the Egyptian 
collections at Boulak. He received the 
title of Bey, and afterwards that of 
Pacha. In Sept., 1881, he left Egypt in 
order to give a course of lectures upon 
Egyptology at the University of Berlin. 
The Professor has published a " History 
of Egypt ; " a " Demotic Grammar ; " a 
" Demotic and Hieroglyphic Dic- 
tionary ; " " Materials for the Recon- 
struction of the Calendar of the Ancient 
Egyptians ; " " Investigations concerning 
the old Egyptian Bi-lingual Monuments ; " 
" Eecueil de Monumens Egyptiens des- 
siReg siir les lieixx," 4 vols. ; " Eliind's 

Two Hieratic and Demotic Bi-lingual 
papyri translated and published ; " " The 
Geographical Inscriptions of the Old 
Egyptian Monuments," 4 vols. ; " Keise- 
berichte aus Egypten," written during a 
journey undertaken in 1853 and 1854 ; 
" Eeiseberichte aus dem Orient;" " Joui'- 
ney to Asia Minor and the Peninsula of 
Sinai ; " and numeroiis other learned 
works on the language, literature, and 
antiquities of Egyjjt. He took a leading 
part in the International Congress of 
Orientalists held in London in Sept., 
1874. An English translation of his 
" History of Egypt under the Pharaohs, 
derived entirely from the Monuments," 
was ijublished in London, in 1879. 

BKUNLEES, Sir James, F.E.S.E., Past 
President of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers, was born at Kelso, Roxbin-gh- 
shire, in 1816, and received his early 
education there and in Edinburgh. In 
the latter town he had considerable 
practice as a siirveyor under the late Mr. 
Alexander Adie, and in 1838 became 
assistant engineer to him on the Bolton 
and Preston Railway, one of the first 
lines constructed in this country. From 
1844 to 1850 he carried out the extensive 
works of the Lancashire and Yorkshire 
Railway system, with Sir John Hawkshaw 
as chief engineer. In 1850 he was engaged 
on the constriiction of the Londonderry 
and Coleraine Railway, and in 1852 iinder- 
took the difBcult works of the Ulverston 
and Lancaster Railway across Morecambe 
Bay. Since that date he has been actively 
engaged in engineering work both at 
home and abroad, and has also had a 
considerable practice as arbitrator in the 
settlement of dispvited contracts, &c. The 
following are a few of the works carried 
out by him at home, in addition to those 
already mentioned : — The Solway Junc- 
tion Railway, which has on it a viaduct a 
mile and a quarter long across the Solway 
Fii-th, the Clifton Extension Railway, the 
Mersey Tiinnel Railway, opened in Jan., 
1886, and of which he was senior engineer ; 
the Avenmouth, King's Lynn, and White- 
haven Docks, besides several piers and 
jetties on different parts of the coast. 
He is also associated with Sir John 
Hawkshaw as joint engineer of the pro- 
posed Channel Tunnel Railway. He has 
twice visited Brazil, and carried out there 
the well-known San Paulo Railway, the 
Minas and Rio Railway, and the Porto 
Alegre Railway, and has received from 
the Emperor the decoration of the Order 
of the Rose. He has also constructed the 
Central Uruguay and Bolivar Railway, 
and other works of importance abroad. 
In Meij, 1886, Sir James Brunlees receiyed 



the honour of knighthood from the Queen 
at Windsor. 

BRUNTON, Thomas Lauder, M.D.,F.E.S., 
■was born in Eoxburj^hshire in 1S44, and 
educated at Edinburgh University, where 
he graduated M.D. and D.Sc, obtaining 
honours and a gold medal for his thesis 
" On Digitalis," and the Baxter Scholar- 
ship in Natural Science. In] 186" he 
made some observations on the pathology 
of angina pectoris, which, together ynth 
the knowledge he possessed of the physi- 
ological action of nitrite of amyl, led him 
to the successful application of the drug 
to the treatment of the disease. This 
application affords one of the earliest 
and best marked instances of rational as 
distinguished from empirical therapeii tics. 
After spending about three years in foreign 
travel and study, he was appointed Lec- 
turer on Materia Medica at the Middlesex 
Hospital, London, in 1870, and in the 
following year he was appointed to St. 
Bartholomew's Hosjntal. In 1874 he was 
elected a Fellow of the Eoyal Society. In 
1886 he was appointed a member of the 
commission to report ui^on the treatment 
of hydrophobia, and went to Paris to 
examine Pasteur's system. In 1889 he 
was deputed by the Lancet to represent it 
at the invitation of the Nizam's Govern- 
ment, on the second commission appointed 
at Hyderabad, to investigate the action 
of chloroform. He wrote the section on 
Digestion, Secretion and Animal Che- 
mistry in Sanderson's " Handbook for the 
Physiological Laboratory," which was the 
first text-book of practical physiology 
published in this country. In conjunc- 
tion with Sir Joseph Fayrer he investi- 
gated the action of snake poison, and 
discovered that life could be greatly 
prolonged, though not ultimately saved, 
by the use of artificial respiration. His 
work has been chiefly directed to ascer- 
taining the action of drugs with a view 
to their application in disease ; and he has 
published, alone or in conjunction with 
others, numerous papers on this subject, 
as well as the Goulstonian lectures on 
" Pharmacology and Therapeutics," in 
1877 ; the Croonian lectures at the Eoyal 
College of Physicians in 1889 on "The 
Connection between Chemical Structure 
and Physiological Action : " and a text- 
book in which he has treated the action of 
drugs from a physiological point of view. 

BRYCE, James, M.P., Eegiiis Professor 
of Civil Law at Oxford, the son of 
James Bryce, LL.D., of Glasgow, and 
Margaret, eldest daughter of James 
Young, Esq., of Abbeyville, co. Antrim, 
was born at Belfast, May 10th, 1838, and 

educated at the High School and Univer- 
sity of Glasgow, and at Trinity College, 
Oxford (of which he was a scholar), 
graduating B.A., 1862, with a double first 
class. He obtained various University 
prizes, and proceeded to study for a time 
at Heidelberg. He was elected Fellow of 
Oriel College, Oxford, 1862, and became 
a barrister at Lincoln's Inn in 1867, 
practising for some years. In 1870 he 
was appointed Eegius Professor of Civil 
Law in Oxford University, and in 1880 
was elected Liberal member for the Tower 
Hamlets. He was Assistant-Commissioner 
to the Schools Inquiry Commission, 
1865-6, and in 18S1 served on the Eoyal 
Commission on the Medical Acts. In 
1SS5 he was elected member for South 
Aberdeen, and was appointed Under 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs in 
Mr. Gladstone's Government. He was 
one of the chief supporters of the Home 
Exile Bill, and after the dissolution was 
returned unopposed for South Aberdeen 
in 1886. During his parliamentary career 
Mr. Bryce has taken a special interest in 
que.'^tions relating to Ireland, in the 
Eastern question, in the question of Pre- 
serving Common Eights, and University 
Eeform ; and he has carried acts for the 
Eeform of City Parochial Charities and 
for the amendment of the Law of 
Guardianship (known as the " Infants 
Bill"), and the International and Colo- 
nial Copyright Act, 18S6. Mr. Bryce's 
literary works are "The Holy Eoman 
Empire " (1st edit. 186-1, 9th edit. 18S8 ; 
translated into German, 1873 ; do. into 
Italian, 1886 ; do. into French, 1889) ; 
" The Trade Max-ks Eegistration Acts, 
1875 and 1876, with Introduction and 
Notes," 1877 ; " Transcaxxcasia and Ararat, 
a narrative of a Journey in Asiatic Exissia 
in the axxtxxmn of 1876, with an account 
of the axithor's ascent of Moxxnt Arax-at " 
(1877,3rd edit., 1878) ; nxxmerous articles 
in magazines, mostly political, historical, 
or geographical, inclxxding descriptions 
of Iceland, and of the highlands of 
Hungary and Poland ; " Two Centuries 
of Irish History" (1888), edited by him, 
with an Introdxxctory Chapter ; " The 
American Commonwealth" (1888, 2nd 
edit. 1889). He has been active on 
various political and social subjects, such 
as the Abolition of University Tests, the 
Protection of the Christian Sxxbjects of 
the Sxxltan, and the Extension of the 
Frontiers of Greece, the Px-eservation of 
Commons and Open Spaces, the Eeform 
of Endowments, the Eevision and Con- 
solidation of the Statxxte Law, the Estab- 
lishnxent of a Universal International 
Copjnright, and the Ci-eation of a Teach- 
ing University in London. Professor 



Bryce married, in 1889, Elizabeth Marion, 
daughter of Thomas Ashton, Esq., of 
Ford Bank, Tidsbury, near Manchester, 
ex-Sheriff of Lancashire. 

BTICHAN, Alexander, M.A., LL.D., born 
at Kinnesswood, in Kinross-shire, on 
April 11, 1829, is the son of Alexander 
Buchan and Janet Hill. He was edu- 
cated at the Free Church Training 
College, Edinbiirgh ; and at the Edin- 
burgh University, where he graduated as 
Master of Arts. He was engaged as a 
public teacher till Christmas, 18G0, when 
he was api^ointed Secretary of the Scottish 
Meteorological Society. He is the author 
of " The Handy Book of Meteorology," 
1867, 2nd edit., 18G8 ; and " Introductory 
Text Book of Meteorology," 1871 ; the 
article " Meteorology " in the last edition 
of the " Encylopcedia Britannica ;" "Ee- 
port on Atmospheric Circulation," being 
one of the reports of the Challenger 
expedition ; besides numerous Monograms 
in the Publications of the Learned Socie- 
ties at Home and Abroad, including 
"The Mean Pressure and Prevailing 
Winds of the Globe ; " " Weather and 
Health of London ; " " Climatology of the 
British Isles," &c. He is M. A. Edinburgh 
University; LL.D. Glasgow Lniversity; 
Curator of the Library and Museum of 
the Royal Society, Edinburgh ; Member 
of Meteorological Council ; Foreign Mem- 
ber of the Royal Society of Sciences of 
Upsala ; Honorary Member of the Philo- 
sophical Society, Manchester ; Corres- 
l^onding Member of the Philosophical 
Society, Glasgow ; Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the Philosophical Society. Emden ; 
Honorary Member of the Meteorological 
Societies of Austria, Germanj^ Algiers, 
Mauritius, &.c. 

BUCHANAN, Eobert "Williams, writer 
in verse and j^rose, born Aug. 1841, 
was educated at the High School and the 
University of Glasgow. His first work, 
" Undertones," ajDpeared in 1860, and 
was followed by " Idyls and Legends of 
Inverburn " in 1865, and " London 
Poems " in 1866. Mr. Buchanan edited 
" Wayside Posies," and translated the 
Danish Ballads in 1866. His later 
works are " North Coast Poems," 1867 ; 
" Napoleon Fallen : a Lyrical Drama," 
1871 ; " The Land of Lome ; including 
the Cruise of the Tern to the outer 
Hebrides," 1871 ; " The Drama of Kings," 
1871 ; "The Fleshly School of Poetry," 
an attack on the poems of Mr. D. G. 
Rossetti and Mr. Swinburne, 1872; and 
" Master Sjiirits," 1873. Many years 
ago, his tragedy of " T\\e Witchfinder " 
was brought out at Sadler's Wells 

Theatre ; and a comedy by him, in three 
acts, entitled " A Madcap Prince," was 
acted at the Haymarket in Aug. 1874. 
He has also contributed to the stage " A 
Nine Days' Queen," in which his sister- 
in-law. Miss Harriet Jay, the novelist, 
first appeared as an actress ; and dramatic 
versions of "The Queen of Connaught" 
and " Paul Clifford." In 1869, Mr. 
Buchanan gave in the Hanover Square 
Rooms a series of " Readings " of selec- 
tions from his own poetical works. A 
collected edition of his poems was pub- 
lished in 3 vols., 1871. In 1876, Mr. 
Buchanan published his first novel, " The 
Shadow of the Sword," which has been 
since followed by " A Child of Nature," 
1879 ; " God and the Man," 1881 ; and 
" The Martyrdom of Madeline," a novel, 

1882. A new volume of poems, entitled 
" Ballads of Life, Love, and Humour," and 
a " Selection " from his various poems, 
were issued simultaneously in 1882. His 
novel, " Love me for Ever," appeared in 

1883, and his comedy, "Lady Clare," 
was brought out at the Globe Theatre on 
April 11th in the same year. " Alone in 
London," a drama written in conjunction 
with Miss Harriet Jay, was produced at 
the Olympic, November 2, 188o, and 
" Sophia," an adaptation of Fielding's 
" Tom Jones," at the Vaudeville on April 
12, 1886. His play " Joseph's Sweet- 
heart " was produced early in 1888 ; and, 
in the same year, he published an epic 
poem entitled " The City of Dreams." 

BUCHNEE, Friedrich Karl Christian Lud- 
wig, M.D., a German philosophez-, born 
at Darmstadt, March 29, 1821, is the son 
of a distinguished physician in that town. 
After a preliminary education, he was 
sent in 1813 to the University of Giessen, 
where he studied philosophy, though he 
subsequently at Strasburg turned his 
attention to medicine, in compliance with 
the wishes of his family. He took his 
doctor's degree at Giessen m 1848, and 
then continued his studies in the univer- 
sities of Wiirzburg and Vienna. After 
practising medicine for some time in his 
native place, he settled at Tubingen, as a 
private lecturer, being also appointed 
Assistant Clinical Professor. He was 
deprived of this position, however, by the 
authorities, in consequence of the philo- 
sojihical doctrines propovmded in his 
famous book on "Force and Matter," 
1855. He thereupon retui-ned to Darm- 
stadt, and resumed practice as a physician. 
In the work referred to — which is en- 
titled in German " Kraft and Stoff " 
(1855 ; 16th edit., 1888), and which has 
been translated into most European 
languages— Dr, Buchner explain? the 



principles of his system of philosophy, 
which, he contends, is in harmony with 
the discoveries of modern science. He 
insists on the eternity of matter, the 
immortality of force, the universal simul- 
taneousness of light and life, and the in- 
finity of forms of being in time and space. 
Dr. Biichner has further explained his 
system in " Nature and Sj^irit," 3rd 
edit., 187G ; " Physiological Sketches," 
1875 ; and " Nature and 
3rd edit., 1S74 ; " Man, 
Place in Nature," 3rd 
■ The Intellectual Life 
3rd edit., 18S0 ; " The 

2nd edit 
and his 
edit., 1889 ; 
of Animals," 
Theory of Darwin," 5th edit., 1890; 
" Light and Life," 1882 ; " The Future 
Life and Modern Science," 1889, and 
several other works. He has also contri- 
buted to periodical publications various 
treatises on physiology, pathology, and 
medical jurisprudence. 

BUCK, Dudley, American musical com- 
poser, was born at Hartford, Connecticut, 
March 10, 1839. His parents intended that 
he should enter mercantile life, but he 
showed from his earliest years so 
decided a musical taste that the plan was 
abandoned, and in 1858 he left Trinity 
College (Hartford), where he was study- 
ing, and went to Europe for a thorough 
musical education. He studied three 
years at Leipzig and in Dresden, and one in 
Paris, under Hauptiuann, Richter, Rietz, 
Moscheles, Plaidy, and Schneider. In 
18G2 he returned to America, and in 186J! 
began a series of organ concerts in the 
principal cities and towns of the United 
States, which were continxxed for a period 
of fifteen years, and which made him 
widely known to the American public both 
as a performer and as a composer. From 
Hartford, where, since his return from 
Europe, he had been organist of the 
North Congregational Church, he removed 
in 1869, to Chicago, to assume charge of 
the music in St. James's Church, but im- 
mediately after the great fire there in 
1871, where he met with severe losses 
(including unpublished compositions), he 
went back to the East and took the musical 
direction of St. Paul's Church, Boston, 
and shortly afterwards was appointed 
organist of the Music Hall in the same 
city. These positions he retained for 
three years, relinquishing them in 1875 
to become assistant conductor in Theodore 
Thomas' (N. Y.) Central Park Garden 
Concerts. In the following year his 
cantata, " The Centennial Meditation of 
Columbia," was performed under the 
direction of Mr. Thomas by a chorus of 
1,000 voices and an orchestra of nearly 
SOQ pieces .a,t the inauguration of the 

Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. 
Later in the same year (1876) he became 
organist of the Holy Trinity Church, 
Brooklyn, where he still remains. 
Among his numerous compositions may 
be mentioned two " Motett Collections," 
a series of " Studies in Pedal Phrasing," 
several groups of songs, a " Symphonic 
Overtxire " to Scott's " Marmion," the 
"Forty-sixth Psalm," and "The Legend 
of Don Munio," a romantic cantata of 
which the text is a metrical version of 
Irving's "Alhambra." The largest of 
his works is " The Light of Asia " (the 
text from Sir Edwin Arnold's poem), 
published in 1885. In the same year he 
wrote "The Voyage of Columbus" (a 
cantata) which was first performed by 
the Apollo Club, a Brooklyn Society of 
male voices founded and conducted by 
Mr. Buck. His " Golden Legend," based 
on Longfellow's poem of the same title, 
received the prize offered by the Cincin- 
nati Mixsic Festival Association for the 
best composition for solo voices, chorus 
and orchestra (*1,000). Other of his 
works are a comic opera, "Deseret," pro- 
duced in New York in 1880 ; " Illustra- 
tions in Choir Accompaniment " (1877); 
and a number of literary -musico treatises 
on themes connected with his profession. 
Mr. Buck is on the editorial staff of " The 
People's Cyclopedia." 

BUCKLE, George Earle, the editor of 
The Times, is the eldest son of the Rev. 
George Buckle, Canon of Wells, and was 
born June 10, 1854, at Twerton Vicarage, 
near Bath, and educated at Honiton Gram- 
mar School, 1863-1865, and Winchester 
College, where he was a scholar on the 
Foundation. 1866-1872. He was scholar 
of New College, Oxford, 1872-1877, where 
he won the Newdigate Prize for English 
Verse, 1875, and gained a First Class in 
Literoe Hunianiores, 1876, and a First 
Class in Modern History, 1877 ; gradua- 
ting B.A. 1876, and M.A. 1879. He 
was Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, 
1877-1885, and was called to the Bar at 
Lincoln's Inn, 1880. He entered The 
Times office on the Editorial staff in 
1880, and was appointed editor on Mr. 
Chenery's death in February, 1884. He 
married, in 1885, a daughter of Mr. James 
Payn, the novelist. 

BUCKNILL, John Charles, M.D. Lond., 
F.R.C.P. Lond.,F.R.S., was born in 1817, 
at Market Bos worth, and educated at 
Rugby school and at Bosworth school. 
He received his medical education at 
University College, London, of which 
College he is a Fellow, and has for some 
years beeu a member Qf the CouaoH 



In 1840 he graduated in honours in the 
University of London, being first in sur- 
gery and third in medicine. In the Col- 
lege of Physicians of London he has been 
Censor, Councillor and Lumleian Lec- 
turer. In 1844 he was appointed the first 
medical suijerintendent of the Devon 
County Lunatic Asylum, an office which 
he lield imtil 1862, when he was appointed 
Lord Chancellor's Medical Visitor of 
Lunatics, which office he held until 1876. 
He is a Justice of the Peace of the county 
of Warwick and a Visitor of the County 
Asylum. In 1853 he originated, and for 
nine years afterwards edited, the Journal 
of Mental Science, and he is one of the 
original editors of Brain. He has pub- 
lished " Unsoundness of Mind in Relation 
to Criminal Acts" (Sugden Prize), 1857; 
" The Manual of Psychological Medicine " 
(last half), 1858,: "The Psychology of 
Shakespeare," 1859; "The Medical 
Knowledge of Shakespeare, "1860; " Notes 
on American Asylums," 1876 ; " Habitual 
Drunkenness and Insane Drunkards," 
1878 ; " Care of the Insane and their 
Legal Control," 1880, and also numerous 
pamphlets, lectures, and articles, in 
journals, on insanity and allied subjects. 
In 1852 Dr. Bucknill, through the 
influence of the late Earl Fortescue, 
obtained the permission of the Govern- 
ment that the 1st Devon and Exeter 
Volunteer Eifles should be embodied, and 
he was the first recruit of this the 
primary regiment of the then new 
volunteer movement. 

BUFFET, Louis Joseph, a French poli- 
tician, born at Mirecourt (Vosges), Oct. 
26, 1818, practised as an advocate before 
the EevoKition of 1848, when, being re- 
turned as a representative of the people 
by the department of the Vosges, he 
voted as a riile with the old dynastic Left, 
which became tlie Eight of the Constituent 
Assembly. He accepted the republican 
constitution, and declared that General 
Cavaignac had deserved well of his country. 
After the election of Dec. 10, he gave in 
his adhesion to the Government of Louis 
Napoleon, who entrusted him with the 
portfolio of commerce and agriculture 
after the dismissal of M. Bixio. Both as 
minister and as representative he sup- 
ported the party of order, but he refused 
to follow completely the policy of the 
Elysee, and accordingly he quitted the 
ministry with the late M. Odilon Barrot, 
Dec. 31, 1849. After the crisis which 
followed the dismissal of General 
Changarnier, he returned to office with 
M. Leon Foucher, April 10, 1851, and in 
that parliamentary cabinet he repre- 
sented the ideas of the majority. He 

resigned with his colleagues Oct. 14, 
1851, when the President declared in 
favour of the withdrawal of the law of 
May 31. After the cou}} d'etat of Dec. 2, 
1851, M. Buffet declined to accept any 
public appointment for several years. 
In 1863, however, he came forward as an 
opposition candidate in the first circon- 
scription of the Vosges, and was elected. 
M. Buffet qtiickly became one of the 
most prominent members of the Corps 
Legislatif, where he was one of the 
leaders of a " Tiers Parti," which en- 
deavoured to reconcile Liberal reforms 
with loyalty to the dynasty. He was 
re-elected for his department in May, 
1869, and in the short session which began 
in the following month, he greatly contri- 
buted to the victory of the Liberal centre, 
and was one of the promoters of the famous 
demand of interpellation, signed by 116 de- 
puties, which elicited the message and the 
project of the senatus consulte, containing 
the promise of a return to jjarliamentary 
government. After the prolonged negotia- 
tions in connection with whicli his name 
was so constantly mentioned respecting 
tlie formation of the first parliamentary 
ministry, M. Buffet became a member, as 
Finance Minister, of the cabinet formed by 
M. Emile Ollivier, on Jan. 2, 1870. His 
financial policy gave general satisfaction ; 
butwhen M. Ollivier consented tothep?efc- 
iscite, M. Buffet deemed it his duty to 
resign at the same time as his colleague, 
M. Daru (April 10). After the disaster 
of Sedan, and the revolution of Sept. 4, 
he retired for a short time into pi-ivate 
life. However, at the elections of Feb. 8, 
1871, he was returned by his department 
— again at the head of the poll — to tlie 
National Assembly. ]\I. Thiers offered 
him the portfolio of Finance, but he 
declined it, for fear of the susceptibilities 
which might be wounded on account of his 
having held office under the Empire. 
On April 4, 1873, he was elected Presi- 
dent of the National Assembly in the 
place of M. Grevy, resigned ; and he was 
re-elected to that office May 13, 1874. 
He was again elected, and for the last 
time, to the same office, March 1, 1875, 
although at that date he was officially en- 
gaged in the formation of a new cabinet 
to replace the Chabaud-Latour Ministry. 
On March 10, 1875, M. Buffet was ap- 
pointed Vice-President of the Council, 
and Minister of the Interior. While" 
holding this office he made himself ex- 
tremely obnoxious to the Eepublican 
party. At the elections of Jan. 1876, he 
did not succeed in obtaining a seat in the 
Assembly, his candidature failing at Mire- 
court, Bourges, Castelsai-rasin, and 
Commercy. He therefore resigned the 



Vice-Presidency of the Council of Minis- \ 

ters. On June 16, 1876, the Senate | 

elected him a Life Senator by 114 votes i 
against 112. 

BULLEE. Major-General Sir Redvers 
Henry, Y.€., K.C.B., K.C.M.Ct., is the son 
of the late James AVentworth Buller, 
M.P., of Downes, Crediton, Devonshire, 
and was born in 1839. He entered the 
:50th Kifles, May 23, 1858 ; lieutenant, 
Dec. 9, 1862; captain. May 28, 1870; ; 
major, April 1, 1874 ; lieut.-colonel, 
Xov. 11, 1878; colonel, Sept. 27, 1879; ; 
major-general. May 21, 1884. He served 
with the 2nd Battalion, 60th Rifles, 
throughout the campaign of 1860 in 
China (medal with two clasps) ; with the 
1st Battalion on the Eed Kiver exj^edi- 
tion of 1S70 ; accompanied Sir Garnet 
Wolseley to the Gold Coast in Sept., 
1873 ; and served as D.A. Adjutant and 
Quartermaster-General and Head of the 
Intelligence Department throughout the 
Ashantee war of 1873-74, including the 
action of Essaman, battle of Amoaful, \ 
advanced guard engagement at Jarbin- ' 
bah, battle of Ordahai ( slightly wounded), | 
and capture of Coomassie (several times | 
mentioned in despatches, brevet of , 
Major, C.B., medal with clasp). He j 
served in the Kafir war of 1878-79, and i 
commanded the Frontier Light Horse in 
the engagement of Taba ka Udoda, and 
in the operations at Molyneux Path aud 
against 5lanyanyoba's stronghold (several 
times mentioned in despatches) ; also | 
throughout the Zulu war of 1879, and ; 
commanded the cavalry in the engage- 
ments at Zeobane Mountain and Kam- I 
bula ; conducted the reconnaissance 
before Ulundi, and was present in the 
engagement at Ulundi (several times 
mentioned in despatches, thanked in 
General Orders, brevet of Lieiit.-Colonel, 
Aide-de-camp to the Queen, Victoria 
Cross, C.M.G., medal with clasp). The 
Y.C was given "for his gallant conduct 
at the retreat at Inhloband, on March 
28, 1879, in having assisted, while hotly 
pursued by Zulus, in rescuing Cap- 
tain C. D'Arcy, of the Frontier Light 
Horse, who was retiring on foot ; Colonel 
Buller carrying him on his horse until 
he overtook the rearguard. Also for 
having on the same day, and in the same 
circumstances, conveyed to a place of 
safety Lieutenant C. Everitt, of the 
Frontier Light Horse, whose horse had 
been killed under him. Later on, Colonel 
Buller, in the same manner, saved a 
trooper of the Frontier Light Horse, 
whose horse was completely exhausted, 
and who otherwise would have been 
killed by. the Zulus, which were within 

eighty yards of him." Colonel Buller 
served in the Boer war of 1881 as Chief 
of the Staff to Sir Evelyn Wood, with 
the local rank of Major-General ; in the 
Egyptian war of 1882 in charge of the 
Intelligence Department, and was present 
in the action at Kassassin, Sejjt. 9, and at 
the battle of Tel-el-Kebir (mentioned in 
despatches, K.C.M.G., medal with clasp, 
3rd Class of the Osmanieh, and Khedive's 
Star) ; served in the Soudan Expedition 
under Sir Gerald Graham, in 18S4, in 
command of the 1st Infantry Brigade, 
and as second in command of the ex- 
pedition, and was present in the engage- 
ment at El Teb and Temai (twice men- 
tioned in despatches, promoted to Major- 
General for distinguished service in the 
field, medal and two clasps) ; served in 
the Soudan campaign in 1884-85, as Chief 
of the Staff to Lord Wolseley. When 
Sir Herbert Stewart was wounded, and 
Colonel Burnaby had been killed, he 
took command of the Desert Cokimn. and 
withdrew it from Gubat to Gakdul in the 
face of the enemy, defeating them at 
Abu Klea Wells on Feb. 16 and 17 (men- 
tioned in despatches, K.C.B., medal and 

BULLER, Sir Walter Lawry, K.C.M.G., 
F.E.S., the descendant of an ancient 
Cornish family and the oldest surviving 
son of the late Eev. James Buller, was 
born at Newark in the Bay of Islands, 
New Zealand, on Oct. 9, 1838. He re- 
ceived his early education at Auckland 
College, and afterwards became a pupil 
of William Swainson, F.R.S., the cele- 
brated zoologist, who had settled in that 
colony. For a continuous period of fif- 
teen years he held various oificial ap- 
pointments, but chiefly in connection 
with nati ve affairs, as he had early acquired 
a thorough knowledge of the Maori lan- 
guage, and on eight different occasions 
he received the special thanks of the 
Colonial Government. Dtu-ing this time 
he also contribvited largely to zoological 
literattire, and was elected a Fellow of the 
Linnean and of various other learned 
societies. From 1855 to 1860 he acted 
as Government Interpreter and Native 
Commissioner. In 1861 he was appointed 
editor-in-chief of the " The Maori Mes- 
senger," an English and Maori Journal 
published by authority. At the age of 
24 he was appointed a Resident Magis- 
trate, and three years later a Judge of 
the Native Land Court. In 1865 he 
served as a Volunteer on Sir George 
Grey's staff at the taking of the Werdroa 
Pa, for which he received the New Zealand 
War Medal. On that occasion, declining 
the protection of a. military escort, he 



carried the Governor's despatches, at 
night, through forty miles of the enemy's 
country, attended only by a Maori 
orderly ; for which gallant service he was 
mentioned in despatches. In 1871 he 
visited England, and two years later 
published a splendidly illustrated " His- 
tory of the Birds of New Zealand." The 
Royal University of Tubingen bestowed 
upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Science, and he received several other 
foreign distinctions. In IS?-! he was 
called to the Bar at the Inner Temple. 
In 1875 Her Majesty, in recognition of 
the value of his scientific work, created 
him a C.M.G. ; and in 1876 he was elected 
F.E.S. In 1882 he published a "Manual 
of the Birds of New Zealand " for the 
use of students ; and in 1883 was awarded 
the Gold Medal of the New Zealand 
Exhibition, " for Science and Literature." 
From 1875 to 1885,jinclusive, he practised 
his profession in the Colony with re- 
markable success. In 1886 he returned 
to England, as New Zealand Commis- 
sioner at the Colonial and Indian Exhibi- 
tion ; and for his services on that occasion 
was promoted by her Majesty to the rank of 
K. C.M.G. In 1887 he was awarded the 
Galileian Medal by the Eoyal University 
of Florence ; and in 1888 he published a 
new and much enlarged edition of "The 
Birds of New Zealand " ( Imperial Quarto). 
Besides enjoying the dignity of a British 
Order, Sir Walter Buller holds the rank 
of " Officier " in the Legion of Honoiir. 
He is also " Officier de I'lnstruction 
Publique" (Gold Palm of the Academy), 
Knight first class of the Order of Francis 
Joseph, of Austria, Knight first class of 
the Order of Frederick of Wiirtemberg, 
and Knight first class of the Order of 
Merit of Hesse-Darmstadt. 

BULLOCK, The Rev. Charles, B.D., was 
born in 1829. He was ordained to the 
Parish of Eotherham, and became Rector 
of St. Nicholas, Worcester, in 1860. 
Resigning this post in 1874, he devoted 
himself to jiopular literature ; and in re- 
cognition of his services in this direction 
the Archbishop of Canterbury conferred 
on him the degree of B.D. The mag- 
azines edited by him are The Fireside 
(first published in 1861), Home Words, 
whicli in its localized form is known 
throughout the country, and The Day of 
Days, for Sunday Reading. In 1876 he 
founded Hand and Heart, as a penny 
illustrated Church of England Social 
and Temperance Journal. More recently 
he has established " The News .- a 
National Journal and Reviexv." Mr. Bul- 
lock has written a large number of Re- 
ligious books. Hg ig also the founder of 

the "Robin Dinner" movement sup- 
ported by the readers of his publications. 
More than 40,000 human " Robins " in 
London alone are thus every Christmas 
" made happy for an evening." 

BULOW, Hans von, was born at Dres- 
den, Jan. 8, 1830. He began his musical 
education under Frederick Wieck, the 
father of Madame Schumann. In 1848 
he was sent to the University of Leipzig 
to stiidy jurisprxidence, his parents 
having always regarded music as a mere 
pastime, V-)ut he continued his studies in 
counterpoint under Hauptmann. In the 
following year he entered the University 
of Berlin, and took great interest in the 
political movements of the time, contri- 
buting to a democratic jou^rnal Die Abend- 
post. In this paper he first began to 
defend the nuisical doctrines of the new 
German school, led by Liszt and Wagner. 
After hearing a performance of " Lohen- 
grin " at Weimar in 1850, he threw aside 
his law studies, went to Ziii-ich, and 
jilaced himself under the guidance of 
Wagner. In June, 1851, he became a 
pupil of Liszt, and two years later made 
his first concert tour. From 1855 to 1864 
he occupied the post of principal Master 
of pianoforte-playing at the conserva- 
torium of Professors Stern and A. B. 
Marx, at Berlin. In 1861 he was called 
to Munich as principal conductor at the 
the Royal Opera, and director of the 
Conservatorium. He there organised 
performances of Wagner's " Tristan und 
Isolde" and "Die Meistersinger von 
Nurnberg." In 1869 he left Munich 
and has since given concerts in Italy, 
Germany, Russia, Poland, England, and 
America. In Jan., 1878, he was appointed 
Kiiniglicher Hof kapellmeister at Hanover. 
Among his most important compositions 
are " Nirwana, SymphonischesStinimung- 
sbild ; " music to Shakespeare's "Julius 
Caesar ; " " Des Sanger's Fluch ; " " Vier 
Charakterstiickefiir Orchester ;" "II Car- 
novale di Milano." In June, 1888, he 
gave a series of Beethoven Recitals at 
St. James's Hall, London. 

BULWER, Sir Henry Ernest Gascoigne, 
G. C.M.G., was born in 1836, and educated 
at Trinity College, Cambridge. After 
serving as private secretary to the Lieut.- 
Governor of Prince Edward's Island, he 
became, in 1860, an official resident of 
the Ionian Islands ; in 1866, Receiver- 
General and Treasurer of Trinidad ; in 
1867, Administrator of Dominica ; and 
from 1871 to 1875, Governor of Labuan, 
and Consul-General at Borneo. He was 
then aj^pointed Lieiit. -Governor of Natal, 
which post he held u;itil 1880, In ISSg 



he was appointed Governor of Natal ; 
in 1883 he was made G.C.M.G. ; and, 
in 1885, Lord High Commissioner of 

BUNSEN, Professor Kobert Wilhelm 
Eberhard, M.D., chemist, born March 
13, 1811, at Gottingen, where his father 
was professor of Occidental literature ; 
studied in the university the physical 
and natural sciences, and completed his 
education at Paris, Berlin, and Vienna. 
Having at Gottingen in 1833 taken his 
degrees for teaching chemistry he suc- 
ceeded Wohler three years later as Pro- 
fessor of this science in the Polytechnic 
Institution at Cassel. In 1838 he was 
appointed Assistant Professor in the 
University of Marburg ; became Titular 
Professor in 1841, then Director of the 
Chemical Institute. In 1851 he passed to 
the University of Breslau, and in 1852 to 
the University of Heidelberg. Some 
years ago Professor Bunsen declined a call 
to Berlin which he received at the same 
time as Professor Kirchhoff, with whom 
he is the founder of stellar chemistry. 
He has made many important discoveries, 
and the charcoal pile which bears his 
name is in very extensive use. From the 
spectrum analysis down to the simplest 
manipulations of practical chemistry, 
his numerous discoveries have rendered 
the most distinguished services to science. 
The University of Leyden conferred on 
him the honorary degree of M.D. in Feb. 
1875. In July, 1877, the University of 
Heidelberg commemorated the 25th an- 
niversary of Professor Bunsen 's election 
to the Chair of Experimental Chemistry. 
In Jan. 18S3, he was appointed one of the 
eight Foreign Associates of the Paris 
Academy of Sciences. 

BURBURY, Samuel Hawksley. F.E.S., 
born at Kenilworth on May 18, 1831, was 
educated at Kensington Grammar School, 
and afterwards at ShrewsVjury School, 
and at St. John's College, Cambi-idge, 
where he was Craven University 
Scholar in 1853 ; fifteenth Wrangler 
and second in the Classical Tripos and 
second Chancellor's Medallist, 1854; M.A. 
1857. He was called to the Bar in 1858, 
and elected a Fellow of the Royal Society 
in 1890. He is joint author (with Eev. H. 
W. Watson) of " The application of gener- 
alised co-ordinates to the dynamics of a ■ 
material system," 1S79 ; " The mathe- 
matical theory of electricity and magne- 
tism," 1885 and 1S89 ; author of a paper 
" On the second law of thermodynamics 
in connexion with the Kinetic theory of 
gases," Philosophical Magazine, 187G ; ■ 
" On a • theorem in the dissipation of i 

Energy," Philosophical Magazine, 1882; 
and various other papers on mathematical 
and physical subjects in that magazine. 

BURDETT, Henry Charles, compiler of 
" Burdett's OfBoial (Stock Exchange) In- 
telligence," &e., is the son of the late 
Eev. Halford E. Biu-dett of Northamp- 
ton, and grandson of the Eev. D. J. Bur- 
dett, rector of Gilmorton, Leicestershire, 
a living which had been in the Burdett 
family almost uninterruptedly since the 
time of Queen Elizabeth. Mr. Burdett 
was born in 181*3, and Vjegan his active 
career in the Midland Bank, Birming- 
ham. In 1868 he was appointed secretary 
to the Queen's Hospital, Birmingham, 
and in a very short time succeeded in 
uniting the two rival medical colleges of 
that town under one management, thus 
constituting the present strong and useful 
medical school of the Midlands. He was 
for a time secretary to the Society for 
exempting Charities from rating ; and 
was also the first to organise the system 
of training nurses according to modern 
ideas and methods, insisting specially 
upon the employment of young women 
only. The latter idea was much criti- 
cised at the time, and many evils were 
jjredicted of its future working. As all 
the world knows, however, its success has 
been great beyond the most sanguine ex- 
pectations. In 1873 Mr. Burdett became 
a medical student and, at Birmingham 
and Guy's Hospital, London, went 
through the whole curriculum necessary 
for medical examination and practice. A 
year later, he was appointed House Gover- 
nor of the Dreadnought, Seaman's Hospi- 
tal, Greenwich, and in six years raised the 
income of that institution from ^87,000 to 
.£13,000 a-year. In 1877 he established 
the well-known paying hospital for the 
middle and upper classes at Fitzroy 
House, Fitzroy Square, having succeeded 
in raising no less a sum than ^2(3,000 for 
that purpose. Perhaps the most per- 
manently valuable, as it is certainly the 
most interesting of Mr. Burdett's public 
services was the founding, in 1888, of 
the National Pension Fund for trained 
nurses and hospital officials. Among 
those who have helped in the establish- 
ment of the Fund, and without whose 
munificent aid indeed it would have been 
impossible for Mr. Burdett to realise his 
benevolent ideal, may be mentioned Lord 
Rothschild, Mr. J. S. Morgan, Mr. H. 
Hambro and Mr. Huchs Gibbs, each of 
whom gave .£5,000 to form a bonus fund 
for the increase of pensions. Several 
other gentlemen contributed varying 
sums, and the Fund started with nearly 
.£30,000 in hand. The Princess of Wales 



occupies the position of President and 
the Prince of Wales that of Patron to the 
Fund. In every department of Hospital 
administration and finance, Mr. Burdett 
is admittedly the chief authority in the 
whole of the British Empire. 

BURDETT-COUTTS, Angela Georgina, 
Baroness, is the youngest daughter 
of the late Sir Francis Burdett, 
Baronet, and grand-daughter of Mr. 
Thomas Coutts, the banker. In 1837 
she succeeded to the great wealth of 
Mr. Coutts, through his widow, once 
the fascinating Miss Mellon, who died 
Duchess of St. Albans. The extensive 
power of benefiting her less fortunate 
fellow-creatures thus conferred, the 
Baroness Burdett-Coutts has wisely exer- 
cised, chiefly by working out her own 
well-considered projects. A consistently 
liberal churchwoman in purse and 
opinions, her nuinificence to the Estab- 
lishment is historical. Besides contri- 
buting large sums towards building new 
churches and new schools in various poor 
districts throughout the country. Miss 
Coutts erected and endowed, at her sole 
cost, the handsome church of St. 
Stephen's, Westminster, with its three 
schools and parsonage ; and more re- 
cently, another church at Cai-lisle. She 
endowed, at an outlay of ^250,000, the 
three colonial bishoprics of Adelaide, 
Cape Town, and British Columbia ; be- 
sides founding an establishment in Soiith 
Australia for the improvement of the 
aborigines. She also supi^lied the funds 
for Sir Henry James's Topographical Sur- 
vey of Jerusalem ; and offered to restore 
the ancient aqueducts of Solomon to 
supply that city with water — a work, 
however, which the Government did not 
fulfil. In no direction are the Baro- 
ness's symjjathies so fully exjjressed as in 
favour of the poor and unfortunate of her 
own sex. Her exertions in the cause of 
reformation, as well as in that of educa- 
tion, have been numerous and successful. 
For young women who had lapsed out of 
well-doing, she provided a shelter and a 
means of reform, in a " Home " at Shej)- 
herd's Bush. Nearly half the cases which 
passed through her reformatory during 
the seven years it existed, resulted in new 
and prosperous lives in the colonies. 
Again, when Spitalfields Vjecame a mass 
of destitution. Miss Coutts began a sew- 
ing-school there for adult women, not 
only to be taught, but to be fed and pro- 
vided with work ; for which object 
Government contracts are undertaken 
and successfully executed. Nurses are 
sent daily from this iinpretending charity 
in Brown's Lane^ Spitafields^ amongst the 

sick, who are provided with medical com- 
forts ; while outfits are distributed to 
poor servants, and clothing to deserving 
women. In 1859 hundreds of destitute 
boys were fitted out for the Eoyal Navy, 
or placed in various industrial homes. In 
the terrible winter of 1861 the frozen-out 
tanners of Bermondsey were aided, and 
at the same time she suggested the forma- 
tion of the East London Weavers' Aid As- 
sociation, by whose assistance many of the 
sufferers from decaying trade were able to 
remove to Queensland. One of the black 
spots of London in that neighbourhood, 
once known to, and dreaded by, the police 
as Nova Scotia Gardens, was bought by 
Miss Coutts, and, upon that area of 
squalor and refuse, she erected the model 
dwellings called Columbia Square, con- 
sisting of separate tenements let at low 
weekly rentals to about two hundred 
families. Close to it is Columbia Market, 
one of the handsomest architectural or- 
naments of North-Eastern London. The 
Baroness takes great interest in judicious 
emigration. When a sharp cry of dis- 
tress arose some years ago in the town of 
Girvan, in Scotland, she advanced a large 
sum to enable the starving families to 
seek better fortune in Australia. Again, 
the people of Cape Clear, Shirkin, close to 
Skibbereen, in Ireland, when dying of 
starvation, were relieved from the same 
source, by emigration, and by the estab- 
lishment of a store of food and clothing, 
by efficient tackle, and by a vessel to help 
them in their chief means of livelihood — 
fishing. Miss Coutts materially assisted 
Sir James Brooke in improving the con- 
dition of the Dyaks of Sarawak, and a 
model farm is still entirely supported by 
her, from which the natives have learnt 
such valuable lessons in agriculture that 
the in-oductiveness of their country has 
been materially im^jroved. Taking a 
warm interest in the reverent preserva- 
tion and ornamental improvement of our 
town church-yards, and having, as the 
possessor of the great tithes of the living 
of Old St. Pancras, a special connection 
with that i^arish, the Baroness, in 1877, 
laid out the churchyard as a garden for 
the enjoyment of the surrounding poor, 
besides erecting a memorial sun-dial to 
its illustrious dead. In the same year, 
when accounts were reaching this coun- 
try of the sufferings of the Turkish pea- 
santry flying from their homes before the 
Russian invasion. Lady Burdett-Coutts 
instituted the Turkish Compassionate 
Fund, a charitable organization by means 
of which the sum of nearly ^30,000, con- 
tributed in money and stores, was en- 
trusted to the British Ambassador for 
distributioUj and saved thousands from 



starvation and death. In recognition of 
her important services, the Order of the 
Medjidieh was conferred upon her. This 
is but an imperfect enumeration of the 
Baroness's good works as a public bene- 
factress. The amount of her private 
charities it is impossible to estimate. She 
is a liberal patroness of artists in every 
department of art. In June, 1871, Miss 
Coutts was surprised by the prime minis- 
ter with the offer from Her Majesty of a 
peerage, which honour was accepted. 
Her ladyship was admitted to the freedom 
of the City of London, July 11, 1872, and 
to the freedom of the City of Edinburgh, 
Jan. 15, 1874. On Nov. 1, 1880, the 
Haberdashers' Company publicly con- 
ferred their freedom and livery on the 
Baroness Burdett-Coutts in recognition 
of her judicious and extensive benevo- 
lence and her munificent support of edu- 
cational, charitable, and religious insti- 
tutions and efforts throughout the 
country. She has since become a member 
of the Turners' Company, and was re- 
ceived with great enthusiasm during a 
recent visit to Ireland, where she had 
previously organised a fishing fleet, 
having its head-quarters in Bantry Bay. 
The Baroness has also taken a leading 
part in promoting and supporting the 
Children's Protection Society, of which 
she was at once asked to become Presi- 
dent on the death of the late Lord 
Shaftesbury. The Baroness was married 
on Feb. 12, 1881, to Mr. William Lehman 
Ashmead - Bartlett, who obtained the 
royal licence to use the surname of Bur- 

Burford, only son of the late Henry 
Hancock, Esq.. some time President 
of the Royal College of Surgeons 
of England, by Eachel Ann, eldest 
daughter of the Rev. James Burford, 
L).D., was born in London, Nov. 20, 
1839, and educated at Eton. He 
served in the -loth Regiment (Sherwood 
Foresters), and subsequently for some 
years in the Kent Militia Artillery ; was 
called to the Bar, after examination, by 
the Hon. Society of the Inner Temple in 
Jan. 1866, after which he practised on 
the Home Circuit and Sussex Sessions 
and at the Parliamentary Bar. In 1866 
he was presented with a medal by H.I.M. 
Napoleon III., for a treatise on the Inter- 
national Fishery Laws. In May, 1876, he 
received the appointment of District 
Judge in Jamaica, and during his tenure 
of this office he was employed in the re- 
organisation of the District Courts, for 
which he received the thanks of the 
Government and the offer of the new ap- 

pointment of second Puisne Judge of the 
Supreme Court of Jamaica, which, how- 
ever, he was permitted to decline. In 
June, 1878, he was appointed Attorney- 
General of the Leeward Islands, and in 
October of the same year Chancellor of 
the Diocese of Antigua. In March, 1880, 
he was confirmed in the office of Chief 
Justice of the Leeward Islands in which 
capacity he had been acting for eleven 
months conjointly with his office of At- 
torney-General. In October, 1881, he 
was ordered out from leave to administer 
the Government of the Colony and in 
1882, received the honour of knighthood, 
and in the same year was appointed Chief 
Justice of Gibraltar, the office which he 
now fills. During his career he has 
several times received the thanks of H.M. 
Government, and he assisted in framing 
the Morocco Order in Council, 1889. 
He is the author of many scientific and 
legal articles in various magazines ; and 
is a Knight of Grace of the Order of 
St. John of Jerusalem. 

BURGESS, James, C.I.E., LL.D., Hon. 
Assoc. R.I.B.A., F.R.G.S., &c., was bom 
in the parish of Kirkmahoe, Dumfries- 
shire, in 1832. He studied architecture 
for some time, but devoted special atten- 
tion also to mathematics. In 1855 he 
went to Calcutta as a Professor of Mathe- 
matics, and in 1858 wrote a paper " On 
Hypsometrical Measiu'ements,^' and pub- 
lished editions of some English text- 
books for the Calcutta University Ex- 
aminations in 1859, with philological 
notes, &c. Early in 1861 he removed to 
Bombay, and was engaged in educational 
woi'k till 1873. There he contributed 
papers on the Tides, Hypsometry, &c., to 
the PJiilosoxjhical Magazine, Transactions 
of the Bombay Geographical Society, &c. 
As Secretary to the Commission on the 
Colaba Observatory in 1865, he prepared 
the report for Government on that estab- 
lishment. Early in 1869 he published a 
large folio on " The Temples of Shati-un- 
jaya," illustrated by 45 photographic 
views. This was followed by a similar 
volume on the antiquities at Somnath, 
Girnar, and Junagarh. In 1871, besides 
some educational class-books, appeared a 
monograph on " The Rock- Temples of 
Elephanta or Gharapiu-i," illustrated ; 
and in 1872 he started The Indian Auti- 
quanj, a monthly journal of Oriental 
archaeology, history, literature, and folk- 
lore, which he conducted for thirteen 
years, and which soon acquired a Eui-o- 
pean reputation. He travelled through 
Gujarat and Rajputana in 1872, and 
wrote the letterpress for a large folio of 
views of the architecture and scenery of 



these countries. The Bombay Govern- 
ment nominated him, in 1873, to organize 
and direct the Archseological Survey of 
that presidency and the neighbouring 
states, Gujarat, &c. ; and since 1874 the re- 
sults of this survey have been partly pub- 
lished in six quarto volumes fully illus- 
trated, in about a dozen occasional papers, 
187-4-85, and in a special volume on " The 
Cave-Temples of India," those in 
Northern and Eastern India being de- 
scribed by the late Mr. Jas. Fergusson. 
Other volumes richly illustrated are in 
preparation. The superintendence of the 
Archteological Survey of the Madras Pre- 
sidency was added to that of Western 
India, on its initiation in 1881, the results 
of which are published in '•' The Buddhist 
Stupas of Amaravati and Jaggayapeta," 
with numerous plates and woodcuts, and 
other volutnes are in preparation. In 
1885 he was put in charge also of the 
surveys in the North, and appointed 
Director-General of the Archseological 
Survey of India. In 1888 he edited and 
published " The Sharqi Architectiu-e of 
Jaunpur," from the reports of Dr. A. 
Fiihrer and Mr. E. W. Smith, the pro- 
vincial surveyors, with 74 sheets of 
Architectural drawings. He also started 
and edits for Government The Epigrajjhia 
Indica, issued in fasciculi and containing 
important Sanskrit and Pali Inscriptions 
translated by the most competent Orien- 
tal scholars. He retired from the Direc- 
torship of the surveys in 1889, and the 
office was then abolished. 

BURGESS, John Bagnold, E.A., was 

born Oct. 21, 1830, at Chelsea, and re- 
ceived his artistic education at the Royal 
Academy, of which he was elected an 
Associate June 18, 1877 ; and made R.A., 
1889. Among his pictures are " Bravo 
Toro ; " " The Presentation : English 
ladies visiting a Moor's house," 1874 ; 
" The Barber's Prodigy," 1875 ; " Felici- 
ana: a Spanish Gipsy," 1876; "Licensing 
the Beggars : Spain," 1877 ; "Childhood 
in Eastern Life," 1878 ; " Zulina," " The 
Student in Disgrace : a Scene in the 
University of Salamanca," and " The 
Convent Garden," 1879; "Zehra," and 
" The Professor and his Pupil," 1S8U ; 
" The Genius of the Family," " Ethel," 
and " Guarding the Hostages," 1881 ; 
" The Letter Writer," and " Zara," 
1882 ; " The Meal at the Fountain," and 
" Spanish Mendicant Students," 1883. 

BURKE, Sir John Bernard, C.B., LL.D., 

Ulster King at Arms, second son of the 
late John, and grandson of the late Peter 
Burke, Esq., of Elm Hall, county Tip- 
perary, born in London in 1815, was 

educated at Caen, and called to the Bar 
at the Middle Temple in 1839. He 
edited (for many years in conjunction 
with his father, and since his death 
solely) the " Peerage " which bears his 
name. Sir Bernard is the author of 
" The Commoners of Great Britain and 
Ireland " (afterwards published under the 
titleof"TheLanded Gentry "), a" General 
Armory," " Visitation of Seats," "Family 
Romance," " Anecdotes of the Aristo- 
cracy," ' ' The Historic Lands of England," 
" Vicissitudes of Families," and " Remin- 
iscences, Ancestral and Anecdotal." He 
has written many other books on heraldic, 
historical, and antiquarian subjects. In 
1853 he was appointed to succeed the 
late Sir William Betham as Ulster King 
of Arms, and Knight Attendant of the 
Order of St. Patrick ; in 1854 he received 
the honour of knighthood ; in 18G2 the 
University of Dviblin conferred upon him 
the honorary degree of LL.D. ; in 18G7 
he was appointed Keeper of the State 
Papers of Ireland ; and on Dec. 7, 18G8, 
created a Companion of the Bath. He 
was appointed the successor of the late 
Lord Chief Baron Pigott as a Governor 
of the National Gallery of Ireland in 
Oct., 1874. 

BURMEISTER, Karl Hermann Konrad, 

naturalist, was born at Stralsund, Priissia, 
Jan. 15, 1807. While a student of medi- 
cine at Halle, he was encouraged by Pro- 
fessor Nitzch to study zoology, and par- 
ticularly entomology. Becoming a doctor 
in 1829, he made his first appearance as an 
author in the domain of natural history, 
with a " Treatise on Natural History," 
published at Halle in 1830. On the death 
of Professor Nitzch, in 1842, he succeeded 
him in the chair of zoology in the Uni- 
versity of Halle. He has written numer- 
ous articles on zoological subjects in the 
scientific journals of Germany ; several 
monographs in a distinct form, such as 
" The Natural History of the Calandra 
Species," published in 1837, and a 
" Manual of Entomology." Professor 
Burmeister has occupied himself in dis- 
seminating correct notions of geology 
among the educated classes ; and with this 
view delivered a series of lectures, which 
were collected and published in two 
works, " The History of Creation," 1843, 
and " Geological Pictures of the History 
of the Earth and its Inhabitants," 1851. 
During the revolutionary fervour of 
1848, Professor Burmeister was sent by 
the City of Halle as Deputy to the 
National Assembly, and subsequently by 
the town of Leignitz to the first Prussian 
Chamber. He took his i)lace on the Left, 
and remained until the end of the session. 



■when, on account of failing health, he 
was obliged to request leave of absence, 
which he turned to account by two years' 
travel in the Brazils, and he published 
" The Animals of the Brazils," 1854-56. 
On his retui-n to Europe he resumed his 
post in the University of Halle, but in 
1861 he resigned his chair and repaired 
to Buenos Ayres, where he became 
Director of the Museum of Xatural 
History, organized scientifically by him- 
self, and in 1870 Curator of the newly- 
established University of Cordova. He 
has since published " Sketches of Brazil," 
1853 ; " A Journev through the La Plata 
States," 1801 ; and " The Physical Fea- 
tures of the Argentine Republic." As 
Director of the Museum of Natural 
History (which until 18S4 belonged to 
the Province of Buenos Ayres, and since 
that date has been called the National 
Museum) he has published the annals 
of that establishment, in which are given 
full descriptions of the recent and fossil 
animals exhibited in the Museum. He 
has published also " Fossil Horses 
of the Pampas Formation," in two vol- 
umes, and has contributed to several 
scientific journals various articles on Zoo- 
logy and Palaeontology. In June, 1890, at 
the age of 83 years, he undertook a journey 
from Buenos Ayres to Italy and Greece for 
archaeological purposes. 

BUENAND, Francis Cowley, born in 
1837, and educated at Eton and Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where, in his first 
year, he founded the Club known as the 
A.D.C. or Amateur Dramatic Club. Mr. 
Burnand took his degree in 1857-58, and 
was called to the Bar in 1861. He is the 
author of about a hunrdred dramatic 
pieces, principally burlesques. His chief 
work for Ptinch was the now well-known 
serial " Happy Thoughts." His biirlesquo 
of Doxiglas Jerrold's nautical drama, 
" Black-eyed Susan," achieved what was 
in those days the unprecedented run of 
over 400 consecutive nights at the Royalty 
Theatre, Dean Street, Soho ; and later 
his comedy " The Colonel " ran for about 
a year and a half at the Prince's Theatre 
in Tottenham Court Road, which has 
now disappeared. In 1879 he published 
"The 'A.D.C ; being Personal reminis- 
cences of the University Amateur 
Dramatic Club, Cambridge ; " and in 
July, 1880, he became editor of Punch 
on the death of Mr. Tom Taylor. 

BTTRNE-JONES, Edward, A.R.A., was 
born in Birmingham, Aug., 1833, and 
educated at King Edward's School in 
that town. He entered Exeter College, 
Oxford, 1853, but left before taking any 

degree, in order to become an artist. He 
came to London for that purpose in the 
beginning of 1856, and entered no school 
of ai"t, but drew much from life, and 
watched Rossetti at work in his studio 
when that was possible. He received the 
honorary degree of D.C.L. at Oxford in 
1881, and an Honorary Fellowship given 
by Exeter College; was elected President 
of the Royal Birmingham Society of 
Artists, 1885 ; re-elected, 1886, and 
elected Associate of the Royal Academy of 
Arts, 1885. His principal oil paintings are 
a triptych of "Venus' Mirror," "Chant 
d'Amour," " Laus Veneris," " Feast of 
Peleus," " Merlin and Vivien," " The 
Tree of Forgiveness ; " four pictures of 
" Pygmalion and the Image," " The 
Golden Stair," " The Annunciation," 
" The Mill," "The Hours," " The Wheel 
of Fortune," " Cophetua and the Beggar 
Maid," "The Resurrection," and (his 
first picture shown at the R.A.), "The 
Depths of the Sea," "The Garden of 
Pan," " The Tower of Brass," and the 
four pictures of the Sleeping Palace (1890) 
which were exhibited at Agnew 's ; these are 
oil pictures. His principal water-colours 
are " The Wine of Circe," " St. Dorothy/' 
"Love Among the Ruins," " Temper- 
antia," " Spes," " Fides," " Caritas," 
" The Days of Creation," " Dies Domini," 
" Spring," " Summer," " Autumn," " Win- 
ter," " Day," " Night." Mr. Burne- 
Jones has also designed for stained glass, 
his best-known work of this nature being 
the St. Cecilia window of Christ Church, 
Oxford. He has also lately designed a 
fine mosaic for the apse of the American 
Church at Rome. His pictures have been 
chiefly exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery 
and New Gallery. 

BURNETT, Mrs. Frances, ne'e Hodgson, 
was born at Manchester Nov. 24, 1849. 
There she passed the first fifteen years 
of her life, acquired her education, and 
gained her knowledge of the Lancashire 
dialect and character. At the close of 
the American Civil War reverses of 
fortune led her parents to leave England 
for America, where they settled at 
Knoxville, Tennessee, 1865. She there 
began to write short stories for the 
magazines, the first of which appeared 
in 1867. In 1872 her dialect story, 
" Surly Tim's Trouble," was published in 
Scrihner's Monthly (now The Century), 
and in book form in 1877. " That Lass 
o' Lowrie's " was first presented, serially, 
in Scribner, and its remarkable popularity 
demanded its immediate separate issue, 
1877. In 1878-79 some of her earlier 
magazine stories were reprinted, viz., 
" Kathleen Mavourneen," " Lindsay'^ 



Luck," " Miss Crespigny/' " Pretty Polly 
Pemberton," " Theo," " Dolly " (also 
issued under title of " Vagabondia "), 
"Jarl's Daughter/' and "Quiet Life." 
"Haworth's " appeared in 1879, and was 
followed by " Louisiana," 1880 ; " A Fair 
Barbarian," 1881 ; "Through One Admin- 
istration," 1883 ; " Little Lord Fauntle- 
roy," 188G; "Sara Crewe/' 188S ; "The 
Pretty Sister of Jose/' 1889; and 
" Little Saint Elizabeth," 1890. Of these 
probably " Little Lord Fautleroy " is the 
most widely-known, as both in its original 
form of a juvenile story and in the dra- 
matized version it has been received with 
very great favour in England as well as 
in Ainerica. Its success led to the author's 
writing the play entitled " Nixie," which 
was produced at Terry's Theatre in April 
of the present year, 1890. Miss Hodgson 
was married in 1873 to Dr. Burnett, and 
she has since resided at Washington, 
D.C., when not abroad. 

BIJENS, Sir George, Bart., of Wemyss 
Bay, Eenfrewshire, was born December 
10, 1795 ; and married June 10, 1822, 
Jane (who died July 1, 1877), daughter 
of the late James Cleland, Esq., LL.D., 
of Glasgow. Sir George belongs to a 
family which has long occupied an 
honourable position in the West of 
Scotland. His grandfather distinguished 
himself as a scholar, compiled an English 
dictionary and wrote an English grammar 
which were long used in all the schools and 
academies throughout the country. He 
died at the age of eighty-four, and was 
buried in the Cathedral of Glasgow. His 
son. Dr. Burns, who was an only child, 
was born in 1741, and was minister of the 
Barony parish, in Glasgow, for the long 
period of seventy-two years, dying in 
1839, in his ninety - sixth year. He 
preached in the crypt of the Cathedral, 
which Sir Walter Scott has made famous 
in the pages of "Eob E.oy ; " and, at a 
time when such qualities were rare in 
the Church of Scotland, he was dis- 
tinguished for the evangelical faith- 
fulness of his preaching, and for his 
conscientious and laborious performance 
of pastoral work. In the prosecution of 
his duties he established and conducted 
Sabbath schools in Calton, which was 
included in his parish. These, as far as 
is known, were the first Sunday schools 
instituted in Scotland, and it is believed 
were before the time of Mr. Raikes, who 
began the system in England. This 
renerable patriarch lived to see the 
reward of his own training in the highly 
honourable and successful career of his 
family. He had nine children, of whom 
four died in early life. The remaining 

five were — John, born in 1775 ; Allan, 
born in 1781 ; Elizabeth, born in 1786 ; 
James, born in 1788 ; and the youngest, 
George, the subject of this sketch, born 
in 1795. The eldest son — Dr. John 
Burns, F.R.S. — was the first Professor of 
Surgery in the University of Glasgow. 
He was a man of extensive erudition and 
devoted piety. He wrote several standard 
medical works, which secured for him 
the high honour of being elected a 
member of the Institute of France, and 
also several most excellent religious 
works, one of which, entitled " Christian 
Philosophy," is still popular. The second 
son — Allan — was the intimate friend of 
Sir Astley Cooper, Bart., the celebrated 
surgeon. He went to St. Petersburg, 
where he became physician to the 
Empress of Russia, irom whom he re- 
ceived valuable presents and honourable 
distinctions. Eeturning to Glasgow, he 
lectured on anatomy, and prosecuted his 
profession with great success. He died 
at the early age of thirty-two, in con- 
sequence of a wound received while 
dissecting. But, short as was his career, 
he succeeded in acquiring a European 
reputation by his scientific writings. 
James (who subsequently acquired the 
estates of Kilmahew and Cumbernaiild) 
and George, both of whom possessed 
much of the native talent of the family, 
found ample scope for their a,bilities in 
mercantile pursuits. About the year 
1818 George and his brother James 
entered into partnership and commenced 
business in Glasgow as general merchants, 
and subsequently as ship-owners. While 
James ajjplied himself to the mercantile 
branch of the business, the direction of 
the shipping dejDartment devolved upon 
George, whose energy and sagacity 
rendered him well qualified for the 
onerous duties, and under whose able 
management the business gradually 
developed into a steam shipjiing concern 
second to none in the world, the Fleet, 
from first to last, rej^resenting upwards 
of seven millions of money. Up to the 
year 1838 the Lords Commissioners of 
the Admiralty (who, at that time, were 
invested with the arrangement of postal 
contracts) had been content to commit 
Her Majesty's mails for America to the 
uncertain mercies of sailing vessels. For, 
although vessels propelled by steam 
power had crossed the Atlantic at irre- 
gular intervals, from various European 
ports, within the previous ] 8 years or so, 
it was only in this year, 1838, that the 
practicability of establishing regular 
steam communication with America was 
demonstrated beyond a doubt ; and so 
impressed was the Government with th^ 



obvious superiority of steam ships over 
sailing vessels as a faster and more 
trustworthy means of transit for postal 
matter, that they forthwith issued 
circulars broadcast, inviting tenders for 
the future conveyance of the American 
mails by steam vessels. One of these 
■•irculars found its way into the hands of 
-amuel Cunard, a prominent merchant of 
dalifax (Nova Scotia), agent there for 
the East Indian Company, a man of 
penetrating intelligence, great energy, 
and sti'ong determination. Being unaVjle 
to raise the necessary capital in Halifax, 
he proceeded without delay to London, 
in the hope of enlisting the symjiathies 
and financial support of merchants there, 
but meeting with scant encouragement, 
he repaired to Glasgow, and having 
secured the valuable co-operation of 
George Burns and Robert Napier, Mr. 
Cunard found his chief difficulty was 
overcome, for within a few days — entirely 
through the instrumentality of Mr. 
George Burns — the requisite capital of 
.£270,000 had been subsci'ibed for, and he 
was enabled to tender to the Admiralty a 
very eligible offer for the conveyance of 
Her Majesty's mails once a fortnight 
between Liverpool and Halifax and 
Boston. Accordingly, a contract for a 
period of seven years was concluded 
between Her Majesty's Government and 
the newly-formed corporation, on whose 
behalf it was signed by Samuel Cunard, 
George Burns, and Uavid Mac Iver, 
three names thenceforth indissolubly 
connected with the success of the famous 
concern now known as the Cunard Line. 
The story of the subsequent progress of 
the Cunard Company might almost be 
said to be a matter of national history, so 
well known are the various transitions 
from " Britannias " to " Persias," 
" Scotias," and " Eussias,'' to the 
"Umbria" and "Etriiria." With re- 
spect to the ownership of the Company : 
the original shareholders were by 
degrees bought out by the founders, 
until the whole concern became vested 
exclusively in the three families of 
Cunard, Burns, and Mac Iver. Sir 
George Burns married, in 1822, the eldest 
daughter of the late Dr. Cleland of 
Glasgow, a man who may be said to have 
been the father of social and vital 
statistics in this country; for at the 
time he published his works, " Annals 
of Glasgow," and " Statistical Tables," 
we believe that Sweden was the only 
country that claim to the possession 
of regular statistics. Dr. Cleland a 
member of the Institute of France, aid 
other scientific bodies. By his wife. Sir 
George Buf-ns bad seven children, o 

whom there survive only two sons, John 
Burns, and James Cleland Bui'ns, both 
being connected with the Cunard Com- 
pany as Directors. Sir George Burns 
was created a Baronet of the United 
Kingdom, in May, 18S9 ; and the Editor 
regrets to state that, while these pages 
were passing through the press, Sir 
George Burns died, June 2, 1890, in his 
9oth year. He is succeeded in the title 
and estate of Wemyss Bay by his eldest 
son. Sir John Burns, of Castle Wemyss. 

BUENSIDE, Sir Bruce Lockhart, Kt., 
was born on July 26, 1833, at Bahamas, 
and was educated at King's College tl)^re_ 
and privately. He was called to the Bar 
by Lincoln's Inn, in 1856 ; and during 
the war which shortly afterwards broke 
out between the North and the South in 
America he was conspicuous for the 
active part which he took as legal adviser, 
to what was called the Confederacy, in 
the many delicate questions of inter- 
national law which were at that time 
raised in consequence of the blockade of 
the Southern ports, and of the fitting out 
of armed cruisers by the Confederate 
government. He successfully defended 
the " Alexandra," the " Orelo " and the 
" Florida," prosecuted in the B. A. Court 
for breaches of the Foreign Enlistment 
Act. He was Speaker of the House, 
Solicitor, and Attorney-General of the 
Bahamas, and was made one of Her 
Majesty's Council. He prepared a valu- 
able " Manual for Justices of the Peace," 
for which he received the thanks of the 
Colonial Government. In 1879 he was 
appointed Queen's Advocate of Ceylon, 
and was employed at Downing Street for 
a considerable time in preparing a " Penal 
Code," and a " Criminal Procedure Code," 
which were afterwards passed by the 
Legislature and for which he Avas specially 
commended by Lord Derby, the Secretary 
of State. In 1883 he was appointed 
Chief Justice of Ceylon, there being at 
the time most scandalous arrears in the 
Supreme Court, which had attracted 
public attention and condemnation. Sir 
Bruce was knighted in 1885. As Chief 
' Justice of Ceylon he set himself im- 
mediately to the Augean task before 
him, and happily has succeeded in 
restoring a more creditable state of 
things in the courts of Ceylon. Sir Bruce 
is about to retire. 

third son of Lieut. -General Montagu 
Burrows, was born at Hadley, Middlesex. 
Oct. 27, 1819, and educated at the Roval 
Naval College, Portsmouth, where he 
obtained the "First; Medal" in ISo.. 

I 2 



He served continuously in the Royal 
Navy till he obtained the rank of Com- 
mander in lHi)2, and became a retired 
Captain in 18G7. He matriculated at 
Oxford University early in 1853, and 
obtained a Double First Class ; took the 
degree of M.A. there, and received an 
Hon. M.A. degree at Cambridge, in 1859; 
was elected to the Chichele Professorship 
of Modern History in 1862 ; became a 
Fellow of All Souls in 1870 ; Chairman 
of the Oxford School Board in 1873 ; and 
member of the Hebdomadal Council of 
his University in 1876. During his 
service in the navy he was employed on 
the Coast of Africa for many years in the 
suppression of the slave-trade ; and was 
engaged in several actions with Malay 
pirates, under Captain Chads, and he 
received medals from the English and 
Turkish Governments for the capture of 
St. Jean d'Acre in 1840. He was made 
Commander for his services on the staff 
of H.M.S. Excellent. He is the author of 
" Pass and Class : an Oxford Guide- 
Book through the courses of Literse 
Humaniores, Mathematics, Natural 
Science, Law, and Modern History," 3rd 
edit., 1866 ; " Constitutional Progress, a 
series of Lectures delivered before the 
University of Oxford," 1869 ; " A Memoir 
of Admiral Sir H. Chads, G.C.B.," 1869 ; 
" Worthies of All Souls : Four Centuries 
of English History illustrated from the 
College Archives," 187 i ; " Parliament 
and the Church of England," 1875 ; 
"Imperial England," 1880; "Oxford 
during the Commonwealth" (Camden 
Society), 1881 ; " Wiclii's Place in 
History," 1882 ; " Life of Admiral Lord 
Hawke," 1883 : " History of the Brocas 
Family of Beaurepaire and Koche Court," 
1S86 ; "History of the Cinque Ports," 
1888 ; " Memoir of Mr. Grocyn" (in " Col- 
lectanea," Vol. II., ofthe Oxford Historical 
Society), 1890. He married, in 1849, 
Mary Anna, daughter of Sir James W. S. 
Gardiner, Bart., of Roche Court, Hants. 

BURT, Thomas, M.P., was born Nov. 
12, 1837, at Murton Row, near Percy 
Main, Northumberland, and is the son of 
Peter Burt, a coal-miner. While he was 
yet a child, seventeen months old, his 
parents went to Whitley, whence they 
had to remove about a year afterwards, 
when the pit was thrown out of gear by 
an explosion. Their next i>lace of abode 
was New Row, Seghill, now styled Blake 
Town, where they remained five years, 
and at a later period they settled at the 
Seaton Delaval colliery. Young Burt, 
who had been working in the coal pits 
from ten years of age, here began that 
course of self-culture which has gone so 

far to supply the deficiencies of his 
previous education. In 1860 he re- 
moved to Choppington, and in 1865 he 
was appointed Secretary to the North- 
umberland Miners' Mutual Association. 
In this capacity he rendered himself so 
popular among the miners that it was 
determined to nominate him as the work- 
ing class candidate for the representation 
of Morpeth at the general election of 
Feb. 1874. He was returned by 3332 
votes against 585 given for Captain 
Duncan, the Conservativ e candidate. 
The Northumberland miners voluntarily 
tax themselves to the extent of .£400 a 
year, in order to supjjly him with the 
means of supporting the honour of a seat 
in the House of Commons. In June, 
1880, he was elected a member of the 
Reform Club by the Political Committee, 
under the rule empowering the body to 
elect two candidates in each year for 
marked and obvious services to the 
Liberal cause. He is President of the 
Miners' National Union, and has pre- 
sided over several important conferences 
of miners held at Manchester, Birming- 
ham, and elsewhere. Mr. Burt has been 
a member of several Royal Commissions, 
inckiding those inquiring into accidents 
in mines, loss of life at sea, and mining 
royalties. He was one of the British 
delegates to the international Labour 
Conference held at Berlin in March, 1S90. 
In I860 he married Mary, daughter of 
Thomas Weatherburn. 

BURT, T. Seymour, F.R.S., M.R.A.S., 
&c. is the fourth son of the late Rev. 
Charles Henry Burt, and was student of 
Wadham College, Oxford ; then Curate 
of Plympton St. Mary, Devon ; next of 
Westgate House, Bridgwater, Somerset, 
and for upwards of twenty years Vicar of 
Cannington, in the same county ; a 
chaplain-in-ordinary to H.R.H. the Duke 
of Sussex ; an acting magistrate for 
Somerset ; a retired chaplain to the 24th 
Light Dragoons. He is a Fellow of the 
Royal Society, and a Member of the Royal 
Astronomical Society ; and has published 
the following works : — " Papers on Scien- 
tific Subjects," vols. 1, 2, 3, 1837 and 
1858 ; " Trip in search of Ancient Inscrip- 
tions," 1838; "Metrical Epitome of the 
History of England," 1852 ; " Poems by 
Koi Hai," 1S53 ; "Account of a Voyage 
to India, via the Mediterranean," 1837 ; 
" A Translation into Blank Verse of all 
Virgil's Works," vols. 1, 2, 3, &c. 1883-4 ; 
"Transposition into Blank Verse of 
Wesley's translation of T. a Kempis," 
1883-4 ; " Transposition into Blank Verse 
of ' Hamilton's translation of Sacred 
History/" 18S3-4 ; "Transposition into 



Blank Verse of the Rev. Newman Hall's 
'Como to Jesus,' " 1S83-4-. He is likewise 
the author of numerous papers published 
in the journal of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal, — " Desoriptioh of the Mode of 
Extracting Salt from the damp sand- 
beds of the Rivei' Jiirnna as practised by 
the Inhabitants of Bundelkhund : " " In- 
scription found nea)' Bhabra, three 
marches from JeypOre on the road froiu 
Delhi to Nusseerabad ; " " Description of 
an Instrument for trisecting angles ; " 
" Notice of an Inscription on a Slab dis- 
covered in Februai-y, 1S38 ; " " Inscrip- 
tion taken from a Baoleeat Bussuntgurh, 
at the foot of the Southern range of hills 
running parallel to Mount Aboo ; " " Ob- 
servations on a second Inscription taken 
in facsimile from the neighbourhood of 
Mount Aboo ; " " Descrij^tion Avith Draw- 
ings of the ancient stone pillar at Alla- 
habad called Bhim Sen's Gadii or Club, 
with accompanying copies of four inscrip- 
tions engraven in diHereut characters 
upon its surface." 

BURTON, Sir Frederic William. R.H.A., 
F.S.A., Hon. LL.D. Dublin, Director of 
the National Gallery, third son of Samuel 
Burton, of Mungret, co. Limerick, and 
grandson of Edward William Burton, of 
Clifden house, co. Clare, was born in 
Ireland in 1816 and educated at Dublin, 
where he first studied drawing iinder the 
brothers Brocas. He was elected Asso- 
ciate of the Royal Hibernian Academy 
of Arts in 1837, and R. H. Academician 
in 1839, in which latter year his picture 
(in water colours), " The Blind Girl at 
the Holy Well," was chosen for publica- 
tion by the Irish Art Union, and was 
engraved by Ryall. In the following 
year the picture of "The Aran Fisher- 
man's Drowned Child," also was engraved 
for the Irish Art Union. A large com- 
position of the same year, " The Con- 
naught Toilet," representing peasant 
girls at a stream,. prejDaring themselves 
to enter the market town, was, together 
with the former, exhibited at the Royal 
Academy in London in 1842. Tiie latter 
picture was afterwards destroyed by 
lire at the Pantechnicon, where it had 
been temporarily deposited by its owner. 
From 1832 to 1851 his time was 
occuj^ied in portrait painting. About 
1840 he was elected member of the Royal 
Irish Academy of Science, Antiquities, 
and Belles Lettres, and for many years 
sat in the Council of Antiquities. In 
1851 he went to Munich. There, at 
Nuremberg, and in various wanderings 
in upper Franconia, where he found 
ample subjects for the pencil, about seven 
year J were pass 'd. In 18') 5 he became 

Associate, and in the following year full 
member of the (now Royal) Society of 
Painters in Water Colours, and continued 
to exhibit annually at their rooms until 
1870, when he retired from the Society. 
In Nov. 188G he was elected an Honorary 
Member. He exhibited also on various 
occasions at the Royal Academy and the 
Dudley Gallery. In 1874, Sir William 
Boxall having resigned the Directorship 
of the National Gallerj', Mr. Burton was 
nominated to that post, which he still 
continues to hold. He is primarily 
responsible for the large and very import 
tant additions to tlie collection which 
have been made during the past fifteen 
years, and which include Lionardo Da 
Vinci's " Virgin of the Rocks," Raphael's 
" Ansidei Madonna," Vandyck's "Eques- 
trian Portrait of Charles I." (the last 
two from Blenheim) ; and the various 
purchases from the Hamilton, Barker, 
and other famous sales. Since 1863 Sir 
F. W. Burton has been a Fellow of the 
Society of Antiquaries. In 1884 he 
received the honour of knighthood ; and 
in 1889 the Hon. degree of LL.D. of 

BURY, (Viscount). The Right Hon. 
William Coutts Keppell, Lord Ashford, 
K.C.M.G., P.C., son of the Earl of Albe- 
marle, was born in 1832, and educated at 
Eton ; entered the Scots Fusilier Guards in 
1849 ; and was private secretary to Lord 
John Russell in 1850-51. He afterwards 
went to India as aide-de-camp to the late 
Lord FitzClarence, but returned home on 
sick 'leave, and retired from the army. 
In Dec, 1854, he was nominated Civil 
Secretary and Superintendent-General of 
Indian Ailairs for the province of 
Canada; was first elected M.P. for Nor- 
wich, as a Liberal, in April, 1857, 
and was appointed Treasurer of the 
Royal Household on the return of Lord 
Palmerston to office in 1859 ; but. on 
taking office in 1859, his re-election 
was declared void. In Nov., 1860, he 
was elected for the Wick district of 
burghs, which he ceased to represent at 
the general election of 1865, when he was 
a defeated candidate for Dover. He is tlie 
author of " The Exodus of the Western 
Nations," " A Re^Dort on the Condition of 
the Indians of British North America,' ' and 
other political and historical papers. He 
has taken an active part in promoting 
the Volunteer movement, is Lieut. - 
Colonel of the Civil Service regiment of 
Volunteers, and was sworn a Privy Coun- 
cillor in 1859. In 1868 he was elected 
M.P. for Berwick-on-Tweed, but he was 
defeated at the general election of 
Fob., 1871. He un^jccessfally cj.ucstji 



Stroud on Feb., 1875. He was suumioned 
to the House of Peers in his father's 
barony of Ashford in 1876, and was 
appointed Under-Secretary of State for 
War in succession to Lord Cadogan in 
March, 1878. He held that office until 
the Conservatives went out of office in 
1880, and was again appointed to the 
same post under Lord Salisbury's first 
administration, 1885. Lord Bury joined 
the Roman Catholic Church in 1879, 
and is married to a daughter of Sir 
Alan N. M'Nab, Bart. 

BUSCH, Moritz, German author and 
journalist, was born Feb. 13, 1821, at 
Dresden, and educated at the University 
of Leipzig. On the completion of his 
theological and philosophical studies, he 
became a journalist, and was employed 
on the staif of various newspapers. In 
1851 he went to America, and on his 
retvirn in 1853 published an accoiint of 
his travels. Subsequently he travelled 
for some years in the East, then took up 
journalism again, and finally in 1870 
settled in Berlin, where he obtained an 
apjDointment at the Foreign Office. Since 
then he has been tlie inseparable com- 
panion of Prince Bismarck ; he has 
published several works on the German 
people, but he will always be best 
remembered by his account of the life of 
the great statesman, which appeared in 
1880, and met with great success. This 
was followed by a second instalment, 
which was translated into English xmder 
the title of " Our Chancellor." 

BUSH, The Rev. Joseph, the President 
of the Wesleyan Conference, 1890, was born 
March8, 1826, in the quiet village of Ashby, 
two miles east of Spilsby, in the county of 
Lincoln. Both his jiarents were members 
of the Methodist Society, and took a deep 
interest in all good work. His father was 
for many years an active and devoted 
local preacher ; his mother was noted 
for her knowledge of the Scriptures ; and 
at the tiine of her death, in 1879, she had 
been a member of the Wesleyan Society 
over seventy years. His education was 
received at Spilsby ; first at what was 
known as the Academy, and afterwards 
at the Gramnaar School, which was at 
that time conducted by the Eev. Isaac 
Russell, M.A. In Nov., 1840, he was ap- 
prenticed at Horncastle with Mr. Mark 
Holdsworth . In March, 18 19, on the nom- 
ination of the Rev. Josej^h Fowler, he was 
recommended for the work of the minis- 
try by the City-road Quarterly Meeting. 
After passing the May District Meeting 
and the July Committee, he was accepted 
by the conference for the Home Work, 

and his name was placed on the List of 
Reserve. In Feb. 1850, he was sent by 
the President, the Rev. Thomas Jackson, 
to the Maidstone Circuit as supply for 
the Rev. George Hambly Rowe, who died 
a few days after Mr. Bush's ari-ival in 
the circuit. He remained at Marden 
until the end of August, when he was re- 
ceived into Richmond College. At the 
Conference of 1853, Mr. Bush was ap- 
pointed as Mr. Rattenbury's assistant in 
Leeds. In 1854, he went to London 
(Hinde Street) ; in 1857, to Islington ; 
in 1860, to York ; in 1863, to Bolton ; 
in 1866, to Manchester; in 1869, to 
Brixton-hill ; in 1872, to Newcastle-on 
Tyne ; in 1875, to Edinburgh ; in 1878, 
to Bradford ; in 1881, to Altrincham ; and 
in 1884, to Highbury. At the last Confer- 
ence he was appointed the General Super- 
intendent of the North-west Essex 
Mission. In 1871 Mr. Bush was ap- 
pointed one of the Conference official 
Letter-writers, and held the office fifteen 
years — until, in 18S6, he was associated 
with the Secretary of the Conference in the 
compiling and editing of the "Minutes." 
In 1872 he was elected Chairman of the 
Newcastle District, and has since been 
Chairman of the Edinbiirgh and Aber- 
deen, and the Halifax and Bradford 
Districts, and this is his fourth year in 
the Chair of the First London District. 
In 1873, on the nomination of Dr. 
Gervase Smith, he was elected into the 
Legal Hundred, having then served 
twenty-one years in the ministry. From 
time to time Mr. Bush has used his 
pen in the service of Methodism, and 
what he writes is read not by Methodists 
only, but by an increasing circle of 
thoughtful Christians outside of his own 
Church. He has published the following : 
" The Sabbath : Whose Day is it 't " 
"Bread from Heaven;" "The Class 
Meeting ; " " Courtship and Marriage ; " 
" Mary Bell Hodgson : a Memorial ; " 
" Character ; and other Sermons ; " 
" Methodist Sunday Schools ; " " What to 
Preach, and How ; " " How to Keep ovir 
Members ; Practical Covmsels addressed 
to Class Leaders ; " " The Intermediate 
State ; or the Condition of Human Souls 
between the Hour of Death and the Day 
of Judgment." In addition, Mr. Bush 
has written on various subjects for the 
monthly jjeriodicals and the London 
Quarterly. He has also edited " The 
Mission of the Spirit ; " " The Pillar and 
Ground of the Truth ; " and " The Life of 
the Rev. William O. Simpson." Four 
years ago, by direction of the Conference, 
Mr. Bush re-castthe" Liverpool Minutes," 
and also collected and classified all reso- 
lutions of the Conference on Pastoral Work 



from 1811 to 1884 ; interweaving and em- 
bodying the whole in one homogeneous 
document. This pamphlet is the Meth- 
odist Manual of Pastoral Dutj% and the 
Conference directed that it should be 
read in place of the "Liverpool Minutes" 
at the Ministers' Meeting of each circuit 
in September, and at each Annual Dis- 
trict Committee in May. 

BUSS, Frances Mary, is the daughter of 
the late Eobert W. Buss, artist, and was 
born in London on Aug. IGth 1S27. In 
1850 she and her mother opened a school 
in Camden Street, which soon included 
200 pupils. In 1S70 the school was 
placed on a public foundation, a lower 
school was opened, and, upon a sugges- 
tion of the Endowed Schools Commis- 
sioners that a portion of the Piatt Charity 
belonging to the Brewers' Company 
should be applied to the purposes of 
giving suitable buildings to the schools, 
the Company heartily concuiTed, and the 
scheme was signed by the Queen in council 
in May, 1875. The Clothworkers' Com- 
pany so well-known for its interest in all 
matters of education, also obtained a 
scheme by which they were enabled to 
make a grant of upwards of ^3,000 towards 
the building of a large hall for the upper 
school. Thus the North London Colle- 
giate and Camden Schools as they now 
are came into existence, and the build- 
ings were opened in 1879. The number 
of pupils in these schools is always 
nearly a thousand. The central work 
and interest of Miss Buss's life is the 
creation of these two schools, but she 
has been actively engaged in many educa- 
tional movements, especially those re- 
ferring to girls. Pupils from these 
schools have from the first taken advan- 
tage of the opening of university examina- 
tions to girls and women, and of the 
women's colleges at Cambridge. Miss 
Buss has also shared in the work of the 
College of Preceptors, and has been 
a member of the Council since 18G8, and 
was elected a Fellow in 1873. She is one 
of the original members of the Council of 
the Teachers' Training and Registration 
Society and of the Training College for 
Women teachers at Cambridge opened 
in 1880. She is also on the Council of 
the Teachers' Guild as one of its earliest 
founders, and is President of the Associa- 
tion of Head Mistresses of Public Schools, 
the first conference of which was held at 
her house. 

BUTCHER, Professor Samuel Henry, 
M.A., Hon. LL.D. is the eldest son 
of the late Samuel Butcher, Bishop 
of Meath, and of Mary, daughter of the 

late John Leahy, Esq., of Southhill, Kil- 
larney, was born in Dublin, April 16, 
1850, and educated at Marlborough Col- 
lege, under Dr. Bradley, now Dean of 
"Westminster. He was elected to a Minor 
Scholarship at Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 18G9 ; to a Foundation Scholar- 
ship in that college, and to the Bell 
University Scholarship, in 1870 ; to the 
Waddington University Scholarship, in 
1S71, and obtained the Powis Medal for 
Latin Hexameters, in 1871 and 1872. 
He was Senior Classic and Chancellor's 
Medallist in 1873, and held a Mastership 
at Eton College for a short time. He 
was elected to a Fellowship at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in 187-4, and held 
an Assistant Tutorship there till 1870. 
Having vacated his Fellowship at Cam- 
bridge by marriage he was elected to an 
Extraordinary Fellowship, without ex- 
amination, at University College, Oxford, 
where he was Lecturer till 1882, when he 
was elected to the Chair of Gi'eek at 
Edinburgh Universitj', on the retire- 
ment of Professor Blackie. He published 
in 1879, in conjimction with Mr. Andrew 
Lang, a prose translation of the 
" Odyssey," now in its Otli edition ; in 
ISSl, a small volume on " Demosthenes," 
in Macmillan's classical series ; in 1882, 
an Inaugui-al Address, delivered at Edin- 
burgh, on "What we owe to Greece." 
On March 2, 1886, he was specially elected 
by the committee as a member of the 
Athenaeum Club. In 1870 he married 
Rose Julia, youngest daughter of the late 
Archbishop Trench. 

BUTE (Marquis of). The Most Honour- 
able John Patrick Crichton Stuart, K.T., 
LL. D., is the son of the second marquis, and 
was born at Mount Stuart House, in the 
Isle of Bute, Sept. 12, 1847, succeeded to 
the title on the death of his father in 1848, 
and received his education at Harrow 
School, whence he proceeded to Christ 
Church, Oxford. He was admitted into 
the Roman Catholic Church by Mon- 
signor Capel, in London, on Dec. 1, 1808. 
He was created a Knight of the Order of 
the Thistle in Feb. 1875. The honorary 
degree of LL.D. has been confei'red upon 
him by the Universities of Glasgow and 
Edinbui'gh. He presented the Great 
Hall to the buildings of the former. 
Lord Bute has published " The Early 
Days of Sir William Wallace," a lecture 
delivered at Paisley in 1876 ; " The 
Burning of the Barns of Ayr," 1878 ; 
" The Roman Breviary, translated out of 
Latin into English," 1879 ; " The Coptic 
Morning Service for the Lord's Day, 
translated into English," and the " Altus 
of St. Columba," 1882, as well as different 



articles, including a description of 
Patmos from a personal visit, of some 
Christian monuments of Athens, &c. 
His lordship married in 1872 the Hon. 
Gwendoline Mary Anne, eldest daughter 
of Lord Howard, of Glossop, and has 
issue, living, three sons and a daughter. 

BUTLER, Benjamin Franklin, was born 
atDeerfield,New Hampshire, U.S.A., Nov. 
5, 1818. He graduated at Waterville Col- 
lege in 1838, and in 1841 began the 
practice of Law at Lowell, Massachusetts. 
He early took a prominent part in politics 
on the Democratic side, and in 1853 was 
elected to the Massachusetts House of 
Representatives, and in 1859 to the State 
Senate. In 1860 he was a delegate to 
the National Democratic Convention, 
which met at Charleston, South Carolina, 
but withdrew with other Northern mem- 
bers on account of the stand taken by 
the convention on the Slave Trade 
Question. In that year he was the 
Democratic candidate for Governor of 
Massachusetts. He had before held a com- 
mission as Brigadier-General of Militia, 
and, at the outbreak of the Civil War, he 
entered the Union Army, and was soon 
placed in command at Baltimore, and 
subsequently at Fortress Monroe. His 
refusal at Fortress Monroe to return 
runaway slaves to their masters, on the 
ground that they were " contraband of 
war," originated the term " contrabands," 
by which slaves were frequently designated 
during the war. Gen. Butler commanded 
the land forces which assisted Fari-agut 
in the caj^ture of New Orleans, May- 1, 
1862, and he governed there with great 
vigour until November, when he was re- 
called. Late in 1803 he was placed in 
command of the department of Virginia 
and North Carolina, and the forces there 
were designated the Army of the James. 
When General Grant was moving towards 
Eichmond in July, 18G1, Butler made an 
unsuccessful effort to capture Petersburg. 
In Dec, 18G4, he made an ineffectual 
attempt upon Port Fisher, near Wilming- 
ton, North Carolina, and was then re- 
lieved of his command. In 186G he was 
elected to Congress by the Eei^ublicans 
of Massachusetts, and he was repeatedly 
re-elected until 1878. In 1877 he left the 
Republican party to re-enter that of the 
Democrats, and was their candidate for 
Governor of Massachusetts in 1878 and 
1879, but was not elected. In 1882 he 
again secured the nomination and was 
elected, but held the office for only one 
year, being defeated by the Republicans 
in 1883. He was the candidate for Pre- 
sident of the Greenback-Labour Party in 
1881, but his Democratic opponent, Mr. 

Cleveland, was successful. Since the 
close >of the war, when not holding any 
office, he has practised his profession in 
Boston and New York. 

BXJTLER, Lady Elizabeth Southerden, 
daughter of the late Mr. Thomas J. 
Thompson, by Christina, daughter of 
Mr. T. B. Weller, was born at Lausanne, 
in Switzerland. Her parents removed to 
Prestbury, near Cheltenham, where, at 
the age of five years. Miss Thompson first 
began to handle the pencil. After two or 
three years' sojourn at Prestbury, Mr. 
and Mrs. Thompson went to live in Italy, 
and the young artist continued her 
studies at Florence. In 1870 the family 
returned to England, and took up their 
abode at Ventnor, where they remained 
till the great success of Miss Thompson's 
picture of the " Roll Call " made a re- 
moval to London desirable. At one 
period she studied in the Government 
School of Art, Kensington. For some 
years she exhibited at the Dudley and 
other galleries. Her first picture at the 
Royal Academy was " Missing," 1873. It 
was followed in 1874 by the " Roll Call," 
a picture which attracted universal at- 
tention, and which was purchased by the 
Queen. " The 28th Regiment at Quatre 
Bras " was exhibited at the Academy in 

1875 ; " Balaclava " in Bond Street in 

1876 ; and " Inkermann " in Bond Street 
in 1877 . More recently she has painted : — 
" 'Listed for the Connaught Rangers : 
recruiting in Ireland," 1879 ; " The 
Defence of Rorke's Drift," 1881 ; "Floreat 
Etona ! " 1882, an incident in the attack 
on Laing's Nek ; a picture representing 
the famous charge of the Scots Greys at 
Waterloo, 1882 ; and " Evicted'" 1890. 
Miss Thompson became the wife of 
Major-General Sir William Francis But- 
ler, K.C.B., June 11, 1877. 

BUTLER, The Very Rev. Henry Montagu, 

late Dean of Gloucester, Head Master of 
Harrow School, and Vice-Chancellor of 
the University of Cambridge, is the 
youngest son of the late Rev. George 
Butler, D.D., Head Master of Harrow, 
and afterwards Dean of Peterborough, 
and was born in 1833, and educated at 
Harrow, under Dr. Vaughan, and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge. He was 
elected Bell University Scholar in 1852, 
and Battle University Scholar in 1853. 
In 1853 he won Sir W. Browne's medal 
for the Greek ode, and in 1854 the Poi-son 
Prize, the Greek ode, the Camden medal 
for Latin Hexameters, and the Members' 
Prize for a Latin essay. In 1855 he 
graduated B.A. as Senior Classic, and in 
the same year was elected Fellow of hiB 



college. On the retirement of Dr. 
Vaughan, at Christmas, 1859, he was 
elected to the head-mastership of the 
Bchool, over which his father had pre- 
sided for twenty-four years, from 1805 to 
1829. He held this post until 1885, when 
he was fappointed Dean of Gloucester. 
In 188G he resigned the Deanery, being 
nominated by the Crown, Master of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, in succession to the 
late Dr. Hepworth Thompson. He was 
honorary chaj^lain to the Queen, 1875-77 ; 
chaplain in ordinary, 1877 ; prebendary 
of St. Paul's and examining chaplain to 
the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Tait, 
1879, and to his successor. Archbishop 
Benson, 1883. He has been several times 
select preacher at the Universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge, and he published 
in 1861 and in 186G volumes of " Sermons 
preached in the Chapel of Harrow 
School." He is brother of Canon But- 
ler, and was married in Aug. 1888 to 
Miss Eamsay of Girton College, who dis- 
tinguished herself by taking the first place 
in the Cambridge Classical Tripos in 1887. 

BUTLEB, Mrs. Pierce, ne'e Frances Anne 
Kemble, daughter of Charles Kemble,and 
niece of Mrs. Siddons, was bom in Newman 
Street, London, Nov. 27, 1809. She made 
her first public appearance, Oct. 5, 1829, 
as Juliet, at Covent Garden Theatre, then 
under the management of her father. 
" Venice Preserved " was revived Dec. 9, 
in that year, for the purpose of inti'oduc- 
ing her as Belvidera ; and she sustained 
the parts of the Grecian Daughter, Mrs. 
Beverly, Portia, Isabella, Lady To^vuley, 
Calista, Bianca, Beatrice, Constance, 
Lady Teazle, Queen Catherine, Louis of 
Savoy in " Francis I.," Lady Macbeth, 
and Julia in the "Hunchback." The 
three years, dui-ing which she retrieved 
the fortimes of her family, were marked 
by the production of " Francis I.," a 
tragedy written by herself at seventeen. 
In 1832 she visited America, and, with 
her father, performed with great success 
at the principal theatres of the United 
States. An account of these wanderings 
is given in her " Journal of a Residence 
in America," 1835. At this period she 
became the wife of Mr. Pierce Bulter, a 
planter of South Carolina, from whom she 
obtained a divorce in 1839. She resumed 
her maiden name, and retired to Lenox, 
Massachusetts, where she resided, with 
the exception of a year spent in Italy, for 
nearly twenty years. Besides translations 
from Schiller and others, she has also 
published " The Star of Seville," 1837 ; a 
volume of "Poems," 1842; "A Year of 
Consolation," 1847 ; " Residence on a 
Georgia Plantation," 1863 ; " Records of 

Girlhood," 3 vols., 1878 ; " Records of 
Later Life," 2 vols., 1882 ; "Notes upon 
some of Shakespeare's Plays," 1882 ; and 
has appeared at intervals as a public 
reader. From 1869 to 1873 she was in 
Europe. She then returned to America, 
but now resides in London. 

BUTLER, Major-General Sir William 
Francis, K.C.B., was born in the county of 
Tipperary, Ireland, in 1838, and educated 
at Dublin. He was appointed Ensign of 
the 69th Regiment, Sept. 17, 1858 ; Lieu- 
tenant, Nov., 1863 ; Captain, 1872: Major, 
1874; and Deputy -Adjutant- Quarter - 
Master-General, Head Quarter-Staff, 1876. 
Major Butler served on the Red River 
Expedition ; was sent on a special mis- 
sion to the Saskatchewan Territories in 
1870-71 ; and served on the Ashanti Ex- 
pedition in 1873, in command of the West 
Akim native forces. He was several times 
mentioned in despatches of Sir Garnet 
Wolseley, and in the House of Lords by 
the Field-Marshal Commanding-in Chief. 
He was appointed a Companion of the 
Bath in 1874. In Feb., 1879, he was 
despatched to Natal to assume the 
responsible post of Staff Officer at the 
port of disembarkation. In the sub- 
sequent expeditions under Lord Wolseley, 
General Butler has generally held an 
important post ; and especially in the 
Soudan Expedition. On the return of 
the forces, he was left behind in command 
of the British advanced posts. General 
Butler is the author of " The Great Lone 
Land," 1872 ; " The Wild North Land," 
1873; " Akimfoo," 1875: and "Far out: 
Rovings retold," 1880. He married, June 
11, 1877, at the church of the Servite 
Fathers, Fulham Road, London, Miss 
Elizabeth Thompson, the painter. 

BUTT, The Hon. Sir Charles Parker, was 

called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1854, 
and joined the Northern circuit. He 
obtained a silk gown in 1868. He unsuc- 
cessfully contested Tamworth in Feb., 
1874, and sat for Southampton, in the 
Liberal interest, from April, 1880, till 
March, 1883, when he was appointed to 
the judgeship in the Admiralty division of 
the High Court of Justice, vacant by the 
resignation of Sir Robert Phillimore. 
Since that time the Probate and Divorce 
divisions have been united to the 
Admiralty division, and the work is done 
by Sir Charles Butt and by the President, 
Sir James Hannen. 

BUTTERFIELD, William, architect, was 
born Sept. 7, 1814. He early devoted 
himself to a study of the various periods 
of Gothic architecture, and has in his 



practice introduced various colours to a 
large extent into ecclesiastical and 
domestic buildings by the help of 
brick, stone, marble, and mosaic com- 
bined. Amongst the buildings designed 
by him are, S. Augustine's College, 
Canterbury ; the entire buildings of 
Keble College, Oxford ; the Cathedral at 
Perth ; Balliol College Chapel, Oxford ; S. 
Michael's Hospital, Axbridge ; the County 
Hospital, Winchester ; the School Build- 
ings at Winchester College ; the Grammar 
School, Exeter ; the Chapel, Quadrangle, 
and other biiildings at Rugby School ; 
Eugby Parish Church ; Heath's Court, 
Ottery St. Mary ; the Guards' Chapel, 
Caterham Barracks ; All Saints', Mar- 
garet Street, London ; S. Alban's, Holborn ; 
S. Augustine's, Queen's Gate; Gordon 
Boys' Home Buildings, near Bagshot ; 
together with a large number of other 
new churches, such as S. Mary 
Magdalene's Church and the Vicarage at 
Enfield, and old bviildings and churches 
restored, as the Cross, Church and build- 
ings, Winchester ; S. Mary's Church in 
Dover Castle, and the Parish Church, 

BYE, Robert. See Batee, Karl Emmer- 



CABLE, George W., novelist, was born 
in New Orleans, in 1844, where he resided 
almost uninterruptedly until 188-i, when 
he removed to New England. His jDre- 
sent residence is in Northamjiton, 
Massachusetts. At the age of fourteen 
his father died, leaving his family in 
sucli reduced circumstances as to compel 
his son to leave school in order to aid in 
the sui^port of his mother and sisters. 
From that time imtil 1863 he was iisually 
employed as a clerk. In that year he 
entered the Confederate army, where he 
remained until the close of the civil war. 
Returning to New Orleans, he made such 
a living as he could — at first as an errand 
boy (though he was nearly twenty-one 
years of age), then in book-keeping, and 
finally secured a position in a prominent 
house of cotton factors, which he left, 
in 1879, to devote himself exclusively 
to litei'ature. His first literary work was 
in the form of contributions to the New 
Orleans Picayune under the signature of 
Droi3-Shot. His work, however, did not 
attract any very general attention until 
his Creole sketches ajipeared in Scribner's 
Monthly, now The Century Magazine. 
These were published in book form in 
1879, under the title of "Old Creole 
Days." They were followed by " The 

Grandissimes," 1880; "Madame Del- 
phine," 1881 ; " The Creoles of Louisiana," 
1884 ; " Dr. Sevier," 1881 ; " The Silent 
South," 1885 ; " Bonaventure," 1887 ; 
" Strange True Stories of Louisiana," 
1889; and "The Negro Question," 1890. 
In these Mr. Cable has shown such a 
mastery of the Louisiana dialect and such 
an insight into the Creole character as to 
give him a prominent place among 
American writers ; and the public read- 
ings from his works which he has given 
during the past few years in Northern 
cities have been very largely attended.^ 

CADELL, Francis, the explorer of the 
river Murray, son of H. F. Cadell, Esq., 
of Cockenzie, near Preston Pans, Had- 
dingtonshire, was born in 1822, and 
educated in Edinburgh and in Germany. 
While very young he showed a taste for 
adventure, and entered as a midshipman 
on board an East Indiaman. The vessel 
having been chartered by Government, 
the lad, as a volunteer, took part in the 
first Chinese war, was present at the 
siege of Canton, the capture of Amoy, 
Ningpo, &c., and received an officer's 
share of prize-money. At twenty-two he 
was in command of a vessel, and in the 
intei'vals between his voyages he spent 
much time in the shipbuilding yards of 
the Tyne and Clyde, where he gained a 
thorough knowledge of naval architecture 
and the construction of a steam-engine. 
A visit to the Amazons first led him to 
study the subject of river navigation ; 
and when in Australia, in 1818, his atten- 
tion was drawn to the practicability of 
navigatingthe Murray and its tribiitaries, 
which had served only for watering the 
flocks belonging to the scattered stations 
on their banks. Three years later, en- 
couraged by the Governor of Australia, 
Sir H. F. Young, he put his project into 
execution. In a frail boat, with canvas 
sides and ribs of barrel hoops, he em- 
barked at Swanhill on the Upper Murray, 
and decended the stream to Lake Victoria 
at its mouth, a distance of 1300 miles. 
Having thiis proved that the Murray was 
navigable, he succeeded in crossing the 
dangerous bar at its mouth in a steamer 
planned and constructed under his super- 
vision. This vessel accomplished a first 
voyage of 1500 miles. Other steamers 
were procured, and the Murrumbidgee, 
the Edward, and the Darling were in like 
manner opened to traffic. A gold can- 
delabrum was presented to Mr. Cadell 
by the settlers, the value of whose 
property has been greatly increased by 
his efforts, and the Legislature directed a 
gold medal in his honour to be struck in 
England by Mr. Wyon. 



CADOGAN (Earl of), The Bight Hon. 
George Henry Cadogan, eldest son of the 
fourth Earl, was born at Durham in 18-iO. 
He succeeded to the title on the death of 
his father in 1873, having been for a few 
months previously M.P. for Bath. He 
was appointed Parliamentary Under 
Seci'etary for War in May, 1875 ; and 
Under Secretary of State for the Colonies 
in March, 1878, in succession to Mr. J. 
Lowther, who had been advanced to the 
post of Chief Secretary for Ireland. He 
went oiit of office with the Conservative 
party in April, 1880. In Lord Salisbury's 
second administration, 188(3, he was 
api^ointed Lord Privy Seal, without a 
seat in the Cabinet, but he joined the 
Cabinet in 1887. 

CAIN, Auguste, sculptor, born in Paris, 
Nov. 4, 1822, worked first with a car- 
penter, and afterwards entered the studio 
of M. Rude. M. Cain, who has devoted 
his attention to gi'oups of animals, first 
exhibited at Paris in 1846, and is the 
publisher of his own bronzes. Amongst 
numerous works he has exhibited " The 
Doi-mouse and Tomtit," 1840 ; " The 
Frogs desiring a King," 1850 ; " The 
Eagle defending his Prey," 1852 ; " An 
Eagle chasing a Vulture," 1857 ; " Lion 
and Lioness quarrelling about a Wild 
Boar," 1875 ; and "A Family of Tigers," 
1870. The first two of these appeared in the 
Great Exhibition of 1851, when M. Cain 
obtained the bronze medal. One of his 
latest works is " Rhinoceros attacked by 
Tigers," 1882. He has received many 
recognitions of merit ; another medal in 
180 1 ; and a third at the Universal Expo- 
sition of 1807. M. Cain was nominated 
a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 

CAIN£,g William Sproston, was born 
at Seacombe, Clieshire, March 20, 1842, 
and is the son of Nathaniel Caine, J. P. for 
Lancashire and Liverjjool, a Liverpool 
merchant. He was educated privately 
by the Rev. Richard Wall, M.A. In 1873 
he contested Liverjjool in the Liberal 
interest at a bye-election, and afterwards 
at the general election in 1874, both 
times unsuccessfully. In 18S0 he was 
returned for Scarborough, and again in 
1884, on his appointment to the office of 
Civil Lord of the Admii'alty in Mr. Glad- 
stone's administration of 1870^5. In 
1875 he consented to contest the county 
of Middlesex at the following general 
election, and on the passing of the Redis- 
tribution Act stood for the Tottenham 
division of that county in 1885 without 
success. At a bye-election in April, 1886, 
he was returned for Barrow-in-Furness 

by a large majority, and was again re- 
turned at the general election. He is a 
J. P. for the North Riding of Yorkshire, 
and largely engaged in the iron trade of 
Cumberland and Staffordshire. He is 
Chairman of a Special Commission for 
the reorganisation of the Metropolitan 
Constituencies in the Liberal Interest. 
Mr. Caine separated from Mr. Gladstone 
on the Home Rule question, and has been 
one of the whips of the Liberal Unionist 
party. He is the author of " A Trip 
round the World in 1887— S ; " " Hugh 
Stowell Brown, a Memorial Volume," 
188S ; and " Picturesque India," 1890. 

CAIRD, The Right Hon. Sir James, P.C., 
K.C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., born at Stranraer, 
in 1810, was educated at the High School 
and University of Edinburgh. During 
the Protection controversy in 1849, Mr. 
Caird published a treatise on " High 
Farming as the best Substitute for Pro- 
tection," which went rapidly through 
eight editions, and attracted much public 
attention. In the autumn of 1849, at the 
request of the late Sir Robert Peel, he 
visitedthe west and south of Ireland, then 
prostrate from the effects of the famine, 
and at the desire of the lord-lieutenant. 
Lord Clarendon, reported to the Govern- 
ment on the measures which he deemed 
requisite for encouraging the revival of 
agricultural enterprise in that country. 
This report was enlarged into a volume, 
published in 1850, descriptive of the 
agricultural resources of the country, and 
led to considerable lauded investments 
being made there. During lS50and 1851 
Mr. Caird, as the commissioner of the 
Times, conducted an inquiry into the 
state of English agriculture, in which he 
visited every county in England ; and his 
letters, after appearing in the columns of 
the Times, were published in a volume, 
entitled, " English Agriculture," which 
has been translated into the French, 
German, and Swedish languages, besides 
being republished in the United States. 
In 1858 Mr. Caird published an account 
of a visit to the prairies of the Mississipjji, 
descriptive of their fertility and great 
future. Translations of this work also 
appeared on the continent. Invited at 
the general election of 1852 to oii'er him- 
self to represent his native district in 
Parliament, he was defeated by a 
majority of one. At the general election 
of 1857 he was elected member for the 
borough of Dartmouth, as a supporter of 
Lord Palmerston, and an advocate of 
Liberal measures. In 1859 he was elected 
for Stirling without opposition. During 
the nine years he was in Parliament, Mr. 
Caird took an active part in all subjects 



connected with agriculture. In 1860 he 
was appointed a member of the Fishery 
Board, and in 18G3 became Chairman of 
the Royal Commission on the Sea 
Fisheries of the United Kingdom, Pro- 
fessor Hiixley and Mr. Shaw Lefevre, 
M.P., being his colleagues. In 18G1. Mr. 
Caird, after many years' perseverance, 
carried a resolution of the House of 
Commons in favour of the collection of 
agricultural statistics, which was followed 
by a vote of ^10,000 for that object. The 
returns of 18G0 for Great Britain, the 
result of that vote, for the first time 
complete the agricultural statistics of the 
United Kingdom, which are now pub- 
lished annually. In 1863 he visited 
Algeria, Italy and Sicily, to ascertain the 
possibility of extending the production 
of cotton in those countries in case the 
supplies from the Southern States of 
America should be seriously lessened by 
the War. In 1865 he was appointed to 
the oifice of Inclosure Commissioner, 
subsequently the Land Commission for 
England, of which he was senior member. 
In 1869 he revisited Ireland, and pub- 
lished a pamphlet on the Irish land 
question, soon after which he received 
the Companionship of the Bath. In 1868 
and 1869 he published successive papers 
on the " Food of the People," read before 
the Statistical Society. In 1878, at the 
request of the President and Council of 
the Royal Agricultural Society of Eng- 
land, he prepared, for the French Inter- 
national Exhibition, an account of Eng- 
lish agricrdture, which was translated 
into French and German for continental 
perusal, and was afterwards separately 
published in this country under the title 
of "The Landed Interest." In the same 
year he was requested by Lord Salisbury, 
then Secretary of State tor India, to serve 
on the Indian Famine Commission, which 
visited all parts of India, and reported 
largely on the whole subject. He pub- 
lished at the same time a narrative of his 
examination of the country, " India, 
The Land and People," which has had 
a large circulation. In 1886 he was 
requested by Lord Salisbury to become a 
member of Earl Cowper's Commission to 
inquire into the agricultural state of 
Ireland, on which he served. In 1889, on 
the formation of the new Board of Agri- 
culture, he became a member of the 
Board, with the rank of a Privy Coun- 
cillor. In 1890, at the request of the 
Royal Agricultural Society of England, 
he prepared for their Journal an account 
of the fifty years of the valuable work of 
that Society. Sir James Caird is a 
Deputy-Lieutenant and magistrate of his 
native Province of Galloway. 

CAIRD, Professor, The Rev. John, D.D., 
LL.D., born at Greenock, Dec, 1820, 
graduated at the University of Glasgow, 
M.A., 1845, was ordained minister of 
Newton-on-Ayr, 1845 ; of Lady Tester's 
Parish, Edinburgh, 1847 ; of the Parish 
of Errol, Perthshire, 1849 ; and of Park 
Church, Glasgow, 1857. He was ap- 
pointed Professor of Divinity, in the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow, 1862 : and Principal 
and Vice-Chancellor of the University of 
Glasgow. 1873. He was one of Her 
Majesty's Chaplains for Scotland, but has 
resigned that office. He has published a 
volume of Sermons, 1858 ; addresses on 
the " Unity of the Sciences, &c.," 1873-4; 
and " Introdviction to the Philosophy of 
Religion," 1880; also "Spinoza," in 
Blackwood's Philosphical Classics for 
English Readers, 1888. 

CAIRD, Mrs. Mona is an English 
authoress, who Avas born at Ryde, in the 
Isle of Wight. She is the only survivor 
of the two daughters born to Mr. John 
Alison, a Midlothian inventor, who has 
long been engaged in mechanical studies. 
Though her father and her paternal 
grandfather were Scotch, Mrs. Mona 
Caird is also of English, Irish, German, 
and Spanish extraction. Hence the 
happy blending in her of the fiery 
ardour of the Spaniard, and the loving 
impulsiveness of the Irishman, tempered 
by the cool, clear judgment of the Scotch- 
man, the whole finding congenial fellow- 
ship in the heroic boldness of the English- 
man, and thus forming a character of ex- 
treme sensitiveness combined with a noble 
devotedness to duty, which leads the 
possessor to feel keenly, to think ac- 
curately, and to act boldly in the defence 
of truth and right ; and such is Mrs. 
Mona Caird, as is shown by her writings. 
From early life she has devoted herself 
to the study of German philosophy, 
literature, and poetry, as well as French 
and English literature, philosophy, and 
general scientific subjects. She iised to 
amuse herself in writing plays and acting 
them with her friends, and in her early 
girlhood she edited an amateur magazine 
called Briareus, to which, among other 
writers, the author of the " First Violin," 
Miss Jessie Fothergill, contributed a 
serial story and various articles. She 
had written much from childhood, and 
published a little anonymously, before 
issuing her first acknowledged work, 
" Whom Nature Leadeth." This was 
followed in 1887, by " One That Wins," 
and, in the spring of 1889, by ' ' The Wing 
of Azrael." In the Westrninster Review 
for An gust and November, 1888, Mrs. Mona 
Caird wrote articles on " Marriage/' 



and " Ideal Marriage," which led to a 
voluminous correspondence in The Daily 
Telegraph, entitled "Is Marriage a 
Failure ? " Mrs. Mona Caird's latest 
contributions to literature are two articles 
in the North American Review on "The 
Emancipation of the Family." Her 
husband is a son of the Et. Hon. Sir 
James Caird, P.C, K.C.B., LL.D., F.E.S. 

CAIRNS, John, D.D., LL.D. (both of 
Edinburgh, 185S and ISSi), United Pres- 
bytei-ian, born near Ayton, Berwickshire, 
Scotland, Aug. 23, 1818 ; studied in the 
University of Edinburgh from 1831- till 
1839, entered at the University of Berlin 
in session 1843-4, studied Theology in the 
United Secession Church from 1*840 till 
licensed, and was Minister of the United 
Presbyterian Church, Ber«ick-on-Tweed, 
1845 to 1876. In 1867 he became Pro- 
fessor of Apologetics in the United 
Presbji,erian Church ; and in 1876, leav- 
ing his congregation, when the Hall was 
reorganized, he removed to Edinburgh, 
teaching henceforth Systematic Theology 
also. In 1879 he succeeded Dr. Harper 
as Principal of the College. He has 
written " Life of John Brown, D.D.," 
1S60; " Unbelief in the Eighteenth 
Century " (Cunningham Lecture for 
18S0), 1881. He wrote the article 
" Schottland : Kirchliche Statistik," 
in the 2nd edition of Herzog's " Real- 
Encyklopiidie ; " and the article " In- 
fidelity," in the Schaff-Herzog. Also 
in " Present Day Tracts," 1882-89, 
those on " Miracles ; Christ the Central 
Evidence of Christianity," " Success of 
Christianity ; Argument from Pro- 
phecy," "Is the Evolution of Christianity 
from mere Xatural Sources Credible ? " 
and " Argument for Christianity from 
Experience of Christians." He has also 
written in various reviews, and published, 
among other sermons, " False Christs and 
the True," against the theories of Eenan 
and Strauss, 1864. 

CALDERON, Philip Hermogeaes, E.A., 
son of the Eev. Juan Calderon, was born 
in Poitiers in 1833, studied at Mr. 
Leigh's Academy and in the atelier of 
M. Picot (Member of the Institute) in 
Paris. Amongst his early jjictures are 
" The Gaoler's Daughter," exhibited at 
the Eoyal Academy in 1858 ; " Man goeth 
forth to his Labour," 1859 ; " Never 
More," 1860 ; "La Demande en Mariage," 
and " The Eeturn from Moscow," 1861 ; 
"After the Battle," 1862 ; "The British 
Embassy in Paris during the Massacre 
of St. Bartholomew," 1863 ; " The Burial 
of Hampden" and "Women of Aries," 
1864. Mr.. Calderon was elected A.E.A. 

in 1864. In 1865 he did not exhibit. In 
1866 he had in the Eoyal Academy Exhi- 
bition " Her most noble, high, and puis- 
sant Grace," " Women of Poitiers washing 
on the banks of the Clain," and " In the 
Pyrenees." In 1867 Mr. Calderon was 
elected full E.A., and received at the 
Paris International Exhibition the first 
medal awarded to English Art. He also 
received one of the medals awarded to 
English artists at the Vienna Exhibition 
of 1873. Since then he has exhibited in 
London " Home after Victory," and 
" Evening," " (Enone," and" Whither ? " 
(this last his diijloma picture) ; in 1869, 
" Sighing his Soul into his Lady's Face " ; 
in 1870, "The Orphans," "The Virgin's 
Bower," and " Spring Driving away 
Winter"; in 1871, "On her Way to 
the Throne," and "The New Pictures" 
(portraits of a well - known picture 
collector); "In a Palace-Tower"; in 

1873, " The Moonlight Serenade " ; in 

1874, "The Queen of the Toiirnaments " 
and " Half-Hours withthe Best Authors; " 
" Toujours Fidele," "The Nest," "Mar- 
garet," " Watchful Eyes," and " His 
Eeverence"; "Joan of Arc," " Eeduced 
Three per Cents. (Bank of England)," 
" The Nunnery at Loughborough," " La 
Gloire de Dijon," " Euth and Naomi," 
1886 ; " Deep in the Autumn Woods," 
1887 ; " Home," 1889 ; and many others. 
In 1878 Mr. Calderon was one of the 
English artists selected to exhibit an 
extra number of works at the Paris In- 
ternational Exhibition, and he sent there 
several of the pictures mentioned above. 
At the close of that Exhibition he re- 
ceived a first-class medal , and was created 
a Knight of the Legion of Honour. 
Since that time he was long occupied in 
painting decorative panels in oil for the 
dining-room of a well-known lover of 
art, among which have been " The 
Olive," " The Vine " (representing the 
fruits of the earth), and " The Flowers of 
the Eai'th," exhibited at the Eoyal Aca- 
demy in 1881. In 18S7 Mr. Calderon was 
appointed Keeper of the Eoyal Academy 
in place of Mr. Picker sgill. 

CALDERWOOD, Henry, LL.D., F.E.S. E., 
Professor of Moral Philosophy in the 
University of Edinburgh, was born at 
Peebles, May 10, 1830. Professor Calder- 
wood was educated at the Edinburgh In- 
stitution and High School, and at the 
University, where he distinguished him- 
self in Mental Philosophy. While a 
student he published, in opposition to 
the doctrine of Sir WilUam Hamilton, 
"■ The Philosophy of the Infinite," in 
1854 (now in the 3rd edit.). He studied 
for the ministry of the United Presby- 



terian Church of Scotland, and was or- 
dained minister of Greyfriars Church, 
Glasgow, 1856. He was appointed Ex- 
aminer in Mental Philosophy to the Uni- 
versity of Glasgow, 18G1. This Univer- 
sity conferred on him the degree of 
LL.D. in 1%65. During the illness of 
Professor Fleming, at the invitation of 
the Senatus, he conducted the class of 
Moral Philosophy, session 1865-6. In 
1868 he was elected Professor of Moral 
Philosophy in the ..University of Edin- 
burgh. He was chosen F.E.S.E. in 1869 ; 
and was elected Chairman of the first 
School Board for the City of Edinburgh 
in 1874, from which oiSce he retired in 
1877. While Chairman, he published 
"On Teaching," 1874.; 3rd edit., 1881. 
He published " Handbook of Moral 
Philosophy," 1872 ; 15th edit., 1890, and 
"The Relations of Mind and Brain," 
1879; 2nd edit., 1884. He published 
" The Kelations of Science and Religion," 
1881, being the Morse Lecture for the 
Union Theological Seminary, New York. 
He has edited and enlarged " Fleming's 
Vocabulary of Philosophy " (4th edit., 
1887). Professor Calderwood has been 
repeatedly invited to become a candidate 
for the representation of the City of 
Edinburgh in Parliament, but ha.s de- 
clined to abandon academic work. 

CAMBRAY-DIGNY, Guglielmo, Conte di, 

an Italian statesman, born at Florence 
in 1820, is the son of Count Louis of 
Cambray-Digny, a distinguished archi- 
tect. Foreign Member of the Institut 
de France, and for a time Minister of 
Ferdinand III., Grand Duke of Tus- 
cany. After completing his studies 
at Paris, he returned, at the age of 
twenty, to his native city, where he was 
a member of the Liberal and National 
Party. He always exhorted the Grand 
Duke, but in vain, to make concessions to 
the liberal requirements of the times, 
instead of relying on Austrian support ; 
and in 1859, when the Grand Duke was 
obliged to flee from his dominions, which 
were thereupon annexed to Piedmont, 
Signer Cambray-Digny was named a 
Deputy to the Tuscan Assembly which 
approved this preliminary step towards 
the unification of Italy, and in I860 was 
made a Senator of the new Kingdom. In 
1865 he presided, in his capacity of Lord 
Mayor (" Gonfaloniere ") of Florence, at 
the sixth centenary of the birth of Dante, 
and delivered the official speech of in- 
auguration of the statue of the poet. 
His political celebrity, however, does not 
date farther back than the close of the 
year 1867, when he was appointed 
Finance Minister of the kingdom of 

Italy, and found himself face to face with 
an enormovis deficit, which he endea- 
voured to reduce by various expedients, 
including the unpopular grist tax, and 
giving to an Anonyme Society the 
tobacco monopoly. Count Cambray- 
Digny, by his perseverance and tact, suc- 
ceeded in carrying this and other pro- 
jects in sjjite of the energetic opposition 
of a formidable party in the Chambers. 
Towards the close of the year 1869 the 
Menabrea-Cambray-Digny Cabinet, as it 
was called, was succeeded by the Lanza 
Cabinet. Count Cambray-Digny resumed 
his post in the Senate, where he has been 
ever since a member of the Finance 
Committee, of which he is, in fact. Presi- 
dent. He is, besides, Vice-President of the 
Italian Catasto, and surveyor of the 
artistical patrimony of the Civil List of 
the King of Italy. 

CAMBEIDGE {Duke of), Field-Marshal 
H.R.H. George William Frederick Charles, 
K.G., K.P., C.C.M.G., G.C.H., G.C.B., 
G.C.S.I., P.O., son of Adolphus Frederick, 
the first duke, grandson of King George 
III., and first cousin to Her Majesty 
Queen Victoria, was born at Hanover, 
March 26, 1819, and succeeded his father 
July 8, 1850. He became a Colonel in 
the Army Nov. 3, 1837, was advanced to 
the rank of Majoi'-General in 1845, to that 
of Lieut. -General in 1854, when he was 
appointed to command the two brigades 
of Highlandei's and Guards, united to form 
the first division of the army sent in aid 
of Turkey against the Emperor of Russia; 
and was promoted to the rank of General 
in 1856. In 1861 he was appointed 
Colonel of the Royal Artillery and Royal 
Engineers, and was promoted to the rank 
of Field-Marshal Nov. 9, 1862. His 
Royal Highness has been successively 
Colonel of the I7th Light Dragoons, of 
the Scots Fusilier Guards, and, on the 
death of the late Prince Consort, of the 
Grenadier Guards. At the battle of the 
Alma his Royal Highness led his division 
into action in a manner that won the 
confidence of his men and the respect of 
the veteran officers with whom he served. 
At Inkermann he was actively engaged, 
and had a horse shot under him. Shortly 
after this, in consequence of impaired 
health, he was ordered by the medical 
authorities to Pera, for change of air, and 
after staying there some time proceeded 
to Malta ; whence, his health still failing, 
he was directed to return to England. 
At a later period his Royal Highness 
gave the results of his camp exj^erience 
in evidence before the Committee of the 
House of Commons appointed to investi- 
gate the manner in which the war had 



been conducted. On the resignation of 
Viscount Hardinge in 1856 the Duke of 
Cambridge was appointed to succeed as 
Commander-in-Chief, and has continued 
to hold that post till the present time. 
His mother, the Duchess of Cambridge, 
died April 6, 1889, at the advanced age 
of 92. 

CAMERON, Professor Sir Charles Alex- 
ander. M.D., F.E.C.S.I., xM.K. & Q.C.P.I., 
D.P.H., and Examiner, Cambridge Uni- 
versity, was born in Dublin on July 16, 
1830. His father. Captain Ewen Cameron, 
was grandson of the unfortunate Archibald 
Cameron, younger brother of " Lochiel," 
who was executed for taking part in the 
Jacobite rising in 1745. Sir Charles's 
mother was Belinda Smith, a county 
Cavan lady. Sir Charles was educated 
at schools in Dublin and Guernsey. He 
studied medical and chemical science in 
Dublin and Germany, graduating as 
Doctor of Medicine and Doctor of Philo- 
sophy in 185G. At first he devoted much 
attention to Agricultural Chemistry. In 
1867 he read a paper before the British 
Association detailing experiments which 
proved that urea could be assimilated by 
plants, and that all the nitrogen which 
they required could be taken from it. In 
1862 he contributed a series of papers to 
the Chemical News on "The Inorganic 
Constituents of Plants." In 1862 he was 
elected Public Analyst for the city of 
Dublin, and was the only analyst in the 
United Kingdom who succeeded in apply- 
ing the provisions of the first and very 
defective Adulteration of Food Act of 
1860. He next turned his attention to 
sanitary science, and in 1867 was elected 
Professor of Hygiene or Political Medi- 
cine in the Eoyal College of Surgeons in 
Ireland. He was for some years Lec- 
turer on Chemistry and Physics in two 
medical schools — Steevens Hospital 
Medical College, and Ledwich School of 
Medicine. Sir Charles's public lectures 
on Hygiene, open to ladies, were 
numerously attended. He is an 
Honorary Member and Professor of 
Chemistry, and ex-Professor of Anatomy 
to the Royal Hibernian Academy of the 
Fine Arts, &c.. Lecturer on Agricultiiral 
Chemistry and Geology in the Albert 
(Government) Model Farm, Glasnevin, 
and he is Public Analyst for the greater 
number of Irish counties and boroughs, 
as well as Consultant to nearly all the 
Public Departments. He holds the Pro- 
fessorships of Chemistry and Hygiene in 
the College of Surgeons, and he has the 
entire control of the Public Health De- 
partment of the Dublin Corporation, 
being both Executive and Superintendent 

Medical Officer of Health. Under his 
regime an immense improvement has 
taken place in the dwellings of the work- 
ing classes, and the state of public 
health has been greatly improved. Sir 
Charles and the Irish Registrar-General 
were appointed in 1888 to inquire into 
the condition of the Royal Barracks in 
Dublin. Sir Charles served on the juries 
of several of the great exhibitions, in- 
cluding that of Paris in 18(37- He was 
President of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons 1885-6, President of the British 
Pixblic Health Medical Society since 1888, 
Vice-President of the Institute of 
Chemisti-y 188-4-90, and President or 
Vice-President of several other societies. 
His chief works are a voluminous " His- 
tory of the Eoyal College of Surgeons in 
Ireland, and of the Irish Medical Insti- 
tutions, including 300 Biographies," and 
a " Manual of Hygiene, and Compendium 
of the Sanitary Laws." His smaller 
works, including translations of poems 
from the German, are numerous. His 
original papers chiefly appear in the 
Proceedings of the Royal Society and 
the Royal Dublin Society, the Trans- 
actions of the Royal Irish Academy and 
of the Royal Academy of Medicine, the 
Chemical News, the Dublin Journal of 
Medicine. In pure Chemisti'y, he is best 
known for his numerous papers on 
Selenium Compounds. Sir Charles was 
knighted in 1886, " in recognition of his 
services in the improvement of Public 
Health, and his scientific researches." 
In 1862 he married Lucie, daughter of 
John Macnamara, solicitor of Dublin. 
She died in 1883 leaving seven children. 

CAMERON, Commander Verney Lovett, 
C.B., D.C.L., son of the Rev. Jonathan 
Henry Lovett Cameron, is a native of 
Radipole,Weymouth, Dorsetshire, and was 
educated at Bruton, Somersetshire. He 
was appointed Naval Cadet in Aug., 1857 ; 
Midshipman in Jan., 1860 ; Sub-Lieute- 
nant in Aug., 1863 ; Lieutenant in Oct., 
1865 ; and Commander in July, 1876. 
Between Nov., 1872, and April, 1S76, 
Lieutenant Cameron was engaged in that 
exploration of Africa which has made 
his name so familiar to the British 
public. He is the first European 
traveller who has crossed the whole 
breadth of the African continent in its 
central latitudes beyond the western 
shore of Lake Tanganyika to the Atlantic 
sea-coast of Lower Guinea. He left Eng- 
land under the auspices of the Royal 
Geographical Society, in charge of the 
East Coast Livingstone Expedition. 
After discovering that Dr. Livingstone's 
death had destroyed the original object 



of bis journey. Lieutenant Cameron 
determined to cross, if possible, the 
African continent. In performing this 
feat he traversed a distance of nearly 
5,000 miles on foot between the east and 
the west ocean shores ; but the naost im- 
portant part of his journeyiiifjs lay in 
the centi-al interior west of the chain of 
lakes and rivers discovered by Dr. 
Livingstone, which Lieutenant Cameron 
found to be connected with the great 
river Congo issuing to the Atlantic be- 
tween Loango and Angola. Since his 
return to England he has served in two 
of Her Majesty's vessels, and gone 
through courses in gunnery and torpedo. 
In Sept., 1878, he started on a tour 
through Asia Minor and Persia to India, 
with the object of demonstrating the 
feasibility of constructing a railroad 
from the Mediterranean to India without 
following the course of the Euphrates. In 
1S80 he published a work in two volumes 
on the Euphrates Valley, entitled " Our 
Future Highway." In 18S2 he and the late 
Sir E. F. Burton undertook a journey of 
exploration in the country lying at the 
back of the Gold Coast Colony, and the 
Council of the Eoyal Geographical Society 
accorded them a loan of instruments to 
enable them to make scientific observa- 
tions. The two travellers amassed large 
and valuable collections in all branches 
of natural history, and Commander 
Cameron also made extensive surveys. 
He was created a C.B. (civil division), 
and an hon. D.C.L. of Oxford, after 
his retui'n from Africa. He has received 
the Founder's Medal of the E-oyal Geo- 
graphical Society, the Grande Mcdaille 
d'Or of the French Geographical 
Society, the Gold Medal of the Portu- 
guese Geographical Society, a Gold 
Medal from the King of Italy for his 
discoveries in Africa ; and he is Officier 
d'Instruction (France), a Member of 
the Crown of Italy, and a Fellow of over 
thirty Societies, English and foreign. 
Commander Cameron is the author of 
" An Essay on Steam Tactics," 1865, and 
"Across Africa," 1876 ; " Our Future High- 
way," ISSO ; besides numerous articles 
and books for boys, and jointly with the 
late Sir E. F. Burton of "To the Gold 
Coast for Gold," 1883. To Commander 
Cameron belongs the honour of being the 
first to point out practical means of 
civilising Africa by the formation of 
Chartered Companies, the construction of 
railways, and placing steamers on the 
great lakes and rivers. He has recently 
been working vigorously for the suppres- 
sion of the slave trade. 

CAMPBELL, The Hon. Sir Alexander, 

K.C.M.G., Q.C., was born in 1822 at 
Hedon,nearKingston-upon-Hull. Though 
born in England he is of Scotch descent, 
and was educated and has always resided 
in Canada. He was called to the Bar of 
Upper Canada in 1843, created a Queen's 
Counsel in 1856, and in the following 
year made a Bencher of the Law Society 
of Upper Canada. From 1858 until Con- 
federation he represented the Cataraqui 
Division in the Legislative Council of 
Canada, and served until the \inion of 
the British North American Provinces in 
1867 as Commissioner of Crown Lands, 
and Leader for the Government in the 
Legislative Council. He took an active 
part in the Quebec Conference which 
resulted in Confederation, and became a 
member of the Canadian Privy Council at 
the time of the union, and entered the 
Macdonald Government in 1867, first as 
Postmaster-General and afterwards as 
Minister of the Interior. In 1878, on the 
formation of the Liberal - Conservative 
Administration, Sir Alexander i-esumed 
the Postmaster-Generalship, and for a 
time held the portfolio of Minister of 
Militia. In 1881 he exchanged the port- 
folio of Minister of Militia for that of 
Minister of Justice, which he retained 
until 1885, when he again became Post- 
master-General. Sir Alexander resigned 
his seat in the Cabinet in Jan., 1887, and 
in June became Lieut. -Governor of the 
Province of Ontario, an ofiice which he 
now fills, 1890. On May 24, 1879, he was 
created a K.C.M.G. 

CAMPBELL, Sir George, M.P., K.C.S.I., 
D.C.L., eldest son of the late Sir George 
Campbell, of Edenwood, elder brother of 
the first Lord Campbell, was born in 
1824, and educated at Edinburgh, St. 
Andrews, and Haileybury. He entered 
the Civil Service of India in 1842, and at 
the age of twenty-two was already in 
charge of an important district in that 
distant dependency. From the manner 
in which he discharged his duties, his 
name was mentioned with especial praise 
by Lord Dalhousie, the Governor-General. 
Soon after this, Mr. Campbell returned 
home, and was called to the Bar at the 
Inner Temple in 1854. While here he 
published " Modei-n India," 1852, dedi- 
cated to his iincle, then Lord Chief 
Justice of England, and " India as it 
May be," 1853. He was Associate of the 
Court of Queen's Bench from 1851 to 
1854, but in the latter year he returned 
to India, where he was employed for 
some years in the administration of the 
country as Commissioner of the Cis-Sutlej 
States, Commissioner of the Customs and 
Excise, and Civil Commissioner with the 



troops which occupied the North-West 
Provinces after the Mutiny. In 1858 
Mr. Campbell was appointed Judicial and 
Financial Commissioner in Oude. He 
was afterwards for some years a Judge of 
the High Court of Judicature of Calcutta, 
and was employed as head of the Com- 
mission to inquire into the famine in 
Orissa. In 1SG7 he was nominated Chief 
Commissioner of the Central Provinces of 
India, but returning to Scotland in 1868, 
he became a candidate for Dumbarton- 
shire in July, in the Liberal interest, but 
retired from his candidature before the 
general election. The next year he 
directed attention to Irish Land tenure, 
by publishing a book on the subject. At 
this time he received the honour of 
Honorary D.C.L. of the University of 
Oxford. In Jan., 1871, he again went to 
India as Lie\itenant-Govemor of Bengal, 
but returned home early in IST^ to 
become a member of the Council of India, 
which again he resigned in 1875, when he 
was elected M.P. for the Kirkcaldy 
Burghs. In 1873 he had been created a 
Knight Commander of the Star of India. 
Sir G-eorge presided over the Economy 
and Ti-ade Department at the Social 
Science Congress held at Glasgow in Oct., 
1874. He took an active part in the 
agitation on the Eastern Question in 
1876, as a supporter of the policy advo- 
cated by Mr. Gladstone, and published a 
" Handy Book of the Eastern Question : 
being a very recent View of Turkey," 
1876. Subsequently he twice visited 
America, and published a volume called 
" White and Black in the United States." 
He has paid much attention to Foreign 
and Colonial subjects ; and in 1889 he 
published a volume on " The British 
Empire." He was re-elected M.P. for 
the Kirkcaldy Biirghs in 1880, 1885, and 
1886, as an Independent Liberal. 

CAMPBELL, The Right Bev. James 
Colquhoun, D.D., late Bishop of Bangor, 
son of the late Mr. John Campbell, of 
Stonefield, Argyleshire, by Wilhelmina, 
daughter of the late Sir James Colqu- 
houn, Bart., of Luss, Dumbartonshire, 
was born at Stonefield in 1813. Having 
gradiiated in honours at Trinity College, 
Cambridge (B.A., 1836; M.A., 1839; D.D., 
1859), he was appointed successively 
Vicar of Eoath, Glamorganshire, 1839 ; 
Eector of Merthyr Tydvil, Glamorgan- 
shire, 181-4 ; Honorary Canon of Llandaff, 
1855 ; and Archdeacon of Llandaff, 1857. 
He was nominated by Lord Derby to the 
See of Bangor, on the death of Dr. Be- 
thell, in April, 1859. Dr. Campbell re- 
signed his bishopric in 1890. He mar- 
ried, in 1840, Blanche (who died 1873), 

daughter of John Bruce Pryce, Esq., of 
Duffryn, Glamorganshire. 

CAMPBELL, The Eev. ' Lewis, M.A.. 
LL.D., Professor of Greek in the Univer- 
sity of St. Andrews, son of Eobert Camp- 
bell sometime Governor of Ascension Isle, 
and cousin of Campbell the poet, was 
bom Sept. 3, 1830. He was educated at 
the Edinburgh Academy, at Glasgow 
University, and at Trinity and BaUiol 
Colleges, Oxford, where he was scholar 
and exhibitioner. He was thus brought 
into contact with the present Master of 
BaUiol (Dr. Jowett), whose influence as a 
college tutor was already conspicuous. 
He took a first-class in classics in 1853, 
was Fellow of Queen's from 1855-S, and 
tutor from 1856-8. In 1857 he was 
ordained by the Bishop of Oxford, and in 
1858 became Ticar of Milford, Hante. 
He remained there until 1863, when he 
was appointed Professor of Greek in the 
University of St. Andrews, a post which 
he still retains. Professor Campbell has 
published many works on classical sub- 
jects, of which the chief are : " The 
Thesetetus of Plato," 1861 (2nd edit., 
1883); "The Sophistes and Politicus of 
Plato," 1867; " Sophosles — The Plays 
and Fragments," Vol. I., 1871 (2nd edit., 
1879) ; Vol. II., 1881 ; Verse translations 
of Sophocles, 1873-1883, and of iEschylus, 
1890 ; " Sophocles " in Macmillan's series 
of Classical Writers, 1879. He has also 
written articles on Plato and Sophocles 
in the " Encyclopeedia Britannica," and 
contributed various papers to the Quar- 
terly, Natioiial, and Classical Reviews, the 
American Journal of Philology , and other 
home and foreign periodicals. Professor 
Campbell published in 1877 a volume of 
sermons, '• The Christian Ideal," and in 
18S2 (in conjunction with Mr. Garnett), 
" The Life of James Clerk Maxwell " 
(2nd edit., 1884). 

Rt. Hon. Henry, M.P., is the second 
son of the late Sir James Campbell, 
of Stracathro, Forfarshire, by Janet, 
youngest daughter of the late Mr. 
Henry Bannerman, of Manchester, and 
was bom in 1836. He was educated 
at the University of Glasgow, and at 
Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1858 ; 
M.A., 1861). In 1872 he assumed the 
additional surname of Bannerman, under 
the will of his uncle, Mr. Heniy Banner- 
man, of Hunton Court, Kent. Mr. Camp- 
bell-Bannerman, who is a magistrate for 
the covmties of Lanark and Kent, has 
represented the Stirling district of 
boroughs in the Liberal interest sine e. 
Dec, 1868 ; he was Financial Secre.^ ry 



at the "War Office from 1871 to 1874 ; was 
again appointed to that office in 1H80 ; 
and in May, 1882, was nominated to 
succeed Mr. Trevelyan as Secretary to 
the Admiralty. On the resignation of 
Mr. Trevelyan he was appointed Chief 
Secretary for Ireland, 1884-5 ; and in 
Mr. Gladstone's tliird Cabinet, 1886, held 
the office of Secretai-y of State for War. 
He married, in 18G0, Charlotte, daughter 
of the late Major-General Sir Charles 
Bruce, K.C.B. 

CANDOLLE, Alphonse Louis Pierre 
Pyramus de, LL.D., the eminent 
botanist of Geneva, was born in Paris, 
Oct. 27, 180G, being the son of the cele- 
brated Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, 
who died in 1841. He went through a 
course of studj^ in literature and science 
at Geneva, and then turned his attention 
to law. of which faculty he was admitted 
a doctor in 1829. Finally, however, he 
made botany his exclusive study, and 
became first the assistant and subse- 
quently the successor of his father. For 
eighteen years he was director of the 
Botanic Garden, and during the same 
period he gave lectures in the Academy 
of Geneva. M. de Candolle was elected a 
correspondent of the French Institute 
in 1851, and the following year was 
decorated with the Legion of Honour. 
In June, 1874, he was elected one of the 
eight foreign members of the French 
Institute, in the place of the late Pro- 
fessor Agassiz. His works are : " Mono- 
graphie des Campanulees," 1830; ''Intro- 
duction a I'Etude de la Botanique," 2 
vols., 1834-5 ; " Geographie Botanique 
raisonnee," 2 vols., 1855 ; " Lois de la 
Nomenclature Botanique," 1867, and 
" Nouvelles Eemarques sur la Nomen- 
clature," 1883 ; " Histoire des Sciences et 
des Savants depuis Deux Siecles, suivie 
d'autres Etudes sur des Sujets Scienti- 
fiques, en particulier sur la Selection dans 
i'Espece Humaine," 1873 (2nd edit., 1884) ; 
" La Photographic, ou I'art de decrire les 
Vcgetaux consideres sous differents points 
de vue," 1880 ; " Origine des Plantes 
oultivees," 1883, translated into English, 
German, and Italian ; besides more than 
150 papers in Transactions or Re- 
views, chiefly in " Archives des Sciences 
physiques et naturelles." His father had 
published seven volumes of the great 
collection of monographies, called " Pro- 
dromus Systematis Naturalis Eegni 
Vegetabilis," to which he added, con- 
jointly with several botanists, ten 
volumes (viii — xviii, 1844-73). Now he 
is publishing, with his son Casimir, a 
continuation under the title of •• Mono- 
graphiae Phanerogamarum " (i — vi, 1873- 

89). Alphonse de Candolle is Doctor 
(honorary) of the universities of Basle, 
Heidelberg, Cambridge, and Oxford, and 
foreign member of almost all the prin- 
cipal scientific academies or societies. 
He presided at the Botanical Inter- 
national Congress in London, 1866, and 
Paris, 1867. He received, in 1889, the 
gold medal of the Linnean Society of 
London. At Geneva he had been for 
many years a member of Cantonal Legis- 
latures, and for twenty-five years Pre- 
sident of the Society of Arts. He 
possesses an extensive herbarium and 
one of the best botanical libraries, to 
which botanists of any country are kindly 

CANDOLLE, Anne Casimir Pyramus de, 
Hon. Doctor of the University of Kostock, 
son of Alphonse, grandson of Augustin 
Pyramus, born at Geneva, Feb. 20, 1836 ; 
has published several papers on anatomy 
of plants and descriptive botany in the 
" Prodromus " and the Monographies 
above mentioned, as well as in "Memoires 
de la Societe de Physique et d'Histoire 
naturelle de Geneve," a society of 
which he was President in the year 

CANNING, Sir Samuel, C.E., upon whom 
the responsibility of laying the Atlantic 
Cables of 1865, 1866, and 1869 devolved, 
is the son of the late Robert Canning, 
Esq., of Ogbourne St. Andrew, Wiltshire, 
and was born in 1823. He began his 
career as assistant to the late Mr. Joseph 
Locke, C.E., F.R.S., from 1844 to 1849, 
and was resident engineer during the 
formation of the Liverpool, Ormskirk, 
and Preston Railway. Since then he 
has been engaged in the manufacture 
and submersion of the most important 
lines of Submarine Telegraph Cables, 
almost from their initiation in 1850. He 
was among the pioneers of Atlantic 
Cables, and achieved the submergence of 
the first line of 1858, and that of other 
Atlantic lines. To his skill and energy 
the success of the Atlantic Expedition of 
1866 is iindoubtedly due ; he perfected 
the paying-out, and the recovering and 
grappling machinery for that cable, 
which so materially aided its submersion, 
and the recovery of the cable lost in the 
preceding year. He has also connected 
England with Gibraltar, Malta, and 
Alexandria, and laid other important 
lines of cable connecting various coun- 
tries in the Mediterranean, North Sea, 
&c. He received the honour of knight- 
hood in 1866, a Gold Medal from the 
Cii; mber of Commerce of Liverpool, 
Mpich 14, 1867, and the insignia of the 



Order of St. Jago d'Espada from the 
King of Portugal. 

Spanish statesman, was born in 1830. 
He made his debut in 1851, under the 
patronage of Seuors Rios, Eosas, and 
Pacheco, as chief editor of the Patria, in 
which he defended Conservative ideas. 
In 185 1 he was named deputy for Malaga, 
and since that year has never ceased to 
occupy a seat in the Cortes. In 185tj he 
was Charge d'Affaires in Kome, and drew 
up the historical memorandum on the 
relations of Sjiain with the Holy See, 
which served as a basis for the Con- 
cordat. He was then named successively 
Governor of Cadiz in 1855, Director- 
General of the Administration from 1858 
to 18(31, and lastly, in that same year. 
Under Secretary of State for the Interior. 
In 186 1 the Queen called him to the 
Ministry, together with Mon ; O'Donnell 
chose him in 1865 as Minister of Finance 
and the Colonies ; and he had the honour 
of di'awing up the law for the aboli- 
tion of the traffic in slaves. Lastly, a 
little before the Kevolution of 1868, he 
was the last to defend with energy in the 
Cortes the Liberal principle when all the 
parties which had supported his doctrine 
had deserted the Parliament. His 
greatest title to fame is that of having 
been the first — supported by Seiiors 
Elduayem, Bugallal, and two others — to 
hoist the standard of legitimate and con- 
stitutional monarchy, in the full Con- 
stituent Assembly of 1868, and in face of 
the triumphant Revolution. His fidelity 
and capacity definitely obtained for him 
the supreme direction of the Alfonsist 
party ; and on the proclamation of Alfonso 
XII. as King in Dec, 1874', Seiior Canovas 
del Castillo became President of the 
Council and chief of the new Cabinet, 
and he continued to hold the Premier- 
ship, with the exception of an interval of 
a few months, down to 1879, when on the 
return of Marshal Martinez Camj^os from 
Cuba, Senor Canovas del Castillo retired 
from the Premiership and Marshal Cam- 
pos became Prime Minister, accepting as 
his colleagues the principal associates of 
Senor Canovas. The skilful resistance of 
the latter delayed and defeated the 
Marshal's free-trade and emancipation 
projects, so that on the re-assembling of 
the Cortes (Dec, 1879) he was compelled 
to resign. Senor Canovas del Castillo 
then returned to power in the year 1881 ; i 
however, his Conservative Cabinet was i 
overthrown, and a coalition between 
Senor Sagasta and Marshal Martinez , 
Campos came into office. At the crisis of | 
Nov., 1885, on the question of the occu- 

pation of the Caroline Islands by Ger- 
many, he was compelled to resign, and 
was succeeded by Senor Sagasta. Senor 
Canovas del Castillo is the author of 
numerous works in moral and political 
science, and a " History of the House of 
Austria," which is in great repute. 
These publications have long since gained 
him admission into the Academy of 
Madrid. In 1875 Senor Canovas del 
Castillo received the insignia of the 
Order of the Ecd Eagle from the Em- 
peror of Gei-many, the Grand Cross of 
the Order of the Tower and Sword from 
the King of Portugal, and the Golden 
Fleece from the King of Spain. 

CANEOBERT, Francois-Certain, Mar- 
shal of France and a Senator, was born 
June 7, 1809, of a good family, not in 
Brittany, as has frequently been stated, 
but at St. Cere, in the department of the 
Lot. He entered the military school at 
St. Cyr in 1826, and having distinguished 
himself there, joined the army as a pri- 
vate soldier, and was soon made sub-lieu- 
tenant of the 47th regiment of the line. He 
became lieutenant in 1832, and in 1835 
embarked for Africa, and took part in the 
expedition to Mascara. His services in 
the provinces of Oran were rewarded 
with a captaincy. He was in the breach 
at the attack on Constantine, and was 
wounded in the leg. He received the 
decoration of the Legion of Honour 
about this time. In 1846 he became 
Lieutenant-Colonel, and commanded the 
64th regiment of the line, which was 
charged to act against the formidable 
Bou Maza. In 1847 he was made colonel 
of the 3rd regiment of light infantry, 
and in 1848 was intrusted with the com- 
mand of the expedition against Ahmed- 
Sghir. who had rallied the tribes of the 
Bouaounin insuiTection. Colonel Can- 
robert pushed forward as far as the pass 
of Djerma, defeated the Arabs there, took 
two sheiks prisoners, and then returned 
to Bathna. He left the 3rd regiment 
to command a regiment of Zouaves, Avith 
whom he marched against the Kabyles, 
was again victorious, being promoted 
to the rank of General of Brigade, 
at the beginning of 1850 he led an ex- 
pedition against Narah. The Arabs here, 
eagle-like, had their nests among the 
rocks. Canrobert advanced three col- 
umns to attack the enemy in his retreat, 
and so skilfully combined their fire, that 
in seven hours the Arab stronghold was 
destroyed. Louis Napoleon, when Presi- 
dent, appointed Canrobert one of his 
aides-de-camp ; and, shortly after the 
wholesale proscriptions and imprison- 
ments which followed the coup d'etat of 



Dec. 2, 1851, gave him a commission, and 
very extensive powers, to visit the prisons, 
and select objects of his clemency. Upon 
the formation of the Army of the East in 
1854. he was appointed to the command of 
the first division in the Crimea. His 
troops took part in the battle of the 
Alma, and he was himself wounded by a 
splinter of a shell, which struck him on 
the breast and hand. Marshal St. Arnaud 
resigned six days after the first battle in 
the Crimea, and the command of the 
Army of the East was transferred to 
General Canrobert. Although Commander- 
in-chief, General Canrobert was again in 
the thickest of the fight at Inkerman 
(Nov. 5), and whilst heading the impetuous 
charge of Zouaves was slightly wounded, 
and had a horse killed under him. In 
May, 1855, finding that impaired health 
no longer permitted him to hold the chief 
command in the Crimea, he resigned to 
General Pelissier, and soon after returned 
to France. He was treated with great 
distinction by the Emperor Napoleon, and 
was sent on a mission to the courts of 
Denmark and Sweden. At the beginning 
of the Italian war, in 1859, General Can- 
robert received the command of the 3rd 
corps of the Army of the Alps. He 
exposed himself to great danger at 
Magenta, and at Solferino had to effect 
a movement which brought valuable 
assistance to General Niel. General 
Canrobert was afterwards made a Mar- 
shal of France, Grand Cross of the 
Legion of Honour, and an Honorary 
Knight Grand Cross of the Bath. In 
June, 1862, he commanded at the camp of 
Chalons, and succeeded the Marshal de 
Castellane in command of the 4th corps 
d'armee at Lyons, Oct. 14. Subsequently, 
he was appointed Commander-in-Chief of 
the Army of Paris. At the time of the 
declaration of war by France against 
Prussia, in 1870, he had the command of 
an army corps. Marshal Canrobert was 
shut up in Metz, with Marshal Bazaine, 
and on the capitulation of that fortress, 
he was sent prisoner into Germany. After 
the preliminaries of peace had been signed 
he returned to France, where he met with 
a favourable reception from M. Thiers, 
who did not, however, appoint him to 
any command. After having declined 
the offer of a candidature for the National 
Assembly in 1874, in the Gironde, and in 
1875 in the Lot, Marshal Canrobert, after 
some hesitation, allowed his name to be 
proposed in the department of Lot, at the 
Senatorial elections of Jan. 30, 1876, by 
the party of the Appeal to the People, 
and on the second scriitiny he was elected 
by 212 votes out of 385 electors. His 
term of office expired in Jan., 1879^ when 

he again became a candidate for the 
department of Lot, but was defeated. 
Later in the same year, however, he was 
elected Senator for Charente, in the room 
of the late M. Hennessy, the distiller. 
He accepted this unsolicited election as 
" a homage paid to the army in the per- 
son of the doyen of its chiefs." In 1860 
Marshal Canrobert married Miss Mac- 
donald, a Scotch lady. 

CANTEEBURY, Archbishop of. See 
Benson, The Most Kev. Edvfard White. 

CANTtr, Cesare, historian, was born at 
Brivio, near Milan, Dec. 1804. He is the 
eldest of ten brothers, to whom he very 
early had to be a father. He studied in 
Milan at the Alexander Lyceum (now 
Beccaria), and, when only seventeen years 
of age, he became Professor of Literature 
in the College of Sondrio, in the Valteline, 
whence he went to Como, and thence to 
Milan. He embraced the Liberal cause, 
and his " Reflections on the History of 
Lombardy in the Seventeenth Century," 
published at Milan, excited the hostility 
of the Austrian Government, and he was 
imprisoned for three years. This work, 
published in Turin, has passed through 
ten editions, besides pirated editions and 
translations ; and though it brought him 
many laurels, it brought him likewise 
many thorns. In his captivity he wrote 
an historical romance, " Margherita Pus- 
terla," 1835, a work which has often been 
compared to the " Promessi Sposi," of 
Manzoni. He has composed varioiis reli- 
gious hymns, and his poem " Algiso," his 
" Lettiire Giovanelli," which passed 
through more than thirty editions, f.nd 
the articles which he has contributed to 
the " Biblioteca Italiana"and the " In- 
dicatore " of Milan, have popularized his 
name throughout Italy. He belongs to 
what has been called the Romantic 
School, founded by Manzoni and Silvio 
Pellico. He has also published " Storia 
Universale," which has been translated 
into English, French, and German ; "His- 
tory of Italian Literatiire," 1851 ; " His- 
tory of the last Hundred Years," 1852 ; 
" History of the Italians," 1859 ; " Mi- 
lano, Storia del Popolo e pel Popolo," 
1871 ; " Cronistoria della Independenza 
Italiana," 3 vols., 1873 ; " Commento 
Storico ai Promessi Sposi [di Alessandro 
Manzoni], o la Lombardia nel secolo 
XVIL," 1874 ; " Donato ed Ercole Silva, 
Conti di Biandrate ; cenni biografici," 
conjointly with C. Rovida, 1876 ; and 
" Caratteri Storici," 1881. 

CAPEL, The Right Reverend Monsignor 
Thomas John, D.D., was born Oct. 28, 



183G. Having completed his education 
by six years' private tuition under the 
Rev. J. M. Glennie, B.A. Oxon., in the 
autumn of 1860 he was ordained priest by 
Cardinal Wiseman. In Jan., 185-i, he 
became co-founder and Vice-Principal of 
St. Mary's Xormal College at Hammer- 
smith. Shortly after ordination he was 
obliged to go to a southern climate to re- 
cruit his strength. When there, at Pau, 
he established the English Catholic Mis- 
sion, and was formally appointed its 
chaplain. Subsequently, his health hav- 
ing improved, he returned to London, 
where his sermons and doctrinal lectures 
in various churches, and more especially 
at the Pro-Cathedral at Kensington, soon 
raised him to the foremost rank among 
English preachers. Diu-ing several visits 
to Rome he also delivered courses of 
English sermons in that city by the ex- 
press command of the Sovereign Pontiff. 
Monsignor Capel, while labouring at Pau 
in the work of " conversions," was named 
private chamberlain to Pope Pius IX. in 
1868, and after his return to England 
domestic prelate in 1S73. With return- 
ing health Monsignor Capel once more 
took to the work of education, and in 
Feb., 1873, established the EomanCatholic 
Public School at Kensington. He was ap- 
pointed Eector of the College of Higher 
Studies at Kensington — the nucleus of the 
Eoman Catholic English University — in 
1874, by the unanimous voice of the Eoman 
Catholic Bishops, and he held that ap- 
pointment until he resigned it in 1878. 
Then having delivered a series of confer- 
ences on the Doctrines of the Eoman 
Catholic Church in Florence by the wish 
of Leo XIII., Monsignor Capel carried out 
his long-proposed visit to America. There, 
in all the great cities, he lectured and 
preached to large audiences on religious, 
social, political, and literary subjects. In 
1882, Monsignor Capel wrote " Great 
Britain and Eome," urging the import- 
ance of having a Papal Nuncio accredited 
to England, and during his tour in America 
he published treatises on " Confession," 
"The Holy Catholic Church," •' The Xame 
Catholic," " The Pope the Head of the 
Christian Church," besides re-editing the 
well-known work, " Faith of Catholics." 

CUCCULI, General Georg Leo von, the new 
German Chancellor, is the eldest of the 
four sons of Julius Edward von Caprivi, 
who was a high legal functionary in the 
service of the Prussian State. Genei-al 
von Caprivi was born at Charlottenburg 
on Feb. 21, 1S31. Entering a general 
regiment in his 18th year, he won rapid 
promotion and served with distinction in 

I the campaigns of 1864 and 1866. In 1870 
he acted as Chief of the Staff to the 10th 
Corps, of which he is now the Commander, 
and reaped fresh laurels in all the battles 
on the Loire. Swiftly ascending the other 
steps of the military ladder, he was ap- 
pointed in 1883 to the command of the 
30th Division at Metz ; and next year, 
passing at a single bound from the army 
to the navy, he succeeded to Herr von 
Stosch, on the latter's retirement from 
the head of the Admiralty. In a short 
tune naval men by profession were amazed 
at the mastery of their art and the per- 
ception of their interests which were dis- 
played by a mere landsman and soldier 
like von Caprivi, and his administration 
conclusively proved at least that here 
was a man with a rare power of adapting 
himself to new modes and lines of activity, 
a faculty which will render less strange 
and less dangerous his transition from 
soldiering to diplomacy and statesman- 
ship. Soon after the present Em2)eror's 
accession, on the death of Count Monts, 
he reorganised the navy ; the command of 
the Imperial fleet being vested in Admiral 
von der Goltz, while something like a 
ministry of marine was created under 
Eear-Admiral von Heusner ; and it was 
on this occasion that General von Caprivi, 
sharing in the redistribution of military 
commands, returned to his first love, and 
was rewarded for his loyalty thereto, no 
less than for his naval services, with the 
10th or Hanoverian Army Corps, which 
is one of the finest in the whole army. 
During the manoeuvres of the autumn of 
1889, when the Hanoverians and West- 
phalians met in mimic warfare, wath smoke- 
less powder and other innovations on their 
trial, the Emperor had opportunity enough 
anew to study the character of General 
von Caprivi, and this general's character 
and ability to serve him in a political 
capacity must have fairly convinced his 
Majesty, otherwise he would never have 
asked him to assume the enormous burden 
of responsibility which Prince Bismarck 
had laid down. It was not without 
grave scruples and self -distrust that 
General von Caprivi listened to the flat- 
tering proposals of the Emperor ; but his 
Majesty, it is said, had finally decided to 
have a soldier for his new Chancellor, 
thinking, as he does, with Frederick the 
Great, that a General must be the surest 
conductor of a foreign policy, as knowing 
best how far he can go with the army 

behind him. 

a native of Constantinople, belongs to 
one of the most distinguished families of 
the Greek community in the Turkish 



capital, and through his wife, is connected 
with the noble family of the Aristarchi. 
He was brought up at Constantinople 
and was sixteen years of age when he was 
sent to the West of Europe to complete 
his studies. On his return to Turkey he 
was employed in the Government offices 
of the Sublime Porte, and soon attracted 
notice by his assiduity and intelligence. 
In several capitals of Europe he occupied 
the post of First Secretary of Embassy, 
and he was appointed, for the first time. 
Under Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs during the Grand- Vizieriat of the 
late A'ali Pacha. About this period he 
was nominated Minister of the Sultan at 
the Court of Rome, where he resided for 
two years. He was recalled to occupy, 
for the second time, the post of Under 
Secretary of State for Foreign Aifairs, 
and was sent, as chief plenipotentiary 
of Turkey, to the Congress of the Great 
Powers which assembled at Berlin in 
1878 to revise the provisions of the 
Treaty of San Stefano. He had been 
previously raised to the rank of muchir. 
Afterwards he became Minister of Public 
Works, and in Nov. 1878 he was appointed 
Governor-General of Crete. 

CAEINI, Isidore, was born at Palermo 
(Sicily) on January 7th, 1843, and ordained 
Priest in 1860, Canon of the Cathedral of 
Palermo in 1875, Professor of Paleography 
and Curator of the Archives of Palermo 
in 1877. In 1882 he was sent by the 
Government into Spain to collect and 
publish documents relative to the Sicilian 
Vespers ; and recalled to Rome by His 
Holiness Leo XIII. as assistant archivist 
and first Professor of Paleography at the 
new Vatican school in 1884. In 1889 he 
was appointed Premier Prefet at the 
Vatican Library. Canon Carini has been 
a prolific writer not merely upon archaeo- 
logical subjects but also on religion, 
literature, languages, bibliography, &c. 
He is member of various literary societies, 
and for his services during the cholera in 
Palermo in 18S5 received a gold medal 
from the King of Italy. 

CAELE. See Sadow, Victoeien. 

CABLING, Hon. John, a Canadian 
Statesman, was born at London, Ontario, 
Jan. 23, 1828. He entered the Canadian 
Parliament in 1857, was made Receiver- 
General in 18G2, held office as Minister 
of Agriculture and Public Works in 
Ontario from 1867 to 1871, was sworn of 
the Privy Council, and was Postmaster- 
General from 1882 to 1S85, since which 
year he has been Minister of Agriculture 
of the Dominion. 

CARLINGFOED (Lord), The Right Hon. 
Chichester Samuel Parkinson Fortescue, 
K.P., is the youngest son of the late 
Lieutenant-Colonel Chichester Fortescue, 
of Ravensdale Park, co. Louth, some time 
member for Hillsborough in the Irish 
Parliament, and brother of Lord Clare- 
mont, to whose Irish title Lord Carlingf ord 
stands as heir presumptive. His mother 
was Martha, daughter of the late Mr. 
Samuel Meade Hobson, of the city of 
Waterford. He was born Jan. 18, 1823, 
and educated at Eton, and at Christ 
Church, Oxford, (B.A., 1844; M.A., 1847). 
He obtained a first class in classical 
honoxirs, and in 1846 gained the Chancel- 
lor's prize for an English essay on 
the " Effects of the Conquest of England 
by the Normans." He entered Parlia- 
ment at the general election of 1847 as 
one of the members for the county of 
Louth, which he represented, in the Lib- 
eral interest, till Feb. 1874, when he was 
defeated. Mr. Chichester Fortescue held 
a Junior Lordship of the Treasury under 
Lord Aberdeen in 1854-55 ; the Under 
Secretaryship of State for the Colonies in 
1857-58 ; and again in 1859-65. He was 
sworn a member of the Privy Council in 
1864. In 1865 he was made Chief 
Secretary for Ireland, and he held that 
post down to June, 1866. On the forma- 
tion of Mr. Gladstone's Cabinet in Dec. 
1868, he resumed that office, from which 
he was transferred in 1870 to the 
Presidency of the Board of Trade. 
Just before retiring from office, in Feb. 
1874, Mr. Gladstone recommended the 
Queen to bestow a peerage on Mr. 
Chichester Fortescue, who was accord- 
ingly created Baron Carlingf ord. In 
consequence of the introduction of Mr. 
Gladstone's Irish Land Bill in AjDril, 1881, 
the Duke of Argyll resigned his seat in 
the Cabinet and his office of Lord Privy 
Seal. Lord Carlingford was thereupon 
ai^pointed to succeed his Grace in that 
office, and towards the close of the 
Parliamentary Session he had charge of 
the Land Bill. In 1883 he succeeded 
Lord Spencer as President of the Council ; 
but resigned office with his party in 1885. 
He married, in 1863, Frances Lady 
Waldegrave, and was left a widower in 

CARLISLE, Bishop of. See Goodwin, 
The Right Rev. Harvey. 

CARLISLE, John Griffin, American 
Statesman, was born in Campbell (now 
Kenton) County, Kentucky, Sept. 5, 1835. 
He received a common school education, 
studied law, and began its practice in 
1858. From 1859 to 1861 he was a 



member of the Kentucky House of Repre- 
sentatives, and of the State Senate from 
1800 to 1871. resigning his seat to accept 
the office of Lieut. -Governor, to which he 
was elected in Aug. 1871, and which he 
occupied until 1S75. In 1870 he was 
elected a member of the lower branch of 
Congress, where he continued to sit until 
May, 1890, when he was sent to the 
United States Senate to fill the unexpired 
term of the late Senator Beck (to 1895). 
From 188.3 to 1889 he was the (Democratic) 
Speaker of the House of Representatives. 

CARLOS (Don), Duke of Madrid (Carlos 
Maria de los Dolores Juan Isidoro Josef 
Francesco Quirino Antonio Miguel Gabriel 
Kafael), who claims to be the legitimate 
King of Spain by the title of Charles VII., 
was born March 30, 1848. His father, 
Don Juan, was the brother of Don Carlos 
(Charles VI.), kno^vn as the Count de 
Montemolin, in support of whose claims 
the Carlists risings of 1848, 1835, and 
1800 were organised. As Charles VI. died 
without children, Jan. 13, 1801, his rights 
devolved upon his brother, Don Juan, 
who had married, on Feb. 0, 1847, the 
Archduchess Maria Teresa of Austria, 
Princess of Modena. Their son, the 
present Don Carlos, who was educated 
principally in Austria, married, on Feb. 
4, 1807, Margaret de Bourbon, of Bourbon, 
Princess of Parma, daughter of the late 
Duke Ferdinand Charles III., Made- 
moiselle de France, Duchess of Parma, 
and sister of the late Comte de Chambord 
(Henry V. of France). In Oct. 1868, Don 
Juan abdicated in favour of his son, whose 
standard was i-aised in the nox'th of 
Spain by some of his partisans, April 21, 
1872. On July 10, in that year, Don 
Cai-los published a ijroclamation, addressed 
to the inhabitants of Catalonia, Aragon, 
and Valentia, calling upon them to take 
up arms in his cause, and promising to 
restore to them their ancient liberties ; 
and in the following December Don 
Alfonzo, the Vjrother of Don Carlos, 
assumed the command of the Carlist 
bands in Catalonia. Don Carlos himself 
made his entry into Spain, July 15, 1873, 
announcing that he came for the purpose 
of saving the country. From that period 
the war was waged with remarkable 
vigour, and the various governments 
which came into power at Madrid strove 
in vain to dislodge the Carlists from their 
strongholds in the north of Spain. 
When the Republic came to an end, and 
the eldest son of the ex-Queen Isabella 
returned to Spain as Alfonso XII., Don 
Carlos issued a i)roclamation, dated at 
his headquarters at Vera, Jan. 0, 1875, 
calling upon Spain to adhere to his side. 

The contest was carried on with great 
stubbornness and gallantry by the 
Carlists for more than a twelvemonth 
after that ; but in January, 1876, Tolosa, 
their last stronghold, fell, and its 
defenders, flying in disorder, sought 
refuge on French territory. Don Carlos 
went to Paris, but on July 18, 1881, was 
expelled from France on the ground of 
his having ostentatiously allied himself 
with the partisans of the Comte de 
Chambord. Since the death of Alfon- 
so XII., Don Carlos has not actively 
come forward as a pretender. Don Carlos 
has five children — the Infanta Blanca, 
born Sept. 7, 1808 ; the Infante Jaime, 
Prince of the Asturias, born June 27, 
1870 ; the Infanta Elvira, born July 28, 
1871 ; the Infanta Beatrix, born March 
21, 1874 ; and the Infanta Alii, born 
June 29, 1876. 

CARMEN, Sylva. See Elizabeth, 
Queen of Roumania. 

CARNEGIE, Andrew, the " Iron King." 
an American manufacturer, was born 
at Dunfermline, Scotland, Nov. 25, 
1835. His family removed to the 
United States in 1845 and settled at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., and two years later 
Andrew began his business career by 
attending a small stationary engine. 
This he soon left to become a telegraph 
messenger, and later he became an 
operator. While clerk of the superin- 
tendent of the telegraph lines of the 
Pennsylvania R. R. Co. at Pittsburgh, 
he aided in the adoption by that company 
of the Woodi'uff sleeijing-car, and this 
gave him the nucleus of his present great 
fortune. He was made superintendent 
of the Pittsburgh division of the Pennsyl- 
vania road, and soon afterwards acquired 
an interest in some oil wells that proved 
very profitable. Subsequently he became 
associated with others in establishing a 
rolling-mill, which has grown to be the 
largest and most complete system of iron 
and steel industries in the world ever 
controlled by one individual. Besides 
directing these gx-eat entei-prises, he is 
the owner of a number of English papers 
which are edited in the interests of 
I'adicalism. He has spent large sums of 
money for educational and charitable 
purposes. At his native place he erected, 
in 1879, commodious swimming baths for 
the use of the peoijle, and in the 
following year gave it |40,OOU for a free 
library. He gave |50,000 in 1884 to the 
Bellevue Hospital Medical College at 
New York for a histological laboratory. 
In 1885 he gave $500,000 for a public 
library at Pittsburgh, and in 1880 $250,000 



for a music hall and library at Alleghany 
City, Pa. A large music hall is now 
(1890) being built in New York through 
his generosity. Edinburgh has also re- 
ceived $250,000 from him for a free 
library ; and other libraries have been 
established by him at Braddock, Pa., 
and elsewhere. His latest benefaction is 
the gift of $50,000 for a public library at 
Ayr. He has frequently contributed to 
periodicals on the labour question and 
similar economic topics, and has pub- 
lished in book form " An American Pour- 
in-Hand in Britain," 1883; "Round the 
World," 1884; and " Triumi^hant Democ- 
racy," 188G. 

CARNOT, Marie Francois Sadi, Presi- 
dent of the French Republic, was born at 
Limoges, in Aug. 1837. He is a grandson 
of Carnot, "the organiser of victory" 
under the French Convention, and is a 
civil engineer by profession. At the age 
of twenty he entered as a student the 
Ecole Polytechnique, and passed with 
distinction to a school for special instruc- 
tion in the building of roads and bridges. 
During the siege of Paris in 1871, he was 
appointed Prefect of the Seine Inf erieure, 
and as Commissary-General gave valu- 
able assistance in organising the defences 
of that department. In Feb., 1871, he 
took his seat in the National Assembly 
as deputy for Cote d'Or, and subse- 
quently for Beaune. In 1886 he took 
office in the Brisson Cabinet as Finance 
Minister. On the resignation of M. 
(jrrevy, in Dec, 1887, M. Carnot was 
elected President of the Reioublic. 

CAROLUS-DURAN, Emile Auguste, 
French painter, was born at Lille, July 
4, 1838. He i-eceived his early art edu- 
cation at the Municipal School in his 
native town, and in 1855 went to Paris. 
He gained the Wicar travelling scholar- 
ship and went to Italy, and at Rome 
painted " La Priere du Soir," exhibited 
at the Salon in 1863. For "L'Assassine," 
1866, he was awarded his first medal. 
This picture Avas purchased by the 
Government for the Museum at Lille. 
M. Carolus-Duran resided for a year in 
Spain, and the influence of Velasquez is 
clearly seen in his St. Francis of Assisi, 
exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1868. 
But the fame of Carolus-Duran rests 
principally on his portraits, which are 
very numerous, and executed with a 
power and dash which are undeniable, 
whatever we may think of their refine- 
ment or grace. Among them may be 
mentioned that of Emile Girardin, those 
of his daughters, and the equestrian 
portrait of Mdlle. Croizette, the well- 

known actress, 
the Legion of 
foreign orders. 

He is a Commander of 
Honour, and of several 

CARPENTER, Alfred, M.D., was born 

at Rothwell, Northamptonshire, May 28, 
1825, educated at Moulton Grammar 
School, Lincolnshire, then at Northamp- 
ton Infirmary, and thence he went to St. 
Thomas's Hospital. He was the success- 
ful competitor for the first scholarship 
given at that school, and at the end of 
his course gained the Treasurer's Gold 
Medal. He also held in succession the 
posts of Resident Accoucheur and House 
Surgeon, and was Assistant Medical Officer 
during Mr. Whitfield's absence. He took 
the M.R.C.S. and L.S.A. diplomas in 1851, 
and in 1852 became associated in practice 
with the late Dr. Westall, of Croydon, 
where he has since continued to reside. 
He graduated M.B. at the University of 
London in 1855, and M.D. in 1859, and 
became a member of the Royal College of 
Physicians in 1883. In 1859 he was 
appointed a member of the Croydon 
Local Board of Health, on which he 
continued to serve, acting occasionally as 
chairman, until his election as President 
of the Council of the British Medical 
Association in 1879. In 1870 he was 
appointed a magistrate for Surrey. In 
1878 he was Orator of the Medical Society 
of London, and has been a member 
of various medical and sanitary societies. 
Dr. Carpenter was Examiner in Public 
Health in the University of London, 
and has been during the past six years 
an Examiner in Public Health for the 
University of Cambridge, and was a 
member of the Court of Examiners at the 
Apothecaries' Company for the usual term 
of years. In 1881 he was nominated a 
member of the Royal Commission 
appointed to inquire into the condition 
of the London Hospitals for small-pox 
and fever cases, and into the means of 
preventing the spread of infection. 
Among his literary productions are : " A 
History of Sanitary Progress in Croy- 
don," 1856 ; " Hints on House Drainage," 
1866 ; " Physiological and Mechanical 
Aspect of Sewage Irrigation ; " " Alco- 
holic Drinks as Diet, as Medicines, and 
as Poisons ; " " Influence of Sewer Gas 
on Public Health ; " " Causation of 
Epidemic Disease ; " " Address on Public 
Medicine," delivered before the British 
Medical Association at Sheffield in 1876 ; 
" The First Principles of Sanitary 
Work ; " a paper on " Fogs and London 
Smoke," read before the Society of Arts 
in Nov. 1880 ; " Health at School ; " and 
a series of articles on " School Surgery " 
in the Practical Teacher. 



CABPENTEK, Philip Herbert, M.A., 
D.Sc, F.E.S., fourth son of the late 
W. B. Carpenter, M.D., C.B., F.E.S., 
was born in London on Feb. 6, 1852 ; 
educated at University College School, 
University College, and Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; elected scholar of the Col- 
lege in 1871, and graduated as B.A. in the 
first-class, of the Natural Science Tripos 
of 1874, proceeding to the further degrees 
of M.A. in 1878, and D.Sc. in 18S-i ; and 
studied at the University of Wiirzburg 
during 1875-77, and in the latter year 
was appointed Assistant Master at Eton 
College, being eaisecially charged with 
the teaching of biology, which post he 
now holds. He was a member of the 
scientific staff of the deep sea exploring ex- 
peditions of H.M.' " Lightning " ( 186S ) 
and "Porcupine" (18G9-70) ; and in 1875 
was appointed Assistant Naturalist 
in H.M.S. "Valorous," which accom- 
panied Sir G. Nares' Arctic expedition to 
Disco Island, and spent the summer 
sounding and dredging in Davis Strait 
and the North Atlantic. He has devoted 
himself continuously since 1875 to 
studying the morphology of the Echino- 
derms, more especially of the Crinoids, 
both recent and fossil ; in 1883 was 
awarded the Lyell Fund by the Geological 
Society of London in recognition of the 
value of his work ; and in 1885 was 
elected a Fellow of the Eoyal Society. 
His chief publications are : — " Notes on 
Echinoderm Morphology," I. -XI., 1878- 
87 ; " On the Genus Actinometra," 
1877 ; " Report upon the Crinoidea 
dredgedby H.M.'ss. 'Challenger,'" Parti., 
"The Stalked Crinoids," 1885 ; Part II., 
" The Comatulse," 1888 ; " Report upon 
the Comatulse dredged by the U.S. Coast 
Survey in the Caribbean Sea," 1890. 
Also, in conjunction with Mr. R. Ethe- 
ridge, jun.: — "Catalogue of the Blastoidea 
in the Geological Department of the 
British Museum," 18SG ; likewise numer- 
ous smaller papers published in the Pro- 
ceedings or Transactions of the Royal, 
Linnean, and Geological Societies. 

CARPENTER, The Right Rev. William 
Boyd, D.D., D.C.L., Bishop of Ripon, 
born about 1841, was educated at St. 
Catharine's College, Cambridge (B.A. 
1864, M.A. 1867). After holding various 
curacies he was, in 1870, appointed Vicar 
of St. James's, HoUoway, where he 
remained until, in 1879, he became Vicar 
of Christ Church, Lancaster Gate, W. 
He was Select Preacher at Cambridge 
in 1875 and 1877 ; Hulsean Lecturer 
at Cambridge 1878 ; Honorary Chaplain 
to the Queen. 1878 ; Select Preacher 
at Oxford -in 1882 ; Bampton Lecturer, 

1887 ; and received from the University 
of Oxford an honorary D.C.L. in 1889. 
In 1882 he was appointed to a vacant 
canonry at Windsor. On the death of 
the late Dr. Bickersteth he was, in 1884, 
consecrated Bishop of Ripon. He pre- 
sided over the Church Congress held at 
"Wakefield in 188G ; and in 1887 he was 
selected by the House of Commons to 
preach the Jubilee Sermon at St. Mar- 
garet's, Westminster. He is the author 
\ of " Thoughts on Prayer," "Narcissus," 
i " Heart Healing," " The Witness of the 
: Heart to Christ," " Truth in Tale," and 
" The Permanent Elements of Religion." 

CARR, Joseph William Comyn8. was 
born in 1849. In 1870 he matriculated at 
the London University, and afterwards 
passed in the honours division of the 
first examination for the degree of 
Bachelor of Laws. He became a student 
of the Inner Temple in 1SG9, and was 
called to the Bar in 1872, having gained 
a studentship in Roman and Inter- 
national Law at the Inns of Court. Mr. 
Comyns Carr then joined the Northern 
Circuit, but shortly afterwards ceased to 
practice at the Bar, and devoted himself 
to literature and journalism. From 1870 
to 1880 he was a constant contributor to 
the principal literary reviews and maga- 
zines. Writing especially upon subjects 
connected with art, he held for some 
years the post of Art Critic on the Pall 
Mall Gazette, and in 1875 he accepted the 
English editorship of L'Art. He was 
also associated with Sir Coutts-Lindsay 
in the establishment of the Grosvenor 
; Gallery, and has since remained one of 
the Directors of that Institution. His 
works on art include " Drawings by the 
Old Masters/' 1877; " The Abbey Church 
of St. Albans," 1878 ; " Examples of 
Contemporary Art," 1878 ; " Essays on 
Art," " Art in Provincial Prance," 18S3 ; 
and "Papers on Art," 1884. In recent 
years Mr. Carr has also written for the 
stage. In 1882 he produced a dramatised 
version of Mr. Hardy's novel " Far from 
the Madding Crowd ; " and in 1884 
he collaborated with the late Hugh 
Conway in the drama of " Called Back," 
founded upon the popular story of that 

CARRODUS, John Tiplady, was bom 
January 20, 183G, at Braitliwaite, near 
Keighley, Yorkshire. At twelve years 
of age he went to study the violin with 
Bernhard Molique in S'tuttgart, having 
received instruction before that from his 
father, a musical enthusiast, in Keighley. 
He remained with Molique in Germany, 
and later in London, until the year 1854. 



His first important public appearance was 
in the Hanover Square Rooms, at a 
concert given by Charles Salaman in 
1849. Subsequently his friends in Brad- 
ford strongly urged his claim to appear 
at the first Bradford Festival in 185:5, 
and, backed by a testimonial obtained 
from Spohr, he played a solo conducted 
by Costa, after which he was engaged at 
the Royal Italian Opera, Philharmonic 
Concerts, and Charles Halle's Manchester 
orchestra. Eventually he became leader 
of all three of these societies, and has 
played concertos at the Philharmonic, 
Crystal Palace, and other important 
musical societies, including leading the 
oi-chestra and playing violin solos at the 
Three Choir and Leeds Festivals. He has 
published some violin solos and studies. 
He has several sons, who all hold posi- 
tions of distinction in the musical world. 

CARRUTHERS, William, F.R.S., F.L.S., 
was born at Moffat, Scotland, in 183u, 
and educated at the Academy there, and 
afterwards at the University and New 
College, Edinburgh. He entered the 
British Miiseum as Assistant in the 
Department of Botany iia 1859 ; and 
succeeded Mr. J. J. Bennett, as keeper of 
that Department, on his retirement in 
1871. Mr. Carruthers has conducted 
many original investigations on living 
and fossil plants, and has published 
numerous memoirs on fossil botany in 
the journals and transactions of learned 
societies. He re-edited Lindley and 
Hutton's " Fossil Flora," and was after- 
wards engaged in jjreparing an account 
of the fossil plants of Britain, supple- 
mentary to that work. 

CART WRIGHT, Sir Richard John, 
K.C.M.Gr., Canadian statesman, was 
born at Kingston, Dec. 4, 1835. He 
was educated at his native city and 
at Trinity College, Dublin, and entered 
the Canadian Parliament as a Con- 
servative in 1863, but in 1870 left 
that party, and has since been one of 
the Liberal leaders of the Dominion. In 
1873 he was made Minister of Finance in 
the Mackenzie Government, an office he 
retained until the general defeat of the 
Liberals in 1878. Since that time he has 
held no office other than his membership 
in Parliament. In 1879 he was created a 
Knight Commander of the Order of St. 
Michael and St. George. 

CARVALHO. See Miolan-Carvalho, 
Madame, M. C. 

CAS ATI, Gaetano, is the son of a doctor 
at Monza, where he was born in 1838. 

He studied at Monza, Milan, and Pavia, 
devoting himself more especially to 
mathematics. When one-and-twenty, 
inspired by the youthful ardour of those 
days for the independence of Italy, he 
became a soldier in Piedmont, joining the 
corps of Bersagliere. He obtained ad- 
vancement, and in 18G7 was elevated to 
the rank of captain. But service in the 
army did not offer him sufficient scope 
for his energy. He set his mind on 
becoming an African explorer, and to 
this end gave in his resignation in 1879. 
Regarded as a man of great promise and 
capacity, he was commissioned by the 
Societa. d'Esplorazione Commerciale 
d'Africa to proceed to that country at 
their expense, and he sailed from Genoa 
on Dec. 24, 1879. He went by way of 
Suakin and Berber to Khartoum, where he 
arrived about the middle of May, 1880, 
his immediate object being to reach the 
Bahr-el-Gazelle, and there see his fellow- 
countryman, Gessi Pacha, then governor 
of that particular region. In this he 
succeeded, and the meeting of the two 
was of a touching character. Gessi soon 
afterwards nursed Casati through a 
dangerous fever, paying him the most 
devoted attention, and refusing to leave 
him until he was thoroughly restored to 
health. Then, however, Gessi moved on 
to Khartoum, intending to return to 
Europe, though he got no further than 
Suez, where he died. After Gessi's 
departure Casati had another severe 
attack of fever, this time of prolonged 
duration, but he was able on Oct. 14, 

1880, to proceed to Rumbeck. After this 
nothing was heard about him by his friends 
until a letter reached them from Tangasi, 
dated Dec. 29, 1881, stating that he had 
been kept a prisoner by a certain chief, 
Azanga by name, and had only succeeded 
in making his escajie on the 7th of that 
month. Getting on the march again in 

1881, Casati made his way to the Niam- 
Niam territory, which lies immediately 
to the west of what was once Emin 
Pacha's province, and has since been 
visited and described by George Schwein- 
furth. In a letter dated April 13, 1883, 
Casati describes his cordial reception Vjy 
Emin Pacha at Lado, where he saw also 
Junker, the Russian exjalorer. Emin 
Pacha, he says, treated him with " rare 
liberality and generosity." At that time, 
however, the Mahdi was assuming a very 
threatening attitude, and thus the three 
Europeans fovmd themselves " united but 
shut in " in this extreme corner of the 
Egyptian i:)ossessioiis. Two expeditions 
were organized to effect their rescue, one 
conducted by Dr. Fischer, which got as 
far as the east of Victoria Nyanza, and 



then had to return for the want of the 
requisite goods for barter ; and the otlier 
lecl by Dr. Lenz, who proceeded by way 
of the Congo, but also was obliged to 
abandon his attempt, leaving, as we all 
know, the real honours of the rescue to 
be obtained by Stanley. At the request 
of Eniin Pacha he went to live as " resi- 
dent" in the territory of King Kabba 
Eega, son of M'tesa, of Unyoro. In this 
capacity part of his duty was to play the 
role of Eniin's postmaster. Emin for- 
warded to him all his corresijondence for 
Europe, and he had to devise the means 
as best he could by which it was to be 
sent to the coast. At first Casati was 
well treated by the king ; but, after the 
lajise of about twenty months, Kabba 
Eega changed his humour, and condemned 
him to death, together with an Arab 
merchant named Biri, who, Casati heard, 
was actually killed. Casati, however, 
though at first tied with cords round his 
neck, arms, and legs, managed to escajie 
with some of his men. Chased from 
place to place he got over sufficient 
ground during the night to reach at last 
the Albert Nyanza, where lay his sole 
hojje of safetj% though even there he ran 
the risk of being caught by a certain 
chief in that region who, as he heard, had 
received orders from the king to capture 
and murder him. Hapi^ily they found a 
boat, in which one of the men went off to 
tell Emin Pacha what had happened. 
Two days afterwai*ds Emin Pacha arrived 
in his steamer, and rescued Casati from 
his jDerilous situation. It was high time. 
For three days Casati had not had a 
morsel of food to eat. " I am now in 
safety, it is true," wrote he from the 
Albert Nyanza on March 25, 1888, " but I 
am oppressed with grief at the loss of all 
my notes. The work of so many years 
has vanished like smoke ! " But Casati 
had previously sent home sufficient in- 
formation to show that he had already 
done valuable service to the cause of 
African exploration. 

CASELLI, Giovanni, an Italian elec- 
trician, born in 1815. He received the 
elements of his knowledge of physics from 
Leopoldo Nobili, whose biography he pub- 
lished in 1837. In 183G he became a 
deacon in the Romish Church, and sub- 
sequently an Abbe; but having been 
banished from Parma for participating in 
the political disturbances of 1848, he re- 
tired to Florence, and devoted himself to 
the study of electricity. In 1856 he made 
the important invention of autographic 
telegraphy. He has also made dis- 
coveries in the use of electx'icity as a 
motive power. 

CASHEL, Bishop of, See Day, The Eight 
Eev. Maurice Fitzgerald. 

CASSAONAC, Granier de. See Gbanier 
De Cassagnac, Paul De. 

CASTELAR, Emilio, a Spanish states- 
man, and one of the most eloquent 
orators of the day, born in 1832, became 
notorious, early in his career, in conse- 
quence of his extreme democratic and 
socialistic opinions, which he expounded in 
various Liberal journals. For a time he 
was Professor of History and Philosophy 
in the Univei'Sity of Madrid, and in 18G0 
he took a leading part in the revolutionary 
movement, which was put down by 
Serrano. On this occasion he was con- 
demned to death, but he made good his 
escape, and sought refuge first at Geneva 
and afterwards in France. When the 
revolution broke out in Sept. 1868, he re- 
turned to his native country, and was one 
of the most energetic leaders of the 
republican movement. He exerted him- 
self to the utmost in order to bring about 
the establishment of a republic, but at 
the general election for the Constituent 
Cortes in Feb. 1869, the republicans suc- 
ceeded in returning only a small propor- 
tion of their candidates, among whom, 
however, was Senor Castelar. In the dis- 
cussions respecting the new constitution 
of Spain, Seiior Castelar advocated, but 
unsuccessfully, the pi-inciple of repuVjlican 
institutions. In June, 1869, he vigorously 
opposed the pi-oject of a regency, and he 
was also concerned in the republican 
insurrections which occurred in October 
of that year. In the government chosen 
by the Cortes after the abdication of 
King Aniadeo, Seiior Castelar was Minister 
of Foreign Affairs. On Aug. 24, 1873, he 
was elected President of the Cortes by 
135 votes against 73, but he vacated that 
post on Sept. 6, when he was nouiinated 
President of the Execiitive Power. His 
first measure was the prorogation of the 
Cortes and the assumption of dictatorial 
power. He next took energetic, but in- 
effectual, measures to suppress the Carlist 
insurrection, and despatched the Minister 
of War in person to Cuba to protect 
Spanish interests in that island. When, 
however, the Cortes re-assembled on Jan. 
2, 1874, it refused by 120 votes against 
100, to pass a vote of confidence in Pre- 
sident Castelar, wlio resigned. Thereupon 
General Pavia, as Captain-General of 
Madrid, forcibly dissolved the Cortes, and 
appointed a provisional government with 
Marshal Serrano at its head. Soon after 
the pronunciamiento in favour of Alfonso 
XII., Sefior Castelar quitted Madrid and 
proceeded to Geneva, Jan., 1875. While 



in that city, being disgusted at the educa- 
tional decree promulgated by the Spanish 
Government, he resigned the Chair of 
History in the University of Madrid, 
March 6, 1875. Subsequently he returned 
to Spain, and succeeded, though not with- 
out considerable difficulty, in obtaining 
a seat in the Cortes, as Deputy for Madrid, 
at the elections of Jan., 187U. Since that 
time he has spoken frequently, and always 
with effect ; but he has been a jjolitician 
without a jjarty.too advanced for Sagasta, 
and too moderate for the Zorrillists. 
He was elected a member of the Spanish 
Academy in 1871. but he did not deliver 
his reception speech till April 25, 18SU. 
Seiior Castelar has written " Ernesto, 
novela original de costumbres," 1855 ; 
" Lucano, su Vida, su Genio, su Poema," 
1857 ; " Legendas Populares," 1857 ; 
" Ideas Democraticas," 1858 ; " La Civi- 
lizacion en los cinco primeros siglos del 
Cristianismo. Lecciones pronunciadas 
en el Atenoo de Madrid," 2 vols., 1858-59 ; 
" Cronica de la Guerra de Africa," 1859 ; 
" La Eedencion del Esclavo," 1859 ; 
" Colleceion de los principales articulos 
politicos y literarios," 1859; "' Cartas a 
un Obispo sobre la Libertad de la Igiesia," 
printed in " Biblioteca de Democracia," 
1864 ; " Discurso pronunciado en la noche 
del 13 de Noviembre de 1808, con motivo 
de instalarse el Comite Republicano de 
Madrid," 1868 ; " Discursos Parlamen- 
tarios, en la Asamblea Constituyente," 13 
vols., 1871 ; " Roma vieja y nueva Italia," 
translated into English by Mrs. Arthur 
Arnold, under the title of " Old Kome 
and New Italy," 1873 ; " Semblanzas 
contemijoraneas de los personajes mas 
celebres del mundo en las Letras, las 
Ciencias y las Artes ; " " Vida de Lord 
Byron;" and " Historia de un Corazon," 
a romance. 

CASTLETOWN, (Lord) Bernard E. B. 
FitzPatrick, 2nd Baron Castletown, of 
Upper Ossory, was born in 1818, and 
educated at Eton and Oxford. He went 
through the Franco-Prussian campaign 
as assistant under the Red Cross Society, 
and was present in Paris during the earlier 
days of the Commune. From 1871-75 he 
served in the first Life Guards, and was 
with the Household Cavalry in the 
Egyptian campaign of 1882, gaining the 
medal and clasp after Tel-el-Kebir. He 
has travelled extensively in Lapland, the 
little known parts of Asia Minor, the 
Rocky Mountains, and British North 
America. He sat in Parliament for three 
years as Conservative member for Port- 
arlington, and took a prominent part in 
tli^ discussion of Irish questions. Since 
his accession to the House of Lords his 

political attitude has always been that of a 
" Moderate." In 1885 he was appointed 
Chairman of the Barrow Drainage Royal 
Commission, and he is a D.L. and J. P. for 
Queen's Co., Ireland. He mari-ied in 1875 
the Hon. Clare St. Leger, only child of 
Viscount Doneraile. 

GATES, Arthur, F.R.I. B.A., F.S.I., &c., 
architect, born in London, April 29, 1829, 
was educated at King's College School, 
and became the pupil of Sydney Smirke, 
R.A. In 1870 he succeeded Sir James 
Pennethorne as Architect to the Land 
Revenues of the Crown in London, under 
the Commissioners of Her Majesty's Woods 
and Forests. He is Surveyor to the 
Honourable Society of the Inner Temple, 
and holds other aiDpointnients. For some 
years he was Hon. Sec. to, and is now 
member of, the Council of the Society of 
Biblical Archaeology. He is Hon. Sec. to 
the Architectural Publication Society 
(" The Dictionary of Architecture "), 
and, since 1887, he has been a Vice-Pre- 
sident of the Royal Institute of British 

CAVE, The Hon. Sir Lewis William, was 

born July 3, 1832, at Desborough, in 
Northamptonshire (where his father 
owned a small estate), and was ediicated 
at Rugby, under Dr. Tait. In 1851 he 
was elected to an Exhibition at Lincoln 
College, Oxford, and took his B.A. 
degree in 1855, having been placed in 
the 2nd class classics in the final examin- 
ation. In 1850 he was admitted as a 
student at the Inner Temple, and in June 
1859 was called to the Bar. In the follow- 
ing year he joined the Midland circuit, 
and subsequently left it to join the new 
North-Eastern circuit. Mr. Cave was 
apj)ointed a revising barrister in 1805, 
and held the office until he obtained a 
silk gown in 1875. In 1873 he was ap- 
l)ointed Recorder of Lincoln. Mr. Cave 
was elected a Bencher of his Inn in 1877, 
and in the same year was made a Com- 
missioner of Assize for the autumn 
circuit. In 18SU he was appointed a 
Commissioner to inquire into the Parlia- 
mentary elections at Oxf(n'd. In March, 
1881, Mr. Cave was appointed one of the 
Justices of the High Court, and in April 
received the honour of knighthood, 
together with Mr. Justice Mathew. In 
Dec. 1883, Mr. Justice Cave was appointed 
Judge in Bankruptcy, in which position 
he had to administer the new Bankruptcy 
Act which came into operation on Jan. 1, 
1884. Mr. Justice Cave has edited 
several law books. From 1861 to 1805, 
in conjunction with the Hon. E. Chandos 
Leigh, Q.C., he edited the "Reports of 



the Court for the Consideration of Crown 
Cases Eeserved." In 1861 Mr. Cave, in 
conjunction with Mr. Bell, edited the 
seventh edition of Stone's " Practice of 
Petty Sessions." In 1869 he edited the 
sixth edition, and in 187o the seventh 
edition of Addison's " Treatise of the Law 
of Contracts," and in 1879 he edited the 
fifth edition of the same author's " Law 
of Torts." 

CAYLEY, Professor Arthur, F.E.S., 
Ph.D., Sc.D., D.C.L., LL.D., son of the 
late Henry Cayley, Russian merchant, 
of a Yorkshire family, was born at Rich- 
mond, Surrey, on Aug. 16, 1821, and 
educated at King's College, London, 
and Trinity College, Cambridge, where 
he graduated B.A., in 1812, as Senior 
Wrangler and first Smith's prizeman. 
He was elected Fellow of his College, 
was called to the Bar at Lincoln's Inn 
in 1849, and for some years practised 
as a conveyancer. In 1863, on the 
institiition of the professorship, he was 
elected Sadlerian Professor of pure mathe- 
matics in the University of Cambridge. 
He was elected an Honorary Fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and in 1875 
was re-elected to a Foundation Fellow- 
ship. He is a correspondent of the 
French Institute in the section of As- 
tronomy, and is an honorary member, 
associate, or correspondent of the Acade- 
mies of Berlin, Vienna, Rome and many 
others. He received the degree of D.C.L., 
from the University of Oxford in 1864, 
and that of LL.D. from the University of 
Dublin in 1865, and from the University 
of Edinburgh in 1884. He has also 
received the degree of Ph.D. from the 
Universities of Gottingen, Leyden, and 
Bologna, and in 1888, the degree of Sc.D. 
was conferred upon him by his own 
University. He is a past President of 
the Royal Astronomical, the London 
Mathematical and the Cambridge Philo- 
sophical Societies, and was President of 
the British Association at the meeting at 
Southport in 1883. He has received the 
Royal and Copley medals of the Royal 
Society, the De Morgan medal of the 
London Mathematical Society, and the 
Huyghens medal (Leyden). His mathe- 
matical memoirs, exceeding 800 in num- 
ber, which were originally published in 
English and Foreign mathematical 
journals and Transactions, are now in 
course of publication by the University 
of Cambridge in ten volumes quarto, 
under his own editorship. Two volumes 
are already issued (1890). He is also the 
a\ithor of a treatise on Elliptic Functions. 
His writings relate to every branch of 
pure mathematics, besides dynamics and 

astronomy. He gave, in the first half of 
the year 1882, a course of mathematical 
lectures at the John Hopkins Univ-ersity, 
Baltimore. For some years he has been 
a member of the Council of the Senate of 
the Univei'sity of Cambridge, and of the 
Press Syndicate. He is also the chair- 
man of the Association for promoting the 
higher education of women (to which 
Newnbam College belongs). In the 
present year (1890) the distinction of 
officer of the Legion of Honour has been 
conferred upon him by the President of 
the French Republic. 

CECIL, Arthur, Sec Blunt, Arthur 

CECIL, Lord Eustace Brownlow Henry, 

second surviving son of the second 
Marquis of Salisbury, by his first wife, 
was born in London, in 1834, and edu- 
cated at Harrow and Sandhurst. He 
entered the Army in 1851, served in the 
Crimea, and retired as Captain and Lieut- 
Colonel, Coldstream Guards, in 1863. He 
represented South Essex in the House of 
Commons in the Conservative interest 
from July, 1865, to December, 1S68, and 
West Essex from 1868 until 1885. In 
February, 1875, he was appointed Sur- 
veyor-General of Ordnance, which post 
he retained until the resignation of his 
party in 1880. Lord Eustace Cecil is the 
author of " Impressions of Life at Home 
and Abroad," 1865. He is a magistrate 
for Middlesex, Essex, and Dorset, and a 
county alderman of Dorset. 

CERRITO, Prancesca. See St. Lii;on, 

CESNOLA, Count, Luigi Palma di, LL.D., 
was born at Rivarolo, near Turin, Italy, 
June 29, 1832. He received a collegiate 
education, after which he was placed in a 
seminary with a view to his entering the 
priesthood. Preferring, however, a more 
active life, he left the seminary to enter 
the Sardinian Army on the outbreak of 
the war with Austria in 1848. In Feb. 
1849, he was promoted to a Lieutenancy 
on the battlefield for bravery. On the 
close of the war, he was ordered to the 
Royal Military Academy at Cheraseo 
(near Tui-in), from which he graduated 
in 1851. After serving in the army 
several years, he went to New York in 
1860, and, in 1861, was made a Lieut.- 
Colonel in the volunteer service of the 
U.S. army, and subsequently a Colonel. 
At the close of the civil war, he was ap- 
pointed American Consul at Cyprus, 
I where he remained until the consulate 
1 was abolished (1865-1877). It was while 



he occupied that position that he made 
the discovery of antiquities with which 
his name is now associated. He has been 
made an honorary member of many 
scientific and literary societies, both in 
Europe and in America, and the kings 
of Italy and Bavaria have bestowed 
knightly orders upon him. Both Colum- 
bia and Princeton Colleges conferred on 
him the degree of LL.D. In 1873 the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art in New 
York secured by purchase the Cypriote 
antiquities collected up to that date, and 
Cesnola was granted an extended leave 
of absence to visit New York and arrange 
and classify them. Keturning to Cyprus 
in 1873, he made further discoveries and 
collections, which also were seciired to 
the Metropolitan Museum. In 1877 he 
settled permanently in New York. In 
1878 he was made a Trustee of the 
Museum, and Secretary of the Board of 
Trustees. In 1879, when the museum 
was removed to Central Park, he was ap- 
pointed Director of it. He published a 
narrative of the discoveries and excava- 
tions in 1878 under the title of " Cyprus : 
its ancient cities, tombs, and temples ; " 
and in 1882 a description of the " Metro- 
politan Museum of Art." He is now, 
1890, publishing the second volume of 
the "Atlas of the Cesnola Collection," 
under the auspices of the museum. 

CHADWICK, David, was born at 
Macclesfield, Dec. 23, 1821. He was 
educated at Manchester, and in 1843 
began business as a professional 
accountant. In 184-4 he was appointed 
Treasui'er to the Corporation of Salford, 
and retained that oflBce till 1860. He 
took an active part in the establishment of 
the Salford Eoyal Free Library and 
Museum, Peel Park, and of the Salford 
Working Men's College, and was the first 
treasurer of both institvitions. He was 
Honorary Secretary and afterwards 
President of the Manchester Statistical 
Society, and was the first President of the 
Manchester Institute of Accountants, and 
is now a member of the Council of the 
Institute of Chartered Accountants. He 
was elected M.P.for Macclesfield in 1868, 
and was re-elected in 1874. In 1880 he 
was again returned for the same con- 
stituency, but on petition the election 
was declared void. He introduced into 
Parliament and carried through the 
Commons, and through the Second Eead- 
ing in the Lords a bill for the amendment 
of the Joint Stock Companies Acts with 
compulsory forms of Balance Sheet and 
Profit and Loss Statements. He was 
some time a member of the Council of the 
London Statistical Society, .and wrote a 

history of the rate of wages in Lancashire 
in 200 trades for twenty years. He is the 
author of various essays on Parliamentary 
Eepresentation, Working Men's Colleges, 
Poor Rates and Principle of Eating, 
Water Meters, Financial Aspect of Sani- 
tary Eeform, the Equitable Adjustment 
of the Income-Tax, Profit-Sharing, and 
Joint Stock Companies. He is a prize 
essayist and Associate of the Institute of 
Civil Engineers. He erected the Maccles- 
field Free Library, and presented it to 
the Corporation, is a Governor, and one 
of the thi'ee Trustees of the Estate and 
Pictures of the Eoyal HoUoway College 
at Egham, Surrey. He married, first, 
Louisa, youngest daughter of William 
Bow, Esq., and, second, Ursula, eldest 
daughter of Thomas Sopwith, Esq., M.A. 
C.E., F.E.S., of Newcastle-on-Tyne and 

CHAFFERS, William, was born Sept. 
28, 1811, in Watling Street, London, was 
educated at Margate, and at Merchant 
Taylors' Classical School, under the old 
regime ; Dr. Bellamy being head master. 
During the extensive excavations for the 
main Sewerage of the City, and digging 
the foundation of the Eoyal Exchange, 
he formed a large Collection of Eoman 
and Mediaeval Antiquities ; and in 1843 
he was elected a Fellow of the Eoyal 
Society of Antiquaries. In 1857 he 
assisted in the selection of Works of Art 
for the National Loan Exhibition at Man- 
chester. In 1862 he assisted in making 
Selections of Antique Plate for the 
Loan Exhibition at the South Kensington 
Museum and wrote descriptive notices of 
these and other portions for the catalogue 
published by the Science and Art Depart- 
ment. In 1868-9 he was Superintendent 
of the Museum of Art at the National 
Exhibition held at Leeds ; in 1872 Super- 
intendent of the Exhibition of Works of 
Art held in Dublin, and in 1876 Manager 
and General Superintendent of Exhibition 
of Works of Art at Wrexham ; and of 
various others subsequently. In 1890 he 
was General Manager of the Exhibition 
of Pottery, Porcelain, &c., at Hanley, 
Staffordshire. Mr. Chaffers is the author 
of the following publications: — 1863, 
" Marks and Monograms on Pottery and 
Porcelain," 7th Edition, 1887 ; " Hall 
Marks on Plate," Illustrated with 
tables of Date letters, 6th Edition, 
1886; 1865, "Hand-book of Marks and 
Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain." 
Ninth Thousand, 1889; "The Kera- 
mic Gallery of Pottery and Porcelain" 
with numerous illustrations, 2 vols.; 
1887, " Gilda Aurifabrorum," a History 
of Goldsmiths and their marks on Plate 



In addition to the above Standard Works, 
he has published numerous papers and 
correspondences on Art and Antiquity 
in the Archceologia , Art Journal, and in 
the journals of the Archa^olofjical Associa- 
tion, and other kindred societies. 

CHAILLTJ, Paul Du. See Dv Chaillu, 


French Senator, born at Avranches 
(Manche), May 19, 1827, studied at Paris 
in the Lycee of Saint Louis, entered the 
Normal School in 1846, and was first in 
the competition for graduation in philo- 
sophy in 1819. He was sent as Professor 
of Philosophy to the Lycees of Pau and 
Limoges. Arrested and imprisoned after 
the coup d'etat, and then banished from 
France, he withdrew to Belgium, where 
he delivered lectures with success, and 
next to Switzerland, where he was ap- 
pointed Professor of French Literature 
in the " Polytechnicon " of Zurich. After 
the amnesty he returned to his native 
country (1859), and contributed articles 
on literature, art, and philosophy to the 
Temps, the Revue Nationale , the Revue des 
Cours ScientHiques et Litteraires, the 
Revne Moderne, of which he became 
manager, and the Revue des I>e\ix Mondes. 
In 1868 he established, in conjxmction 
with Messieurs Brisson, AUain-Targe, and 
Gambetta, the Revue Politique, of which 
he undertook the management, and con- 
sequently underwent a conviction for 
publishing the lists of subscriptions for a 
monument to the representative Baudin. 
Appointed Prefect of the Rhone after 
Sept. 4, 1870, he was called upon to 
administer the affairs of the turbulent 
city of Lyons in circumstances of extreme 
difficulty. It is true that he did not 
succeed in preventing excesses there, but 
it is urged on his behalf that his authority 
was counterbalanced and held in check 
by the Committee of Public Safety. He 
resigned this office Feb. 5, 1871, and on 
Jan. 7, 1872, he was elected Deputy in 
the Radical interest for the Bouches-du- 
Rhone. In the Chamber he distinguished 
himself by his eloquence and his readi- 
ness and calmness in debate. On Jan. 30, 
1876, he was elected a Senator by the 
department of the Bouches-du-Rhone. 
M. Challemel-Lacour was mixed up at 
about the same period in two important 
law-suits. One of these was brought by 
the Brothers of Christian Doctrine of the 
commune of Caluire, in the Department 
of the Rhone, whose establishment had 
been occtipied by troops during the war. 
After prolonged arguments, and notwith- 
standing a ministerial decree of April 10, 

1878, which declared that the Prefect had 
acted in the name of the State, the Court 
of Cassation sent back the case to the 
Court of Dijon, which, on Jan. 'SO, 1879, 
condemned M. Challemel-Lacol^r and his 
associates in 97,243 francs damages. 
The second action was brought by M. 
Challemel-Lacour against La France 
Nouvelle, a Legitimist journal, which had 
charged him with cheating at play in a 
club, and the defendants were condemned, 
on Jan. 6, 1879, to pay a fine of 2000 francs 
and 10,000 francs costs. A few days 
afterwards (Jan. 14) he was sent to Berne 
as ambassador to the Swiss Confederation. 
On June 11, 1880, he was nominated am- 
bassador to the Court of St. James's, 
in succession to M. Leon Say. Oia his 
appointment being made known in this 
coiintry, an angry debate took place in 
the House of Commons, got up by Mr. 
O'Donnell, as to M. Challcmel-Lacour's 
antecedents. Mr. O'Donnell was, how- 
ever, defeated by 245 votes against 149. 
M. Challemel-Lacour continued to be 
Ambassador in London till Feb. 1882, 
when he was recalled at his own request. 
In the Cabinet formed by M. Jules Ferry 
in Feb. 1883, M. Challemel-Lacour held 
the portfolio of Foreign Affairs. M. 
Challemel-Lacour was one of the founders, 
and is chief editor, of the Republique 
Franraise. He has published " La Philo- 
sophic Individualiste," an essay on 
Humboldt, in the " Bibliotheque de 
Philosophic Contemporaine," 1864 ; a 
tran.slation of Ritter's " History of Phil- 
osophy," with an introdviction, 3 vols., 
1861 ; and he edited the works of Madame 
d'Epinay, 2 vols., 1869. 

CHAMBERLAIN, The Rt. Hon. Joseph, 
M.P., P.C, eldest son of the late Mr. 
Joseph Chamberlain, a member of one of 
the City Companies, was born in London 
in 1836. His mother was Caroline, 
daughter of Mr. Henry Harben. He was 
educated at University College School, 
and afterwards became a member of a 
firm of wood-screw makers at Birmingham 
(Nettlefold & Chamberlain), whicJa his 
father had joined in 1854. He retired 
from business in 1874, shortly after the 
decease of his father. Mr. Chamberlain 
had at this time obtained a certain local 
celebrity in consequence of his advanced 
Radical opinions and the fiuency of speech 
with which he expressed them in one of 
the Birmingham debating societies. In 
1868 he was appointed Chairman of the 
first Executive Committee of the Educa- 
tion League, and in November of the same 
year a member of the Birmingham Town 
Council. In 1873 he became Chairman of 
the Birmingham School Board, of which 



he was first elected a member in 1870. 
Mr. Chamberlain is also an Alderman of 
Birmingham, and was three times suc- 
cessively elected Mayor of the Borough 
(187-i-7o-70j. His name was first brought 
before the public in Feb., 1874, when he 
came forward at the general election to 
oppose Mr. Roebuck at Sheffield. He was 
not successful, the numbers jjolled being 
14,193 for Roebuck, 12,858 for Mundella, 
and 11,053 for Chamberlain. In June, 
1876, he was returned for Birmingham, 
to fill up the vacancy occasioned by Mr, 
Dixon's retirement from Parliamentary 
life. In the House of Commons Mr. 
Chamberlain chiefly attracted notice by 
his advocacy of the Gothenburg system of 
licensing places where intoxicating liquors 
are sold. He is in favour of disestablish- 
ment and of compulsory secular educa- 
tion. At the general election of April, 
1880, he was returned with Mr. Muntz 
and Mr. Bright for Birmingham, the 
three Liberals gaining a large majority 
over the Conservative candidates. Major 
F. Burnaby and the Hon. A. Of. C. Cal- 
thorpe. On the formation of Mr. Glad- 
stone's Administration immediately after 
that election, Mr. Chamberlain was no- 
minated President of the Board of Trade, 
with a seat in the Cabinet. As such he 
prepared and passed the Bankruptcy Act 
which is now in force, and attempted, 
biit in vain, to pass a sti'ong Merchant 
Shipping Bill. During this Administra- 
tion Mr. Chamberlain continued to be a 
prominent member of the Radical party ; 
and at the general election of Nov., 1885, 
he was generally regarded as the leader 
of the "advanced wing." But after the 
formation of Mr. Gladstone's Cabinet of 
1886 (in which he held the post of Pre- 
sident of the Local Government Board), 
he foiind himself obliged to resign from 
inability to agree with the Prime Minis- 
ter's Home Rule policy. At the general 
election of 1886, when he was returned 
unopposed for West Birmingham, he 
stood as a strong Unionist, and withdrew 
from connection with the Gladstone 
party. In 18S7 he went to the United 
States as Chairman of a Fisheries Com- 
mission, and signed a Treaty in 1888. He 
went again to the States in the autumn 
of that year, and married Miss Endicott 
on Nov. 15. 

CHAMBERLAIN, General, Sir Neville 
Bowles, G.C.B., G.C.S.I., the second son 
of the late Sir Henry Chamberlain, Bart, 
(who was for some yearsConsul-General and 
Charge d' Affaires in Brazil), born at Rio, 
Jan. 18, 1820, was appointed to the Indian 
Army in 1836. He served as a subaltern 
with much distinction in Afghanistan and 

Scinde, and was wounded at Kandahar 
and at Ghuznee. In 1842 he was attached 
to the Governor-General's body-guards, 
and in 1843 appointed Deputy-Assistant 
Quarter-Master-General to the Army. In 
18 18 he was nominated by Lord Dalhousie 
one of his aides-de-camp, and commanded 
the 8th Irregular Cavalry, attached to the 
army in the Punjaub. In 1855, having 
previously discharged some important 
civil duties as military secretary to the 
Chief Commissioner (Sir John Lawrence), 
he was placed in command of a force of 
irregular troops, which he retained until 
the breaking out of the Indian Mutiny. 
On the death of Col. Chester before Delhi, 
Col. Chamberlain (then brigadier-general) 
succeeded to the post of Adjutant-General 
of the Bengal Army, and was severely 
wounded in the sortie of July 18. He was 
nominated a C.B. in 1857, and in reward 
for his services in the Mutiny, Avas ap- 
pointed aide-de-camp to the Queen. He 
afterwards gained distinction by his ser- 
vices against the hill-tribes, and has been 
wounded more frequently than any other 
officer of his years and standing in the 
service. He was advanced to the rank of 
Lieutenant-General in May, 1872 ; ap- 
l^ointed Colonel of the Bengal Infantry 
in May, 1874 ; a member of Council of the 
Governor of Madras in 1875 ; and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Madras Army in 
Dec, 1875. In Aiig., 1878, he was ap- 
pointed the head of the English special 
mission to Cabul. This mission was 
abruptly stopped by the refusal of the 
Ameer of Afghanistan's officer at All 
Musjid to permit it to advance (Sept. 21) . 
He was created General in 1877; and rose 
to be Commander-in-Chief of the Army 
of Madras, 1881. He retired in 1886. 

CHAMBERS, Sir Thomas, Q.C., M.P., 
born at Hertford in 1814, was educated 
at Clare Hall, Cambridge, and was 
called to the Bar at the Middle 
Temple in 1840. He represented the 
borough of Hertford in the House of 
Commons from July, 1852, to July, 
1857. In the latter year he was elected 
Common Serjeant of London, and in 
1861 he was appointed one of Her 
Majesty's Counsel. In 1865 he was 
elected one of the members for Maryle- 
bone, which borough he continued to 
represent in the Liberal interest until 
1885. In Parliament his name has been 
principally identified with proposals to 
subject convents to periodical inspection 
by paid officials of the State, and with a 
measure for legalising marriage with a 
deceased wife's sister. He was knighted 
for his judicial services in 1872, and 
elected Recorder of London, Feb. 5, 1878, 



in the room cf Mr. Russell Gurney 

CHAMPNEYS, Basil, architect, son of 
the late Dean of Lichfield, was born in 
1842, and educated at Charterhouse, 
being elected Foundation Scholar and 
Gold Medallist in 18G0, and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
in classical honours in 1804. He studied 
architecture under the late John Pri- 
chard, diocesan architect of Llandaff, and 
began practice in 1867. Amongst other 
works he has designed the following 
public buildings: — -at Cambridge, the 
Divinity and Literary Schools, the Old 
Hall, Sidgwick Hall, Clough Hall, and 
other buildings of Newnham College, the 
Ai'chaeological Museum, and All Saints' 
Memorial ; at Oxford, the Indian Institute, 
the new buildings at New College, Lady 
Margaret Hall and Mansfield College ; at 
Bedford, the Girls' Schools and new 
Grammar School buildings for the Harpur 
Trust ; at Harrow, the new school build- 
ings and Butler Museum ; and the 
Women's Fawcett Memorial on the 
Thames Embankment. He has designed 
the following churches : — St. Luke's, 
Kentish Town ; St. Peter - le - Bailey, 
Oxford ; St. Mary Star of the Sea, 
Hastings ; Havering-atte-Bowe in Essex ; 
Matfield in Kent ; Glascote in Warwick- 
shire ; Stonefold and Laneside in Lanca- 
shire. Mr. ChamjDneys has carried out 
the restoration of Tatenhill, Tamworth, 
Wednesbury, and Alrewas in Stafford- 
shire ; Bexley in Kent ; UphoUand in 
Lancashire ; Chilcote in Derbyshire ; 
Okewood in Surrey ; St. Dunstan's, 
Stepney ; St. Bride's, Fleet Street ; and 
St. Alphege, Greenwich, in the London 
district ; and is also the designer of the 
Palace Avenue Hotel in Kensington. 
Mr. Champneys is the author of a work 
entitled, " A Quiet Corner of England," 
published in 1875. 

CHANDLEK, Charles Frederick, M.D., 
Ph.D., LL.D., American Chemist, born at 
Lancaster, Massachusetts, Dec. G, 183G, 
studied at the Lawrence Scientific School 
of Harvard College, and afterwards at 
the Universities of Gottingen and Berlin, 
receiving his degree of Ph.D. at Gottingen 
in 185G. In 1857 he was placed in charge 
of the chemical department of Union 
College, and in 1858 was appointed to 
the Chair of Chemistry in the New York 
College of Pharmacy. In 1864 he was 
made Professor of Analytical and Applied 
Chemistry in the newly instituted School 
of Mines connected with Columbia 
College, New York, and on the reorgani- 
zation of the school in 1877 became Pro- 

fessor of Chemistry both in the school and 
in the college. In 18G5 he was appointed 
chemist to the New York Metropolitan 
Board of Health, of which for a number 
of years he was President. In 1870, in 
connection with his brother, he es- 
tablished the American Chemist, a monthly 
periodical, in which the results of his 
principal investigations have appearedi 
but which was discontinued in 1877. He 
became connected with the New York 
College of Physicians and Surgeons in 
1872, as Adjunct Professor of Chemistry 
and Medical Jurisprudence, succeeding 
to the lull Professorship in 1876. The 
degree of M.D. was conferred upon him 
by the University of the City of New 
York in 1873 and that of LL.D. by Union 
College in the same year. He is a 
member of the Chemical Societies of 
London, Berlin, Paris and New York, of 
the National Academy of Sciences and of 
a large number of other Scientific Associ- 
ations. While a member of the Board of 
Health, Dr. Chandler did much to im- 
prove the sanitary condition of New 
York by establishing a rigid inspection 
of milk and food supplied, by securing 
the passage of the Tenement House Act, 
by regulating the location of Slaughter- 
houses and in numerous other ways. He 
has published " The Inaugural Disserta- 
tion," 1856 ; " Eeport on Water for Loco- 
motives," 1865 ; " Examination of Various 
Rocks and Minerals," which appeared in 
the geological reports of Iowa and 
Wisconsin ; " Investigations on Mineral 
Waters," and papers on the water supply 
of cities, on petroleum, on the piu'ification 
of coal-gas ; and has also contriVjuted 
numerous scientific articles to Johnson's 
" Universal Cyclopaedia," 1874-77. 

CHANEY, Henry James, F.R.A.S., born 
at Windsor in 1842, was educated at 
a private school, entered the civil ser- 
vice in 1859, was appointed in 1860 
to the Exchequer to take charge of the 
technical duties arising under the Sale of 
Gas Act, 1859, became Secretary to the 
Royal Commissions on Standards, 1867-8, 
and, on the retirement in 1876 of the 
Warden of the Standards, he was ap- 
pointed Superintendent, Standards De- 
partment, in the Board of Trade. He has 
been a member of various committees re- 
lating to imits and standards of measure- 
ment ; and represented Great Britain in 
Paris in 1889 at the General Conference of 
the International Committee of Weights 
and Measures. He is identified with im- 
provements in the local administration of 
the laws relating to the weights and 
measures used in trade, and with recent 
demands for higher accuracy in weighing 




and measuring instruments used for 
scientific and manufacturing purposes. 
His printed papers, issued under the 
direction of the Board of Trade, include 
" Eeports on Standards of Measurement 
for Gas ; " " Verification of Standards for 
the Governments of India and Russia," 
1877; "Screw Gauges," 1881-3; "Apothe- 
caries' Weights and Measures," 1881 ; 
" Calculations of Densities and Expan- 
sions," 1883; "On the Prevention of 
Fraud in the Sale of Coal and of Bread ; " 
"Expansion of Palladium;" "Ee-com- 
parison of the Imperial and Metric 
Units," 1883 ; " Verification of the new 
Parliamentary Standards of Length and 
Weight," 1881-3; "Mode of Testing 
weighing-machines," 1886; " Note on 
the Gold Coinage," 188G ; "Ee-determi- 
nation of the Scientific Unit of Volume," 

CHANLER, Mrs. Amelie, nee Rives, an 
American writer, was born at Eichmond, 
Va. in 1863. She was educated chiefly at 
the home of her grandfather, William C. 
Eives, Castle Hill, Albemarle co., Va., 
and early showed a taste for literature. 
Her first published story was " A Brother 
to Dragons," and appeared in the Atlantic 
in 1886. This was followed by " Farrier 
Lass of Piping Pebworth," " Nurse 
Crumpet's Story,"" Story of Arnon,"and 
"Virginia of Virginia." In 1888 her 
" Quick or the Dead," was issued, and it at 
once attracted wide attention, and proved 
one of the literary sensations of the year. 
Two other productions by her have 
appeared since : a five-act Syrian tragedy 
entitled " Herod and Mariamne," and a 
novel " The Witness of the Sun." Miss 
Eives was married, in June, 1888, to John 
Armstrong Chanler of New York, a great- 
grandson of the late William B. Astor, 
and has spent the principal part of her 
time since then in England and on the 
continent of Eiirope. 

CHANT, Mrs. Laura Ormiston (nee 
Dibbin), was born October 9, 1848, at 
Chepstow, Monmouthshire. Her father 
was a civil engineer, and at the time of 
this, his second daughter's birth, was en- 
gaged in the difficult task of building a 
tubular railway bridge over the river Wye. 
When she was nearly five her parents 
removed to London. At fifteen Laura 
became a Sunday-school teacher, and 
carried on that work in different parts of 
England with little intermission till 
she was twenty-two. For five or six 
years she taught in three ladies' schools, 
and then entei-ed a hospital as nurse. 
After a year as probationer, she became 
Sister in the largest hospital in Great 

Britain, the London Hospital in White- 
chapel, where she met her futiii'e husband, 
and decided to abandon nursing for the 
study of medicine. Her lover entered 
heart and soul into the project ; but lack 
of money for what was then an extremely 
costly and difficult undertaking, owing 
to the powerful opposition of the medical 
schools to women entering the profes- 
sion, prevented her from qualifying 
before marriage ; and afterward the need 
of her services as a puVjlic speaker and 
worker in philanthropy soon closed the 
door of ambition on medicine. " Biit the 
study and experience as a nurse, together 
with the experience gained as assistant 
manager of a lunatic asylum, has been of 
such incalculable value," writes Mrs. 
Chant, " both to myself, my husband as a 
professional man, and my household, that 
I am certain the serious study of the 
laws of health should form a prominent 
item in the education of every young 
man and woman." Mrs. Chant's first 
public address was on the position of 
" Women in the Nineteenth Century," 
advocating the franchise for them on 
the same terms as for men, as the only 
permanent means of redressing the 
wrongs that have been done them. Then 
the temperance platform claimed her ; 
and then that of social purity. Perhaps 
the best idea of Mrs. Chant's varied 
channels of interest and labour may be 
gained from the fact that she is on the 
executive committee of the Women's 
Liberal Federation of England, of which 
Mrs. Gladstone is president ; on that of 
the National Society for Promoting 
Woman Suffrage ; is vice-president of one 
or two Liberal associations ; one of the 
four vice-presidents of the Peace Society ; 
a member of the council of the National 
Vigilance Association of Great Britain 
and Ireland ; an ardent advocate of 
physical training and gymnasiums, on 
which subject she has written and 
lectured — Melio's woik on gymnastics 
having an introduction by her. She is 
the authoress of two beautiful sermons, 
" The Spiritual Life " and "Signs of the 
Times," and one volume of poems 
entitled, " Verona," and is about to bring 
out another. But beyond all this is her 
personal work for individuals. Her 
house is indeed a refuge for the destitute, 
and a place where broken lives and hearts 
get mended under the influence of loving 
care. The criminal and the outcast, 
the giddy and the stupid, the lonely, the 
poor, are seldom out of her home circle. 

CHAPLEAU, The Hon. Joseph Adolphe, 
Q.C., LL.D., Knight Commander of the 
Legion of Honour, Knight Commander of 



St. Gregory the Great, Secretary of State 
for the Dominion of Cana^la, was born at 
Ste. Therese de Blainville, Quebec, Nov. 
J), lS-40, and was called to the Bar in 1801 
and created Q.C. in 1873. He entered 
the Provincial Legislature in 18G7, being 
elected by acclamation for the county of 
Terrebonne, which he still represents in 
the Commons. From 1873 to 187^ he was 
Solicitor-General. He became Provincial 
Secretary in 1876, and left the Govern- 
ment at the coup-cV-etat of Lt. -Governor 
Letellier de St. Just in March, 1878. He 
was foremost in the struggle which 
ensued, as leader of the Opposition, and 
defeated the July Administration, which 
had endorsed the arbitrary action of the 
Lieut. -Governor, who had dismissed a 
ministry supported by a large majority of 
both houses of the Legislature. Lieut. - 
Governor Letellier was dismissed from 
oflSce by the Federal Government, after 
an overwhelming vote of the Parliament 
of Canada against his violation of re- 
sponsible government. Mr. Chapleau [ 
became Premier of Quebec in Oct. 1879, 
and remained in that position, filling the 
offices of Minister of Agriculture and 
Public Works and of Minister of Rail- 
ways, until July, 1882, when he was 
called to the Privy Council of Canada, as 
Secretary of State, which position he 
has occupied ever since. He established 
in Canada, in 1881, the Credit Foncier 
Franco-Canadian, a financial institution 
of high standing, of which he is the Vice- 
President in Canada, the President being 
in Paris. He was appointed Commander 
of the Legion of Honoiir, in 1882, by 
President Grevy. He had been made 
the previous year, a Commander of 
St. Gregory the Great. In 1884, he 
was appointed President of a Koyal 
Commission on Chinese Immigration, 
and visited California and British 
Columbia as such. His repoi't on the 
question was followed by the enactment 
of a law, which does not forbid but limits 
in a certain measure Chinese Immigra- 
tion into Canada. He introduced into 
Canada the British system of the 
Stationery office for public departments 
and Parliament, and the American system 
of a National Printing Bureau. He is a 
Professor of International Law and LL.D. 
of the Laval University. ' 

CHAPMAN. Miss Elizabeth Rachel, was 
born at Woodford, Essex, where her 
family, originally of Whitby, Yorkshire, 
has resided for nearly a hundred years ; 
she is connected, both paternally and 
maternally, with the Gurneys of Norwich, 
and is lineally descended from Mrs. Eliza- i 
beth Fry. Miss Chapman has written '. 

fiction, essays, and poetry, and is 
interested in the various social and 
philanthropic movements of the day, 
more particularly in those specially 
affecting women. The following is a list 
of her publications: "Master of All," 
1881 ; " A Tourist Idyl, and other 
stories," 1883; "The New Godiva and 
other studies," 1885 ; " A Comtist Lover, 
and other studies," 1886 ; " The New 
Purgatory, and other poems," 1887 ; " A 
Companion to ' In Memoriam,' " 1888. 

CHAPMAN, General Sir Frederick 
Edward, G.C.B., son of Richard Chapman, 
Esq., of Gatchell, Somersetshire, was 
born in Bi-itish Guiana in 1816. After 
passing through the Royal Military 
Academy at Woolwich, he entered the 
corps of Royal Engineers in 1835, became 
a captain in 18J:G, a colonel in the army 
in 1855, and a lieutenant-colonel of the 
Royal Engineers in 1859. In the year 
1854 he was sent on a special mission to 
Constantinople, and was employed in 
surveying the positions in Turkey 
previous to the arrival of the British 
army in that country. Colonel Chapman 
was present at the battles of the Alma 
and Inkerman, served throughout the 
siege of Sebastopol, during the early part 
of which he was director of the left 
attack, and during the latter part 
executive engineer to the forces. As a 
reward for his valuable services he 
received a medal with three clasps, the 
Sardinian and Turkish medals, the third 
class of the Medjidieh, besides being 
appointed a Companion of the Bath and 
an Officer of the Legion of Honour. He 
was made a Knight Commander of the 
Order of the Bath in 1867, and attained 
the rank of Major-General the same year. 
Sir Frederick held the post of Governor 
and Commander-in-Chief of Bermuda 
from 1867 to 1870, and that of Inspector- 
General of Fortifications and Director of 
Works from the last date to 1875. He 
became a Lieutenant-General in the 
army, and a Colonel-Commandant of the 
Royal Engineers in May, 1872 ; and was 
advanced to the brevet of General in 
Oct. 1877. In the latter year he was 
created a G.C.B. He was placed on the 
retired list in 1881. 

CHARCOT, Jean Martin, M.D., born at 
Paris in 1825, obtained his diploma as 
M.D. in 1853, and in 1856 was api^ointed 
Medecin du Bureau Central, from which 
time he has continually devoted his 
attention to the study of the nervous 
system. Besides his principal works on 
various forms of disease, his " Lecjons 
Cliniques sur les Maladies du Systeme 

N 2 



Nerveux," and his " Le(;ons du Mardi a 
la Salpetriere," he founded in 1880, and 
still edits, the " Archives de Neurologie," 
and takes a leadin<^ part in the direction 
of the Revue de Medecine, "Archives de 
Pathologie Exp^rimentale," and the 
" Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpe- 
triere." He is a Member of the Institute 
of France, of the Koyal Irish Academy, of 
the Eoyal Medical and Chirurgical Society 
of London, and of a great number of other 
scientific societies in various countries. 

CHARD, Major John Rouse Merriott, 

IJ.C, was born Dec. 21, 18-17, being the 
second son of the late Mr. William 
Wheaton Chaxxl, of Pathe, Somerset, and 
Mount Tamar, Devon. He was educated 
first at the Plymouth New Grammar 
School, and then at Woolwich, and ob- 
tained his commission in the Royal 
Engineers July 15, 1868. After two 
years at Chatham he went to Bei'muda, 
where he was employed for three years 
on the foi'tifications near Hamilton for 
the defence of the dockyard and naval 
anchorage. Coming on leave to England 
on the death of his father, he was sent to 
Malta to complete his foreign service, re- 
maining about two years employed on 
the new forts there. On his retvirn to 
England he was quartered at Aldershot, 
and took part in the Army Manoeuvres. 
After a short stay at Chatham he went to 
Exeter (Western District) for about two 
years. Ordered from there to Aldershot 
to join the 5th company of Eoyal En- 
gineers on the mobilization of the Army 
Corps for the East, he went with the 
company to Chatham, and embarked 
with it for Natal, Dec. 2, 1878, arriving 
at Durban early in Jan. 1879. On Jan. 
22 Lieutenant Chard was the hero of the 
famous defence of Eorke's Drift. He was 
left in charge of the Commissariat post, 
with eighty men of the 80th Regiment ; 
and an attack being imminent, a barri- 
cade was hastily thrown up iinder his 
direction, the men using for this purpose 
a number of bags, biscuit tins, and other 
matters belonging to the commissariat 
stores, being part of the time under fire. 
The attack was made soon after dark by 
at least 3,000 Zulus, and the fight was 
kept up during the greater part of the 
night. The Zulu.s got inside the barri- 
cade six times, and were as often driven 
out at the point of the bayonet. In the 
meantime another body of Zulu troops 
passed to the rear of the military hospital 
and set fire to it. At dawn the attacking 
force withdrew, for Lord Chelmsford's 
column was then seen approaching, and 
was enthusiastically hailed by the gallant 
defenders. Three hundred and fifty-one 

dead Zulus were counted near the en- 
trenchment, and the number killed after 
that attack was estimated at 1,000. The 
defenders of Eorke's Drift were un- 
doubtedly the means of saving Grey 
Town and Helpmakaar, and also of secur- 
ing time for effecting a retreat with the 
main column. Lieutenant Chard left 
Eorke's Drift sick with fever on Feb. 17 
for Ladysmith, where he was hospitably 
entertained at the house of Dr. Hyde 
Allen Park. He left Ladysmith for the 
front on April 27, rejoined the 5th com- 
pany of the Royal Engineers at Lands- 
man's Drift on April 29, and was present 
at the battle of Ulundi. On returning to 
St. Paul's he was presented with the 
Victoria Cross by Sir Garnet Wolseley. 
Soon afterwards he was ordered home. 
Arriving at Portsmoiith Oct. 2, 1879, he 
was met by a telegram from Her Majesty, 
and shortly afterwards he proceeded to 
Balmoral, where he was graciously re- 
ceived by the Queen. For his services 
he was advanced to the rank of Major. 

CHARLES I. (Charles Eitel Frederick 
Zephirin Louis), King of Roumania, was 
born April 20, 1839, being the second son 
of Prince HohenzoUern - Sigmaringen, 
head of the second of the non-reigning 
branches of the princely house of Hohen- 
zoUern. He was elected and proclaimed 
Prince Regnant of Roumania, with here- 
ditary succession, by a plebiscite, taken 
April 8-20, 1866, and definitely recognised 
on Oct. 24 in that year by the Sublime 
Porte and the guaranteeing Powers. 
The Prince had previously been a sub- 
lieutenant in the 2nd regiment of Prus- 
sian dragoons, and it is believed that his 
candidature for the throne of Roumania, 
which had become vacant by the expul- 
sion of Prince Alexander John, was pro- 
posed by Prussia, and supjjorted by her 
diplomatic action. His reign has been 
marked throughout by internal dissen- 
sions and parliamentary crises. The un- 
warrantable persecution of the Jews in 
Moldavia elicited indignant protests from 
various foreign governments, who likewise 
complained that bands of armed men 
were allowed to be formed within the 
Roumanian territory, with the object of 
creating disturbances on the Lower 
Danube. The disputes in the Roumanian 
Chamber, and the incessant ministerial 
changes, led to a dissolution of the 
Chamber of Bucharest in 1869. A con- 
vention was concluded between his Go- 
vernment and the Czar, permitting the 
Russians to cross the Danube in April, 
1877. The Eoumanian army was then mo- 
bilised, and war declared against Turkey. 
In Sept. and Oct. 1877, Prince Charles 



held the nominal command of the Army 
of the West, and he fought at Plevna, 
where the Eoumanians behaved with 
great gallantry, and suffered heavy losses. 
He received, in acknowledgment of his 
services, the cross of St. G-eorge from 
Alexander II., to whom he sent in return, 
the decoration of the Order of the Star of 
Koumania. He had the title of " Koyal 
Highness" from 1878 till March 26,1881, 
when he was proclaimed King of Rou- 
mania by a unanimous vote of the repre- 
sentatives of the nation. The coronation 
ceremony took place on May 22. He 
married, Nov. 15, 1869, Pauline Elizabeth 
Ottilie Louise (born 1843), daughter of 
the late Prince Hermann of Wied. {See 

CHARLES I. (Karl Friedrich Alexander), 

King of Wiirtemberg, eldest son of the 
late King William I., was born March 6, 
1823, and succeeded to the throne June 
25, 1864. He followed the policy of his 
father on the Schleswig-Holstein ques- 
tion, and formed one of the Minor States 
party in the Diet. In the Austro-Prus- 
sian war of 1866 he allied himself with 
Austria, but on Aug. 23 signed a treaty 
of alliance with Prussia; and in the 
French war of 1870 his army fought with 
the Prussians. His Majesty, who is a 
Colonel of a Eussian regiment of dra- 
goons, married, July 13, 1816, the Grand 
Duchess Olga Nicolaje^ivna, daughter of 
Nicholas I., late Czar of Eussia. 

CHARLES, Mrs. Elizabeth, the daughter 
of John Eundle, Esq., formerly M.P. for 
Tavistock, was born in 1826. She is 
the authoress of " The Draytons and i 
Davenants," 1841 ; " The Chronicles of j 
the Schonberg-Cotta Family," 1863 ; this ; 
has had a large sale ; and so also has 
"The Diary of Mrs. Kitty Trevylyan," • 
1864 ; Mrs. Charles published, in 1866, 
"Winifred Bertram"; in 1870, "The 
Martyrs of Spain" ; in 1873, " Againstthe 
Stream " ; in 1876, " The Bertram Family " ; 
in 1879, "Joan the Maid"; in 1881, ; 
" Lapsed, but not Lost," all her works ' 
being characterised by deep religious j 
feeUng. She married, in 1851, Mr. 
Andrew Charles, 

CHARLEY, Sir William Thomas, Q.C., 
D.C.L., born in 1833, is the youngest son 
of the late Matthew Charley, Esq., of 
Finaghy House, near Belfast. He was 
educated at St. John's College, Oxford, 
and took his degree of B.A. in 1856, and 
of B.C.L. and D.C.L., by accumulation, 
in 1868. In 1865 he was called to the 
Bar at the Inner Temple, having obtp,ined 
the first certificate of honour of the first- 

class, and the exhibition at the final ex- 
aminations of Council of Legal Education. 
He has been Common Serjeant of the 
City of London since 1878, and in 1880 
was made a Q.C. From 1868 to 1880 he 
represented Salford in the House of 
Commons in the Conservative interest, 
but was unsuccessful at the Election of 
1880, and unsuccessfully contested Ips- 
wich in 1883 and 1885. In the latter 
year his opponents were unseated for 
bribery by their agents. Sir William 
Charley is a judge of the Central 
Criminal Court, and of the Mayor's Court 
of London. He is Upper Warden of the 
Worshipful Company of Loriners, a 
member of the Court of Lieutenancy of 
the City of London, and Hon. Colonel of 
the 3rd Volunteer Battalion of the Eoyal 
Fusiliers (City of London Eegiment). He 
is the author of works on the " Real 
Property Acts" and " Judicature Acts," 
which have run through three editions. 
When in Parliament he carried several 
measures of social reform, the principles 
of some of which have been extended by 
subseqixent legislation. He was knighted 
in 1880. In the spring of 1890 he married 
Miss Clara Harbord, daughter of F. G-. 
Harbord, Esq., of Kirby Park, Cheshire. 

CHARLOTTE, Ex-Empress of Mexico 
(Marie Charlotte Amelie Auguste Victoire 
Clementine Leopoldine), daughter of Leo- 
pold I., King of the Belgians, born 
June 7, 1840, was married July 27, 1857, 
to the ill-fated Maximilian, afterwards 
Emperor of Mexico. In the midst of his 
embarrassments, Maximilian sent his 
empress to Paris in 1866 to seek more 
effectual aid from the Emperor Kapoleon. 
She failed entirely in her mission, and 
proceeded to Italy, where her reason 
gave way in consequence of the troubles 
she had already undergone, and of those 
which she foresaw her husband would 
experience. Her Majesty was removed 
to the palace of Laeken, near Brussels, 
and it is said that during lucid intervals 
she has since employed her time in 
writing Memoirs of the History of the 
Mexican Empire. Her recovery is con- 
sidered hopeless. 

CHARNOCK, Richard Stephen, Ph.D., 
F.S.A., born in London, August 11, 1820, 
is the son of Eichard Charnock, Esq., of 
the Inner Temple, barrister-at-law. He 
was educated at King's College, London, 
and admitted an attorney in 1841. He 
has travelled through the whole of 
Europe, and has also visited the North 
of Africa and Asia Minor ; and ha 
devoted much time to the study of an- 
thropology, arohseology, and philology. 



especially the Celtic and Oriental lan- 
yuaj^es. Dr. Charnock is a inember of 
many leai-necl societies, and Doctor of 
Philosophy of the University of Gottin- 
gen. Among very many contributions 
to philology, anthropology, and science 
in general, Dr. Cliarnock is author of 
•' Guide to the Tyrol." 1857 ; " Local Ety- 
mology,'' 1859 ; " Bradshaw's Guide to 
Spain and Portugal," 18G5 ; " Verba 
Nominalia," 18GG ; " Ludus Patrony- 
micus," 18(58; "The Peoples of Transyl- 
vania," 1870 ; " Manorial Customs of 
Essex," 1870 ; " Patronymica Cornu- 
Britannica," 1870 ; " On the Physical, 
Mental, and Philological Characters of 
the Wallons," 1871 ; " Le Sette Com- 
mune," 1871; "A Glossary of the Essex 
Dialect," 1879 ; " Prsenomina ; or, the 
Etymology of the principal Christian 
names of Great Britain and Ireland," 
1882 ; and " Nuces Etymologicfie," 1889. 

CHARTERIS, Professor The Rev. Archi- 
bald Hamilton, M.A., D.D., born in 
Wamphray, Dumfriesshire, Dec. 13, 1835, 
was educated at the parish school and 
Edinburgh University, where he took the 
degi'ee of B.A. in 1852, and of M.A. in 
1853. He was presented to the parish of 
St. Quivox, Ayrshire, in 1858,toNewabbey 
in 1859, and called to the Park Church, 
Glasgow, in 1863. He was appointed 
one of Her Majesty's Chaplains for Scot- 
land in 1870, having previoxisly received 
the degree of D.D. from Edinburgh 
University in 18G8. He was appointed 
to the Chair of Biblicixl Criticism in the 
University of Edinburgh in 18G8, which 
he still holds. Professor Charteris is the 
author of " The Life of James Robertson, 
D.D.," 18G3 ; " Canonicity : a Collection 
of Eai'ly Testimonies to the Books of the 
New Testament," 1880 ; " The Christian 
Scriptures," being the Avail Lectures, 
1882, and of several occasional pamphlets 
and lectui'es. In ecclesiastical work he 
is best known as Vice-Convener of the 
General Assembly's Committee for the 
Abolition of Patronage, Avhich accom- 
plished its work in 1874', and as Convener 
of the General Assembly's Committee on 
Christian Life and Woi'k from its first 
appointment to the present time. The 
pui'pose and effect of this committee is 
inquiry into and reporting updn the 
methods of work employed in the various 
parishes of the Church of Scotland, so 
that through the influence of the General 
Assembly and of public opinion, those 
methods may be developed and improved. 

CHARTRES (Due de). Robert Philippe- 
Louis - Eugene - Ferdinand d' Orleans, 
youngest son of the late Dul^e of Orleans, 

and grandson of the late King Louis 
Philijipe, was born at Paris, Nov. 9, ISIO. 
When only two years of age he lost his 
father, and six years later the Revolu- 
tion drove him into exile. The yovmg 
duke was carefully brought up in Eise- 
nach in Germany, and afterwards joined 
his family in England. He served in 
the Italian army, 1859, and in the 
Federal army in the first campaign of 
the American Civil War in 18G2. He 
married, June 11, 18G3, Fran(,'oise-Marie- 
Amc'lie of Orleans, eldest daughter of 
the Prince de Joinville, and has issue 
two daughters, born respectively Jan. 13, 
18G5, and Jan. 25, 18G9, and two sons, 
born respectively Jan. 11, 18GG, and 
Oct. IG, 18t)7. After the Revolution of 
Sept. 4, 1870, he returned incognito to 
France, and served in General Chanzy's 
army under an assumed name ; and in 
1871, when the National Assembly had 
revoked the law of banishment against 
the Orleans family, he was appointed a 
Major, and served first in Algiers ; he was 
sul )icquently appointed Lieiit. -Colonel and 
Colonel. In 18S3 his name was struck off 
the active list of the army by a decree of 
the Repxiblican Government ; and he was 
at once removed from the command of the 
12th Chasseurs, and was peremptorily 
ordered on Feb. 25 to quit Rouen, at 
which city that regiment Avas stationed. 

CHASSEPOT, Antoine Alphonse,a French 

inventor, born March 4, 1833, is the son 
of a working gunsmith, to which trade 
he was himself brought up. Entering 
the Government workshops, he was 
attached in 1858 to that of St. Thomas, 
in Paris, as Controller of the second 
class ; attained the rank of Controller of 
the first class in ISGl, and that of Prin- 
cipal in 1SG4. The result of his study of 
the mechanism of small arms, especially 
of the famous Prussian needle-gun, was 
the invention of the Chassepot rifie, 
which was adopted by the French army ; 
and, according to the official accounts, 
" did wonders " against the Garibaldians 
at Mentana. M. Chassepot was after- 
wards officially attached to the national 
manufactory of arms at Chatellerauit, 
near Poitiers. He took out patents for 
his invention, and the royalty he received 
on the rifies manufactured broxight him 
in a large income. He was decorated 
with the Legion of Honour in 18G0. 

CHATRIAN, Alexandre. 

See Erckman- 

CHELMSFORD (Lord), General The Right 
Hon. FredericAugustusThesiger, G.C.B.,is 
the t?ldest son of the first Lopd Chelmg- 



ford (who Ava3 twice Lord Chancellor in 
the Cxovernment of the late Lord Derby) 
by his wife Anna Maria, youngest 
daughter of Mr. William Tinling, of 
Southampton. He was born May 31, 
1827, and educated at Eton. In 1814 he 
entered the Rifle Brigade. He was 
transferred in 1845 to the Grenadier 
(juards, as ensign and became captain 
1850; Brevet-Major 1855 ; Lieut.-Colonel 
1857 ; Colonel 18(53 ; Major - General 
1868; Lieut.-General 1882;' and Gene- 
ral 1888. He served in the Crimean 
campaign as aide-de-camp to Major- 
General Markham, including the siege 
and fall of Sebastopol, and for this 
services he was promoted to a brevet 
majority. Having exchanged into the 
n5th Regiment as second Lieut.-Colonel, 
he served in the Indian Mutiny cam- 
paign. He succeeded Colonel Raines, 
C.B., in the command of the 95th 
Regiment. As Deputy Adjutant-General 
in the Abyssinian campaign of 1808 he 
was present at the capture of Magdala. 
For his services in this campaign he was 
nominated a Companion of the Bath and 
one of Her Majesty's aides-de-camp. He 
was Adjutant-<ieneral to the forces in 
India from 1809 till Dec, 1874, when he 
was appointed to command the troops at 
Shorncliffe, and subsequently the 1st 
Infantry Brigade at Aldershot. In 
March, 1877, he attained the rank of 
Major-General, and in January of the 
following year he was nominated to 
succeed General Sir Arthur Cunning- 
hame as Commander of the Forces and 
Ijieut. -Governor of Cape Colony. He 
completed the subjugation of the Kaffirs, 
and restored Caffraria to a condition of 
tranquillity, and for these services was 
made a Knight Commander of the Order 
of the Bath. He had succeeded to the 
peerage on his father'.s death in 1878. 
Lord Chelmsford was appointed to the 
chief command of the British troops in 
the Zulu War of 1879. Colonel Glyn's 
column, consisting of 2,100 Englishmen 
and 2,00<J natives, was encamped at Isan- 
dhlwna, when an attack was made on 
the fortified camp by the Ziilus, resulting 
in the nearly total annihilation of the 
garrison. A gallant defence was made 
the same day at Rorke's Drift, about ten 
miles from Isandhlwna, by Lieutenants 
Chard and Bromhead, who with 80 men 
of the 80th Regiment held the post 
against the desperate assaults of 3,000 
Zulus, until they were relieved by Lord 
Chelmsford's troops. On April 2 an 
attack was made by an army of 11,000 
Zulus upon the fortified camp of the 
British troops xinder Lord Chelmsford at 
GinghQlovfl., oij the ro^d to Ekowe, but the 

Zulus were repulsed with great loss ; and 
two days later the British troops, who had 
been surrounded at Ekowe Vjy Zulus after 
the disaster of Isandhlwna, were relieved 
by the force under Lord Chelmsford's 
command. The decisive Vjattle of Ulundi 
was fought on July 4, when the Zulu 
army was completely defeated. The 
credit of the victory admittedly belongs 
to Lord Chelmsford, but before this 
battle was fought Sir Garnet Wolseley 
had landed at Durban, Natal, to super- 
sede him in the command of the British 
troops operating against the Zulus. Lord 
Chelmsford, having resigned the com- 
mand, was created a Knight Grand Cross 
of the Order of the Bath, and arrived in 
England in Aug., 1879. In 1884 was 
appointed Lieutenant of the Tower of 
London, which he held until 1889. He 
married, in 1867, Adria Fanny, daughter 
of Major-General Heath, of the Bombay 

CHEEBULIEZ, Victor, son of a Pbo- 
fessor of Greek at Geneva, was bom in 
that city in 1829. His early education at 
Geneva was completed in Paris, at Bonn 
and in Berlin, and after a voyage to the 
East he published his first essay, an 
antiquarian trifle, entitled " A propos 
d'un Cheval, Causeries Athcniennes," 
1860, reprinted in 1864 under the title of 
" Un Cheval de Phidias." After the 
death of his father in 1874 he settled in 
Paris, where he published a number of 
novels, all which appeared originally in 
the columns of the Revue des IJexur. Mondes. 
Among them are " Le Comte Kostia," 
1863 ; " Le Prince Vitale," 1864 ; " Paule 
Mere," 1864 ; " Le Roman d'une honnete 
Femme," 1866 ; " Le Grand CEuvre," 
1867 ; " Prosper Randoce," 1868 ; 
" L'Aventure de Ladislas Bolski," 1869 ; 
" Le Fiance de Mademoiselle de Saint- 
Maur," 1876 ; and " L'Idee de Jean 
Teterol," 1878, which was translated into 
English under the title of " The Wish of 
his Life." Later books are " Noirs et 
Rouges," " Olivier Maugant," ' ' La Ferme 
du Choquard," 1884. "La Bete," 1887; 
" La Vocation du Comte Ghislam," 18S8 ; 
" Une Gageure," 1889. Most of M. 
Cherbuliez's works have been translated 
and published in America ; and many 
have been translated into Danish, English, 
German, Italian, Polish and Spanish. 
M. Cherbuliez is also a political writer 
of influence, the numerous articles in. 
the Revue des Deux Mondes signed " G. 
Valbert " being from his pen. M. Cher- 
buliez has been reinstated in his rights 
as a French citizen which had been lost 
through his ancestors having left France 
during the religious persecutions in the 



17th century. On May 25, 1882, he was 
received into the French Academy as the 
successor of M. Dufatu-e. 

CHEEIF, PACHA, an Egyptian states- 
man, born at Constantinople of an old and 
noble Mussulman family. He studied in 
Paris as a pupil of the Egyptian Mission 
maintained in France by the Egyptian 
Government, and passed through the 
Military School of Saint Cyr. He re- 
turned to Egypt in 184i. On the acces- 
sion of Said Pacha, he entered the army 
and was successively promoted to the 
rank of Pacha under the Government of 
Ismail Pacha, and filled the post of 
Minister of the Interior, Foreign Affairs, 
and Public Instruction. In 1867 he 
was raised to the post of President of the 
Grand Council of Justice. In 1868 he 
took the portfolio of the Interior with 
the Presidency of the Council of Ministers. 
In 1865, 1867, 1868, he was made Regent 
of Egypt by Ismail Pacha, when that 
Prince went abroad. Under the Govern- 
ment of Tewfik Pacha, Cherif Pacha 
became Prima Minister of Egypt, but 
resigned in 1884 in consequence of the 
abandonment of the Soudan. He is a 
grand officer of the Legion of Honour. 

CHERTJEL, Pierre Adolphe, a French 
historian, born at Eouen, Jan. 17, 1809, 
was educated at the Normal School, and 
became Professor of History at the Eoyal 
College of Eouen. In 1840 he published 
" Histoire de Rouen sous la Domination 
Anglaise," and in 1842 "Histoire de la 
Commune de Rouen." In 1849 he suc- 
ceeded M. Wallon as Maitre de Con- 
ferences at the Normal School. He was 
named Inspector-General of Public In- 
struction and rector of the Strasbourg 
Academy, Jan. 23, 1866, and of Poitiers 
in 1874. M. Cheruel has gained a 
considerable reputation by his writings. 
Among the principal are " De I'Adminis- 
tration de Louis XIV.," 1849 ; " Marie 
Stuart et Catherine de Medicis," 1856 ; 
" Memoires sur la vie Publique et Privee 
de Fouquet," 1862 ; " Histoire de France 
sous le Ministere de Mazarin," 1882. 
This last is his chief work, and is likely 
to remain the standard book on this 
period of history. As a Member of the 
Committee of Languages, History, and 
Arts of France, he edited in the series of 
unpublished documents " Journal d'Oli- 
vier Lef evre," and " Les lettres de Mazarin 
pendant son Ministere," 5 vols, in 4to, 
1860-62. He is an officer of the Legion of 
Honour and was nominated in 1884 
member of the Institute of France 
(Academic des sciences morales et 
poUtiquQS, section d'histoiye) • 

CHESNELONG, Pierre Charles, a French 

politician, was born at Orthez (Basses- 
Pyrenees), April, 1820, and educated at 
Pau. Formerly he was a dealer in hams 
and tissues at Bayonne, at first in part- 
nership with his father, but he afterwards 
handed over the management of the 
business to his eldest son, though still 
retaining an interest in it. In 1848 M. 
Chesnelong declared at a public meeting 
that " the republican form of government 
must be regarded as the only possible 
one in the present and in the future by 
all men who conscientiously take account 
of the movement of ideas and Providential 
progress of facts." However, he after- 
wards changed his sentiments and in 1866 
became an official candidate, under the 
Empire, for the representation of the 
second circonscription of the Basses- 
Pyrenees. His candidature was successful, 
and he was re-elected in 1869. At the 
elections of Jan. 1872 he was again 
returned to the National Assembly for 
the Basses - Pyrenees, and he took his 
seat among the monarchical majority. 
He took a very prominent part in the 
monarchical negociations in Oct. 1873. 
As a member of the Committee of Nine, he 
was sent to the Comte de Chambord, at 
Salzburg, in order to arrange with him 
the conditions of a monarchical restora- 
tion. M. Chesnelong took back a satis- 
factory account of his interview with the 
Pretender, and preparations were being 
made for the entry of the King into Paris 
when the manifesto of the 27th of October 
cast disorder and carried desolation into 
the Legitimist camp. At the general 
elections of Feb. 20, 1876, he was again 
chosen as Deputy for the arrondissement 
of Orthez, but the Chamber invalidated 
the election, and when M. Chesnelong 
sought the suffrages of the electors a 
second time he was defeated by his 
Republican opponent, M. Vignancourt 
(May 21, 1876). A few months later 
(Nov. 24, 1876) he was elected a senator 
j for life. M. Chesnelong has taken a 
I leading part in all Roman Catholic move- 
ments, both in and out of Parliament. 
! He accompanied the pilgrimage to Paray- 
le-Monial, in honour of the Sacred Heart, 
and he subscribed the address of the 
Roman Catholic Deputies to Pope Pius 
IX. He was President of the general 
assemblies of the Roman Catholic Com- 
mittees of France, held at Paris in 1874 
and 1875. He is Vice-President of the 
Conseil General of the Basses-Pyrt'nt'es. 

CHESNEY, Lieut.-General George Tom- 
kyns, C.B., the author of " The Battle of 
Dorking," was educated at Woolwich, 
and joined the Bengal Engineers in 1848. 



He was Lieutenant in 1854, and served 
throughout the siege of Delhi, where he 
■WHS twice severely wounded ; Captain in 
1S58 ; Major in 1872 ; Lieut.-Colonel in 
1874 ; Colonel in 1884 ; and General in 
1885. His "Indian Polity'' was pub- 
lished in 18GS ; his brochure " The Battle 
of Dorking," anonymously in 1871, and 
created a great sensation, so realistically 
was it written. " The Dilemma," and 
" The Private Secretary," were published 
in 1881. In 1887 General Chesney 
became a member of the Council of the 
Governor-General of India. 

CHESTER, Bishop of. See Jatne, The 
Et. Rev. Francis John. 

CHEYNE, Professor The Rev. Thomas 
Kelly, D.D., son of the late Eov. Charles 
Chej'ne, was boi-n in London, Sept. 18, 
1811, and educated at Merchant Taylors' 
School and Worcester College, Oxford, 
where he obtained the Chancellor's prize 
for an English Essay and various Hebrew 
and Theological University Scholarships. 
He was elected Fellow of Balliol College 
in 18G9, and was Eector of Tendring, 
Essex, from 1881-85. In 1885 he was ap- 
pointed Oriel Professor of the Interpreta- 
tion of Holy Scripture at Oxford and 
Canon of Eochester. In 1884, at the 
tercentenary celebration of the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, he received the degree 
of D.D. Professor Cheyne is the Author 
of many works on the Old Testament, 
including " The Book of Isaiah Chrono- 
logically Arranged," 18G9 ; " The Pro- 
phecies of Isaiah," 3rd ed., 1885 ; " The 
Book of Psalms, a New Version," in the 
Parchment Library, 1884 ; " Exposition 
of Jeremiah and Lamentations," 1883 ; 
'■ Job and Solomon, or, the Wisdom of 
the Hebrews," 1886; "The Book of 
Psalms, a new translation and commen- 
tary," 1888 ; " The Life and Times of 
Jeremiah," 1888. He was also a member 
of the Old Testament Eevision Company, 
and has contributed divers articles on 
biblical subjects to the new edition of th« 
" Encyclopeedia Britannica,"' and has long 
been known as one of the representatives 
of Ewald's school of criticisms and 
exegesis in England. In 1889 he deliv- 
ered the Bampton Lectures, taking for 
his subject, " The Historical Origin and 
Eeligious Ideas of the Psalter " (in the 

CHEYNE, William "Watson. M.B., was 

educated at the LTniversity of Edinburgh, 
where he passed with First Class Honours 
in 1875. He was elected a Fellow of the 
Koyal College of Surgeons in 1870 ; 
JJoylston' M^dal Prizeman s^nd Gold 

Medallist, 1880 ; and Jacksonian Prizeman, 
1881. He was Demonstrator of Surgery 
at King's College, and Demonstrator of 
Anatomy at the University of Edinburgh ; 
Surgeon to King's College Hospital and 
to the Paddington Green Children's Hos- 
pital ; Examiner in Surgery at Edinburgh 
LJniversit}' ; and Hiinterian Professor 
at the Eoyal College of Surgeons of Eng- 
land in 1888 and 1890. He is the author 
of "Antiseptic Surgery, its Principles, 
Practice, History, and Eesults ; " " Manual 
of the Antiseptic Treatment of Woimds ; " 
" Public Health Laboratory Work : Part 
I., Biological Laboratory ; " Lectm-es on 
Suppuration and Septic Disease; on 
Intercular Diseases of Bones and Joints, 
and has contributed numerous papers 
on surgical and scientific subjects to the 
Medical Journals and the learned 

CHICHESTER, Bishop of. See Durnfokd, 
The Eight Eev. Eichard. 

CHICHESTER, Dean of. See Pigou,Thk 
Vert Eev. Francis. 

CHILDERS, The Right Hon. Hugh 
Culling Eardley, M.P., F.E.S., was bom 
in Brook Street, London, June 25, 1827, 
and is the only son of the late Eev. 
Eardley Childers, of Cantley, Yorkshire, 
by Maria Charlotte, eldest daughter of 
the late Sir Culling Smith, Bart., of 
Bedwell Park, Hertfordshire. He was 
educated at Clieam School, and at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated 
as fourteenth Senior Optime in 1850. 
Before that year was out, Mr. Childers set 
sail for Australia. Soon after his arrival 
there he became a member of the then 
recently established Government of 
Victoria. With that Government he 
was connected till the beginning of 1857, 
having held the office of Commissioner 
of Trade and Customs in the first cabinet, 
and having been member for Portland in 
the first Legislative Assembly. He re- 
turned to England in 1857 to take up 
the office of Agent-General for the colony, 
and in that year proceeded to the degree 
of M.A. at Cambridge. He also became 
a student of Lincoln's Inn, but he was 
never called to the Bar. In 1859 he was 
an unsuccessful candidate for Pontefract. 
On a petition, which was withdrawn and 
afterwards became the subject of special 
inquiry by a select committee, he un- 
seated his opponent, was returned at the 
new election in Feb., 18G0, and continued 
to represent that borough in the Liberal 
interest until Nov., 1885, when he was 
defeated by the Irish vote. Mr. Childers 
■vras ehairman of the Select Committee on 



Transpoi'tation in 1861, and a member 
of the Comniission on Penal Servitude in 
1863 ; his recommendations with respect 
to transportation having been eventually 
adopted Vjy the Government. He became 
a Lord of the Admiralty in April, 1864, 
and Financial Secretary to the Treasury 
in Aiig., 1865, retiring on the accession 
of Lord Derby's third administration in 
1866. In 1867 he was nominated a Eoyal 
Commissioner to investigate the con- 
stitution of the Law Courts. On Mr. 
Gladstone's coming into power in Dec, 
1868, Mr. Childers was nominated First 
Lord of the Admiralty, which ofifice he 
was compelled by ill-health to resign in 
March, 1871. While at the Admiralty 
Mr. Childers made changes, in 1869, 
which tended to subordinate the members 
of the Board more effectually to the First 
Lord, constituting him, in effect. Minister 
of Marine ; and to render departmental 
officers at once more individually re- 
sponsible and more intimate with the 
controlling members of the Board. He 
also revised and reduced the list of 
officers ; recast, from top to bottom, the 
regulations for promotion and retire- 
ment ; established a fixed annual tonnage 
for the construction of ironclads and 
other ships ; reformed the administration 
of the dockyards ; and cleared the coast- 
guard and home ports of men unfit 
for service at sea. He was appointed 
Chancellor of the Diichy of Lancaster in 
Aug., 1872. His re-election for Pontefi-act 
on this occasion is memorable as being 
the first Parliamentary election that took 
place in England by ballot. He held the 
Chancellorship of the Duchy of Lan- 
caster for only one year, retiring in 1873, 
when Mr. Gladstone's administration was 
remodelled. On the Liberals returning 
to power in April, 1880, he was appointed 
Secretary of State for War, in which office 
he established the territorial regimental 
system, revised the lists of officers, and 
applied to them rxiles for employment 
and retirement similar to those which he 
had inti'oduced into the navy. He also 
established regimental warrant officers, 
and improved the position of the non- 
commissioned officers. He was Secretary 
of State during the Egyi^tian campaign 
of 1882. On Dec. 16, 1882, he became 
Chancellor of the Exchequer in succession 
to Mr. Gladstone, who had held that 
office jointly with the office of First Lord 
of the Treasury. Mr. Childers retired 
from this office on the defeat of the 
Government in June, 1885. In Jan., 
1886, he was elected for South Edinburgh, 
and in Mr. Gladstone's short ministry 
held the post of Home Secretary. He 
■wfts re-elected for Soiith Edinburgh at 

the general election of 1886. Mr. Childers, 
who was elected a Fellow of the Eoyal 
Society in 1868, is the author of pamphlets, 
on Free Trade, Railway Policy, and 
National Education. He has been the 
Chairman of the Great India Peninsula 
Railway Co., Chairman of the Koyal 
Mail Steam Packet Co., and a Director 
of the London and North Western Rail- 
way Co., London and County Bank, the 
Bank of Australasia, and the Liverpool 
and London and Globe Insurance Co. 
In 1850 Mr. Childers married Emily, third 
daughter of George I. A. Walker, Esq., of 
Norton, Worcestershire. (She died in 
1875.) Mr. Childers married secondly, on 
A2n'il 13, 1879, Katharine Ann, daughter 
of the late Dr. Gilbert, Bishop of Chi- 
chester, and widow of Col. the Hon. 
Gilbert Elliot. 

CHILDS, George William, was born at 
Baltimore, Maryland, May 12, 1829. He 
entered the United States Navy at the 
age of thirteen, and spent fifteen months 
in the service. He then settled in 
Philadelphia, where he obtained employ- 
ment as a shop-boy in a book-store. At 
the age of eighteen, having saved a few 
himdred dollars, he set up in business 
for himself, and when he was twenty-one 
he became a member of the piiblishing 
firm of R. E. Peterson and Co., afterwards 
Childs and Peterson. On Dec. 3, 1864, 
he purchased the Philadelphia Public 
Ledger, a daily paper, which, under his 
management, has become a very in- 
fluential and widely-circulated journal. 
Mr. Childs is noted not only for his 
success as a journalist and publisher, but 
also for his imostentatious philanthropy. 
The jDublic drinking-f ountain at Stratford- 
upon-Avon was erected by him, 1887, as 
a memorial to Shakespeare, and he has 
placed in Westminster Abbey a window 
memorial to Herbert and Cowpei-, 1877, 
and one in St. Margaret's Church, West- 
minster, as a memorial to Milton, 1888; 
and has also given, 1889, to the Church 
of SS. Thomas and Clement, Winchester, 
a reredos as a memorial of Bishops 
Lancelot Andrewes and Ken. In 1885, 
he published " Some Recollections of 
General Grant," and in 1890 a volume of 
his own " Recollections " was issued. 

James Robert Alexander, LL.B., D.D., 

Bishop of Argyll and the Isles, is the only 
son of the late Alexander Haldane, Bar- 
rister-at-Law, heir male of the family of 
Haldane of Gleneagles {see Burke's Landed 
Gentry, Vol. I., p. 808), and was born in 
1842, and educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, where he took hi? degree Qf 



LL.B., 18G4, and D.D., 1888. He was 
ordained Deacon in 1806, and Priest in 
18tJ7, both by the Bishop of Salisbury ; and 
became Assistant Curate of All Saints', 
Edinbui'gh, which curacy he held for 
about seven years. He was afterwards in- 
cumbent of St. Bride's, Nether Locbaber, 
1870 ; Dean of Argyll and the Isles, 1881 ; 
Bishop of Argyll and the Isles, 1883. He 
married in 1861, Anna Elizabeth Frances 
Margaretta, only child and heiress of Eev. 
Sir Nicholas Chinnery, Bart., of Flintville, 
Co. Cork, when he assumed the additional 
name of Chinnery. 

CHITTY, The Hon. Sir Joseph William, 
is the second and only surviving son of 
the late Mr. Thomas Chitty, of the Inner 
Temple, and was born in London in 182S. 
He was educated at Eton and Balliol 
College, Oxford, where he graduated in 
1851, taking a first-class in classics. 
Subsequently he was elected a Fellow of 
Exeter College, and proceeded M.A. in 
1854. He was called to the Bar at 
Lincoln's Inn in 185G, and was appointed 
a Queen's Counsel in 1874. Mr. Chitty 
for some j'ears enjoyed a very extensive 
practice in the Eolls Court, of which he 
was the leader. He was formerly a Major 
in the Inns of Court Volunteers. To 
the general pviblic, however, Mr. Chitty's 
name was most familiarly known in his 
capacity as umpire at the Oxford and 
Cambridge boat-race, which post he filled 
for some years. He entered Parliament 
at the general election of 1880 as one of 
the Liberal members for Oxford. In 
Sept., 1881, he was appointed a Judge of 
the Chancery Division of the High Court 
of Ju.stice, in place of Sir George Jessel, 
the Master of the Rolls, who had been 
transferred to the Court of Appeal. 
Shortly afterwards he received the cus- 
tomary honour of knighthood. He mar- 
ried in 1858 Clara Jessie, sixth daughter 
of the late Right Hon. Sir Frederick 

CHEISTIAN IX., King of Denmark, 
fourth son of the late Duke William of 
Schleswig - Holstein - Sonderburg - Gliicks- 
burg, was born April 8, 1818. Before 
his accession to the crown, he was In- 
spector-General and Commander - in - 
Chief of the Danish Cavalry. The succes- 
sion was vested in him by the protocol of 
London, May 8, 1852, and he ascended the 
throne on the death of Frederic VII., Nov. 
15, 1863. On his accession, the position of 
affairs with respect to Schleswig-Holstein 
was completely changed. The son of the 
Diike of Augustenburg immediately laid 
claim to the sovereignty of the duchies, 
although his father had for a compensa- 

tion resigned all his rights in 1852. The 
independence of Holstein more esi)ecially, 
and of a portion of Schleswig, was 
warmly espoused by the German Diet, 
which forthwith ordered the advance of 
a Federal army to occupy the debatable 
territory, for the purpose of enforcing its 
enfranchisement from Danish rule. Be- 
fore matters had proceeded far, Austria 
and Prussia determined to intei'fere, 
and by a combined armed occupation of 
the disputed territory to bring the ques- 
tion to an issue independently of the 
Diet, and in opposition to the wishes of 
that body. They accordingly invaded 
the duchies, which, after a hotly con- 
tested campaign, they succeeded in 
wresting from Denmark, also taking 
temporary possession of Jutland. Chris- 
tian IX., disapi^ointed in not obtaining 
assistance from some Eiu-opean power, 
after the failure of the conference con- 
vened in London in 1864, — which failure 
was in some measure attributable to the 
obstinacy of the Danish Government, — 
entered into negotiations for peace with 
Prussia and Austria, and a treaty was 
signed at Vienna, Oct. 30, 1864. The 
king of Denmark renounced all his rights 
to Schelswig-Holstein and Lauenburg, 
and in 1866 the two German powers 
quarrelled over the spoil. Since then his 
Majesty has sought to develop the in- 
terior resoiu'ces and popular institutions 
of his country. A new constitution was 
inaugurated in Nov., 1866, when the King 
opened the first Rigsdag, the members 
of which were elected in accordance with 
the new electoral law. The army and 
navy have also been thoroughly reor- 
ganised, agriculture and commerce have 
received a great stimulus, and several 
railways have been constructed. In spite 
of this, however, the social state of the 
country is far from satisfactory ; the 
hostility between the leaders of the 
people and the Court party is intense, 
and the Crown is by no means popular. 
Christian IX. and Queen Louise visited the 
Princess of Wales at Marlborough House, 
London, in March, 1807. The marriage 
of the Crown Prince of Denmark with 
the Princess Louisa, daxighter of the 
King of Sweden, at Stockholm, on July 
28, 1869, was hailed as a pledge of union 
between the two countries. His Majesty 
granted a new constitution to Iceland, 
which came into operation in August, 
1874, that being the thousandth year of 
Iceland's existence as a nation. He went 
to Reikiajvik on the occasion of the anni- 
versary being celebrated, and on his 
return paid a flying visit to Leith and 
Edinburgh, Aug. 18, 1874. He visited 
the Emperor William H. of Germany at 



Berlin in Aug., 1888, and in tbe autumn 
of 1889 was visited by the Emperor of 
Russia and his family. In 1842 he mar- 
ried a daughter of the Landgrave William 
of Hesse-Cassel, by whom he has had 
several childx-en, and among them the 
King of Greece, the Princess Alexandra 
of Wales, and the Princess Dagmar, mar- 
ried to the Emperor of Russia. 

CHEISTIAN (Princess), Her Eoyal 
Highness Helena Augusta Victoria, Prin- 
cess of Great Britain and Ireland, and 
Duchess of Saxony, third daughter of Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria, was born May 
25, 1846, and married at Windsor Castle, 
July 5, 18CG, to His Eoyal Highness 
Frederick - Christian - Charles - Augustus, 
Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg- 
Augustenburg, and has four children. On 
Her Royal Highness's marriage a dower 
of d£30,000 and an annuity of d£G,000 was 
granted to her by Parliament. The 
Princess is a Member of the Royal Order 
of Victoria and Albert (1st Class), and a 
Lady of the Imperial Order of the Crown 
of India, and of the Royal Red Cross, 

CHRISTIAN (Prince), His Eoyal High- 
ness Frederick-Christian-Charles- Augustus, 
Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg, 
K.G., born Jan. 22, 1831, married Jiily 5, 
18t5G, Helena Augusta Victoria, Princess 
of Great Britain and Ireland ; Prince 
Christian received the title of Royal 
Highness by command of Her Majesty, 
and was made a Knight of the Garter in 
July, 186G. 

CHRISTIE, William Henry Mahony, 
F.R.S., P.R.A.S., Astronomer Royal, was 
born at Woolwich in 1845, and is the son 
of the late Professor S. H. Christie. He 
was educated at King's College School, 
London, and Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and became a fellow of his college. He 
graduated B.A., 18G8, as fourth wrangler ; 
was api^ointed, in 1870, Chief Assistant 
at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. 
On Sir G. B. Aii-y's retirement in 1881, 
Mr. Christie was appointed Astronomer 
Royal. He is the author of the " Manual 
of Elementary Astronomy," and has con- 
tributed valuable papers to the Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Society (of which 
he was elected Fellow in 1881), and the 
Royal Astronomical Society (of which 
he was elected Fellow in 1871). 

CHRISTINA, Queen-Regent of Spain, 
See Makia Christina. 

CHURCH. The Rev. Alfred John, born in 
London, Jan. 29, 1829, son of Jphn 

Thomas Church, solicitor, was educated 
at King's College, London, and Lincoln 
College, Oxford, where he graduated in 
1851 (2nd class in Lit. Hum.). He 
was ordained in 1853, and held the 
curacy of Charlton, Malmesbury, till the 
end of 185G. He was successively As- 
sistant Master at the Royal Institution 
School, Liverpool, and at Merchant 
Taylors' School, London, 1857-70 ; and 
Head Master of Henley, 1870-72 ; and of 
Retford Grammar Schools, 1873-80. In 
1880 he was appointed to the Chair of 
Latin at University College, London; 
this he resigned in 1889. He has pub- 
lished, in conjunction with the Rev. W. 
T. Brodribb, a translation of " Tacitus," 
18G2-77, and of Livy, xxi.-xxv.,an edition 
of " Select Letters of Pliny, and Pliny 
the Younger," in " Blackwood's Ancient 
Classics for English Readers," "Tacitus," 
in "Macmillan's Series of Literature 
Primers," and editions of " Tacitus, 
Annals VI. and Agricola and Germania." 
He contributed " Ovid " to Blackwood's 
series above mentioned, and is conductor 
of " Seeley's Cheap School Books," 
several of which come from his pen. He 
also edited, in 1SG8, a collection of trans- 
lations from Tennyson into Latin verse, 
under the title of " Horse Tennysonianse." 
But the works by which he is best known 
are a series of volumes which aim at 
poj^ularising some of the great Greek 
and Latin classics. " Stories from 
Homer," appeared in 1877, and were fol- 
lowed by " Stories from Virgil," " Stories 
from the Greek Tragedians," " Stories 
from the East," " The Story of the Per- 
sian War," " Stories from Livy," 
" Roman Life in the Days of Cicero," "A 
Traveller's True Tale, after Lucian." 
" The Story of Jerusalem," and " Heroes 
and Kings " belong to the same series. 
Other books for the young written by 
him are " The Chantry Priest of Barnet," 
"With the King at Oxford," "Two 
Thousand Years Ago; or. The Adven- 
tures of a Roman Boy," " Stories of the 
Magicians," and "To the Lions ! " a talc 
of the Early Church. He has also 
written " Carthage," and " Early Bri- 
tain," " Carthage," in Messrs. G. P. Put- 
nam & Sons' " Series of the Story of the 
Nations." Mr. Church obtained, in 1884, 
at Oxford the Prize for a Poem on a 
Sacred Subject. The subject was " The 
Sea of Galilee." 

CHURCH, Arthur Herbert, F.R.S., 
F.C.S., fourth and youngest son of the 
late John Thomaa Church, solicitor, of 
Bedford Row, was born June 2, 1834, 
educated at King's College ai^d the Royal 
College of Chemistry, JjQndon, and ftt 



Lincoln College, Oxford ; first-class in 
Natural Science School, Oxford ; B.A. 
1860, M.A. 1863 ; has been Professor of 
Chemistry in the Koyal Academy of Arts 
in London since 1879 ; Lecturer on 
Organic Chemistry at Cooper's Hill 
College since 1888. He was formerly, 
1863-1879, Professor of Chemistry in the 
Eoyal Agricultural College, Cirencester. 
Mr. Church is the Discoverer of Turacin, 
an Animal Pigment containing Copper, 
and of several new mineral sj^ecies, 
including the only British Cerium 
mineral. He is the Author of " Pre- 
cious Stones," 1883 ; "English Earthen- 
ware," 1884 ; " English Porcelain," 1886 ; 
" The Laboratory Guide for Agricul- 
tural Students," 6th edit., 1888 ; "Food 
grains of India." 1886 ; " Colour," 2nd 
edit., 1887; "Food," 2nd edit., 1889, 
&c. Author of researches on Vegetable 
Albinism, on Colein or Erythrophyll, on 
Aluminium in Vascular Cryptogams, etc. 
He was elected Fellow of the Cheuiical 
Society in 1856 ; Fellow of the Eoyal 
Society in 1888. 

CHUECH, Frederic Edwin, an American 
artist, was bom at Hartford, Connecticut, 
May 14, 1826. He early developed a 
fondness for art, and became a pupil of 
Thomas Cole. Among his first notable 
works were some views in the Catskill 
Mountains. He visited South America 
in 1853, and again in 1857, and on his 
return from his second visit finished his 
great picture, "The Heart of the Andes." 
In 1857 he completed a large painting, 
" View of Niagara Falls from the Cana- 
dian Shore," which at once gave him a 
high rank among landscape artists ; this 
was reproduced on a larger scale in 1868, 
and was exhibited both in England and in 
the United Stales. He has since painted 
"Cotopaxi," " Morning," " On the Coi-d- 
illeras," "Under Niagara," "The Ice- 
bergs," "Sunset on Mount Desert Island," 
and " Moonlight under the Tropics." In 
1868 he visited Europe and the Holy 
Land. Among the paintings inspired by 
this visit are "Damascus," 1869; "Jeru- 
salem," 1870 ; and " The Parthenon," 
1871. His " Tropical Scenery," painted 
from sketches made during a trip in the 
West Indies, was exhibited in New York 
in 1873. He has been an Academician 
since 1849. 

CHTJECH. The Very Eev. Eichard 
"WiUiam, M.A., D.C.L., Dean of St. Paul's 
was born at Lisbon in 1815. After a dis- 
tinguished career at the University of 
Oxford, he took his degree in first-class 
honours in 1836, and shortly afterwards 
became a- Fellow of Oriel College. He 

was rector of Whatley, near Frome-Sel- 
wood, from 1853 to 1871. In 1854 he 
published a volume of essays, two of 
which are a review of St. Anselm's life, 
and have since been expanded into a 
" Life of St. Anselm," and published as a 
separate volume. In 1869 Mr. Church 
published a volume of University Sermons 
on the relations between Christianity and 
civilisation. He was appointed Dean of 
St. Paul's, Sept. 6, 1871. The titles of 
his works are subjoined : — " The Cate- 
chetical Lectiu'es of St. Cyril, translated 
with notes," in the " Library of the 
Fathers ; " " Essays and Reviews," 1854 ; 
" The Essays of Montaigne," in " Oxford 
Essays," 1855 ; " Civilisation and Eeli- 
gion," a sermon, 1860 ; " Sermons 
preached before the University of Ox- 
ford," 1868; "Life of St. Anselm," in 
Macmillan's " Sunday Library," 1871 ; 
"Civilisation Before and After Christi- 
anity," two lectures, 1872 : " On some 
Influences of Christianity upon National 
Character," three lectures, 1873 ; " On 
the Sacred Poetry of Early Religions," 
two lectures delivered in St. Paiil's Cathe- 
dral, 1874 ; Introductory notice to the 
" Commentary on the Epistles and 
Gospels in the Book of Common Prayer," 

1874 ; " The ' Pensees ' of Blaise Pascal," 
published in the " St. James's Lectures," 

1875 ; a lecture on " Lancelot Andrewes, 
Bishop of Winchester." published in 
" Masters in English Theology," 1877 : 
" The Beginning of the Middle Ages," 
1877, a volume which must be considered 
as a general introduction or i:)reface to 
the "Epochs of Modern History," rather 
than as an integral member of the series ; 
" Human Life and its Conditions," 1878 ; 
"Dante: an Essay," to which is added a 
translation of "De Monarcha," 1878 : and 
"Spenser" and "Bacon," in "English 
Men of Letters, edited by John Morley," 
1879. Several of these Essays are 
included, with others, in a collection in 5 
vols., 1888-9. Dean Church is a promi- 
nent member of the High Church party, 
and his recent erection of the reredos in 
St. Paul's Cathedral has given rise to 
much controversy and litigation, the 
very summit of the reredos being an 
image of the Virgin Mary. 

CHUECHILL, The Eight Hon. Lord Ean- 
dolph Henry Spencer. M.P., second son of 
the sixth Duke of Marlborough by his 
marriage with Lady Frances Anne Emily, 
eldest daughter of the third Marquis of 
Londonderry, was born Feb. 13, 1849, 
and educated at Merton College, Oxford. 
He represented Woodstock from Feb., 
1874, until April, 1880, and again from 
that time (when he was returned with a 



diminished majority) until Nov., 1885. He 
afterwards stood for Birmingham, but was 
defeated, and was then returned for South 
Paddington. From 187i to 1880 he was 
almost silent in the House ; but from 
1880 onward he made himself conspicuous 
in the House of Commons and on public 
platforms by the violence of his speeches 
against the Liberal Party, and he was the 
chief member of that small section of the 
House known as the " Fourth Party." 
On the accession of Lord Salisbury's 
Government to office in 1885, Lord Ran- 
dolph Churchill fi^lled the post of Secre- 
tary of State for India ; and his promo- 
tion to that high place was a proof of the 
importance that he had assumed in the 
ranks of the Conservative party. In the 
country, indeed, he was already regarded 
as almost, if not quite, the Tory leader ; 
and it was commonly said that the mantle 
of Lord Beaconsfield had fallen iipon the 
young, able, irrepi'essible, unscrupulous, 
but acute and hard-working chief of the 
Tory Democracy. Lord Randolph's short 
tenure of the India Ofiice was marked 
by the annexation of Upper Burmah. 
Departmental work, however, did not 
prevent his taking a great part in the 
struggle which, at the general election of 
Nov., 1885, again returned the Liberals to 
power. He resigned office with Lord 
Salisbury only to return after six months, 
not as Secretary for India, but as Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, and Leader of 
the House of Commons; but, to the 
surprise of all, he resigned office in Dec. 
of the same year. Lord Randolph 
married, in 1874, Miss Jennie Jerome, of 
New York, who has since become a pro- 
minent member of the Primrose League. 

CIALDINI, Enrico, an Italian General, 
born at Lombardina, a country seat in 
Modena, Aug. 8, 1811. He marched with 
Gen. Zucchi to aid the Romagna insur- 
rection at Bologna, in 1831 ; and after the 
Austrian intervention in Central Italy 
he was compelled to emigrate. He went 
to Paris, where he studied chemistry 
under M. Thenard, and was preparing to 
study medicine, when he accepted a 
proposal made to go to Spain as a soldier, 
and took part in the war of succession. 
When the revolution of 184.8 broke out, 
he was a lieutenant-colonel in the Spanish 
service. Mazzini recommended Colonel 
Cialdini to the Provincial Government of 
Milan, which was in want of officers, and 
a letter from the secretary of that govern- 
ment reached him in Aragon. Colonel 
Cialdini obeyed the call ; but on arriving 
at Milan, he found Lombardy under the 
rule of Charles Albert. It was not the 
moment for hesitating ; the king had 

just been beaten, and Italy was about to 
become a prey to Austria. Col. Cialdini 
joined the corps of Gen. Durando and 
marched on Vicenza, where he received 
three dangerous wounds, which for a 
year reduced him to a state of helpless- 
ness. Col. Cialdini was sent, in 1855, to 
the Crimea by the Sardinian Government 
with the rank of general, and played a 
distinguished part in the battle of the 
Tchernaya. In the war in Italy, in 1859, 
he was the first in the allied army who 
fired a shot at the enemy, executing the 
passage of the Sesia under the fire of the 
Axistrians, whom he drove from their 
position. This corps d'armee then went 
into the mountains to act in the Tyrol. 
The peace of Villafranca checked him in 
his career. In 1860 he defeated the 
Papal army under Gen. Lamoriciere at 
the battle of Castelfidardo ; in 1861 he 
took Gaeta after a bombardment of 
seventeen days, and captured the citadel 
of Messina a fortnight later. He had 
been made a major-general after the 
campaign of the tJmbria, and after his 
capture of Messina the king nominated 
him general of the army, a rank equiva- 
lent to that of field-marshal. In 1861 he 
was appointed Viceroy of Naples, with 
full power to suppress brigandage, a 
mission which he discharged successfully. 
Gen. Cialdini, who has received various 
Orders, was made a senator in March, 
1864, and took a prominent part in the 
campaign against Austria in 1866. In 
Oct., 1867, he was appointed Italian 
Minister to the Court of Austria, but he 
never proceeded to Vienna, and in the 
following Janiiary he formally resigned 
the appointment. On the resignation of 
M. Ratazzi, in Oct., 1867, the king in- 
trusted Gen. Cialdini with the forma- 
tion of a cabinet on the basis of the strict 
maintenance of the September Conven- 
tion with France, in regard to the 
integrity of the Papal territory. In 
this undertaking, however, he was lui- 
successful. Soon afterwards he was nomi- 
nated Commander-in-Chief of the troops 
in Central Italy. In 1870 he was engaged 
in the invasion of the Papal States and 
their annexation to the Kingdom of 
Italy. He was sent as ambassador to 
Paris in July, 1876 ; but, after success- 
fully overcoming many difficulties, re- 
tired on leave of absence owing to the 
strained relations between Italy and 
France over the Tiinis question in 1881, 
and in 1882 was sxicceeded by Gen. 

and Earl of Athlone, His Royal Highness 



EDWAKD, K.G., K.P., LL.D., the eldest 
son of their Eoyal Highnesses the Prince 
and Princess of Wales, was born Jan. 8, 
18G4. Up till 1871 he was educated at 
home. In 1877 he entered the navy as a 
cadet, and on board H.M.S. Britannia at 
Dartmouth, under the care of Captain 
Henry Fairfax, E.N. ,C.B., passed the usual 
two years. In July, 1879, he went to sea 
in H.M.S. Bacdiante and visited the West 
Indies. The following year the Bacchante, 
formed part of the flying squadron, then 
organized under the command of Eear- 
Admiral the Earl of Clanwilliam, and 
proceeded to Vigo, Madeira, St. Vincent, 
Bahia, Montevideo, and the Falkland 
Islands ; thence to the Cape of Good 
Hope and Australia, on which two sta- 
tions Prince Albert Victor spent a 
considerable time. From Australia he 
went to Fiji, Japan, China, Singapore, 
Colombo, and Suez, and returned to 
England in the summer of 1882 by way 
of Egypt, the Holy Land, and Athens. 
In Oct., 1883, he became an under- 
graduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
continuing his studies during the long 
vacations at the University of Heidelberg. 
After this he was transferred to Alder- 
shot to study military science. His 
diary, together with that of his brother. 
Prince George, during their cruise in the 
Bacchante, was published in the spring 
of 1885, the editor being the Rev. J. N. 
Dalton, the Princes' Tutor. In 1887 the 
Prince visited Ireland ; and in 1889 he 
visited India. He was created Hon. 
LL.D. of Cambridge in 1888. 

CLARETIE. Jules Arnaud Arsene, a 
French writer, born at Limoges, Dec. 3, 
1840, was educated in the Bonaparte 
Lyceum, at Paris. Adopting literature 
as a profession, he contributed a very 
large number of articles to various 
French and Belgian journals, including 
La Patrie, La France, La Revue Franraise, 
La Figaro, and L' Lndependance Beige. In 
1866 he followed in Italy the campaign 
against Austria, in the capacity of cor- 
respondent of L'Avenir National. Two 
series of lectures, delivei-ed by him in 
Paris in 1865 and 1868, were interdicted 
by the Imperial authorities. In 1869 he 
was condemned to pay a fine of 1000 
francs for having described, in La Figaro, 
under the pseudonym of " Candide," the 
double execution of Martin, called 
Bidoure, by order of the Prefect 
Pastoureau, in the department of the 
Var. In the following year he succeeded 
M. Francisque Sarcey as dramatic critic 
of L' Opinion Nationale, and subsequently 
he followed the French army to Metz, 
and sent letters from the seat of wra- to 

L' Opinion Nationale, L' Illustration, and 
Le Rappel. After the fall of the Empire 
he was appointed by M. Gambetta to the 
post of secretary of the Commission of 
the papers of the Tuileries ; but he soon 
resigned that oflBce, and he was next 
charged by M. Etienne Arago, Mayor of 
Paris, with the duty of organising a 
library and lecture-hall in each of the 
twenty arrondissements of Paris. For a 
very short time he commanded the second 
battalion of the volunteers of the 
National Guard, which was dissolved by 
General Clement Thomas when those 
volunteers were replaced by the mobilised 
National Guards. M. Jules Claretie was 
present at nearly all the engagements 
which took place under the walls of 
Paris : and on Jan. 20, 1871, in the capacity 
of an officer of the staff, he negotiated 
with the aide-de-camp of the Crown 
Prince of Prussia the truce which gave 
an oj^portunity for removing the dead 
from the field of battle at Buzenval. At 
the general elections of Feb. 8, 1871. he 
stood as a candidate in the department 
of Haute-Vienne, in the republican 
interest ; but, being unsuccessful, he 
resumed his journalistic and literary 
pursuits. He has published thirty or 
forty volumes of causeries, history, and 
fiction, of which the novels " Monsieiu- 
le Ministre " and " Le Prince Zilah " are 
the most celebrated. Both have been 
produced on the stage. On the death of 
M. Perrin, M. Claretie was appointed 
Director of the Theatre Franraise, 1889. 
M. Claretie was created Officer of the 
Legion of Honour in 1887, and elected 
into the Academic Franraise in 1889. 

CLARK, Sir Andrew, Bart., M.D.,F.E.S., 
LL.D., Cambridge, Edinburgh, and 
Aberdeen, born on Oct. 28, 1826, was 
educated first at Aberdeen, and after- 
wards at Edinburgh. In the extra- 
academical Medical School of that city he 
gained the first medals in anatomy, 
physiology, chemistry, botany, materia 
medica, surgery, pathology, and practice 
of physic. For two years he assisted Dr. 
Hughes Bennett in the pathological 
department of the Eoyal Infirmary, and 
was demonstrator of anatomy to Dr. 
Eobert Knox in the final course of 
lectures delivered by that celebrated 
anatomist. For four years Dr. Clark 
had charge of the pathological dej^art- 
ment of the Eoyal Naval Hospital at 
Haslar, where he delivered lectures on 
the use of the microscope in practical 
medicine. In 1854 he took his degree of 
M.D. at the University of Aberdeen, 
settled in the metropolis, became a 
member of the Eoyal College of Physi- 



cians of London; and was elected on the 
stafif of the London Hospital. In 1858 
Dr. Clark was made a Fellow of the Eoyal 
College of Physicians, in which he held 
the offices of Croonian and Lumelian 
Lecturer, Councillor, Examiner in Medi- 
cine, and Censor. He has been also 
Lettsomian Lecturer and President of 
the Medical Society of London. Dr. 
Clark originally intended to devote him- 
self exclusively to the cultivation of 
pathology ; but being turned by the force 
of circumstances from the course on which 
he had entered, he has been now long 
occupied in the work of a practical physi- 
cian. He is the author of numerous 
essays, lectures, and reviews, the pro- 
fessional portion of which refers for 1 h 3 
most part to diseases of the respiratory, 
renal, and digestive organs. He was 
created a Baronet in 1883. He is at 
present Consulting Physician and Lecturer 
on Clinical Medicine to the London 
Hospital ; an P.R.S., an LL.D. of Cam- 
bridge, Edinburgh, and Abei-deen (honoris 
causa), an Honorary Fellow of the 
King and Queen's College of Physicians 
in Ireland, and Consulting Physician to 
the East London Hospital for Diseases of 
Children. He has held the offices of Pre- 
sident of the Metropolitan Counties 
Branch of the British Medical Associa- 
tion, and President of the Clinical Society. 
In 1888 he was elected President of the 
Eoyal College of Physicians, and was re- 
elected in 1889 and in 1890. Among his 
professional writings are : — " On the 
Anatomy of the Lungs," in Dr. H. 
Davies's work on " Physical Diagnosis ; " 
" On Tubercular Sputum ; " " Evidences 
of the Arrestment of Phthisis ; " " Mucous 
Disease of the Colon;" Lectures on "The 
Anatomy of the Lxing ; " " Pneumonia," 
and "The States of Lung comprehended 
under the term Phthisis Pulmonalis" 
(delivered at the Eoyal College of Physi- 
cians in 186G) ; "Fibroid Phthisis" (in 
vol. i. of the Transactions of the Clinical 
Society) ; " The Work of Fibrinous Pleu- 
risies in the Evolution of Phthisis " (in 
the Medical Mirror for 1870) ; " Eenal 
Inadequacy;" "The Theory of Asthma;" 
"Neurasthenia;" "Anaemia;" "Pneu- 
monia ; " " Constipation." The following 
is the speech of the Public Orator at 
Cambridge (Dr. Sandys) on presenting 
Sir Andrew Clark for an honoraa-y degree 
on June 10, 1890. The reference to 
Mr. Gladstone is particularly happy : — 
Salutamus deincejs salutis ministrum, 
Aesculapii e filiis unum, quern idcirco 
praesertim Machaona nominaverira quod 
saeculi nostri oratorum cum Nestore ipso 
totiens consociatus est ; — nisi forte, 
Romano j)otius exemplo delectatus. 

mavult AsclepiafEs illius disertissimi 
nomen mutuari, quo medico et amico 
utebatur Lucius Licinius Crassus, saeculi 
svii oratorum eloquentissimus. In re 
publica partium liberalium studiosus, 
in re privata liberalitate singular! 
insignis, non modo medicinae sed etiani 
philosophiae et religionis jjeneti-alia 
ingressus est. Etiam antiques meministis 
quondam non de corporis tantum salute 
sed etiam de rebus fere omnibvis quae 
vitam anxiam et soUicitam reddant, ab 
ipso Aesculapio solitos esse oracula ex- 
poscere. Viri talis igitur, velut iiiris- 
consulti Eomani, domus, est velut 
civitatis oracixlum, unde cives eius, ut 
Apollo Pythius apud Ennium dicit, 
consilium expetunt, non salutis tantum 
sed etiani " summarum reruni incerti," 
quos incepti certos "compotesque consili 
dimittit." Ergo virum, quern aut littera- 
rum aut scientiae aut medicinae doctorem 
nominare potuissemus, iuris doctorem 
non immerito creamus. Duco ad vos 
medicinae professorem emeritiim, Eegii 
Medicorum Collegii Londinensis prae- 
sidem, baronettum insignem, suavem, 
eruditum, eloquentem, Andream Clark. 

CLARK. Fdwin Charles, LL.D. of Cam- 
bridge, F.S.A. ; Barrister - at - Law of 
Lincoln's Inn ; Eegius Professor of Civil 
Law, Cambridge ; Professor of Eoman 
Law to the London Council of Legal 
Education ; Present Fellow of St. John's 
and late Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge ; was born in 1835 y» Ellin- 
thorp Hall, Boroughbridge, TMrkshire ; 
educated at Eichmond School, jBrkshire, 
Shrewsbury School, and Trin^ College, 
Cambridge, and was 7th Senior Optime 
in Mathematical Tripos, Senior Classic, 
j and Senior Chancellor's Medallist 
'■ (Classical), 1858. His publications are : — 
j " Early Eoman Law,'^ 1872 ; "An Analysis 
1 of Criminal Liability," 1880 ; " Practical 
! Jurisprudence," 1883 ; "Cambridge Legal 
j Studies," 1888 ; and various papers 
: published by the Eoyal Archseological 
I Institute, and the Cambridge Antiquarian 

CLAEK, Latimer, C.E., F.R.S., F.E.A.S., 
' M.I.C.E., Past President of the Institu- 
tion of Electrical Engineers, and Cheva- 
lier of the Legion d'Honneur, was boru 
at Great Marlow, in Buckinghamshire, 
on March 10, 1822, and in the year 1817 
he commenced railway surveying, and 
his brother, Mr. Edwin Clark, who had 
been engaged in making a number of ex- 
periments preliminary to the construction 
of the Britannia Tubular Bridge across 
the Menai Strait, having been appointed 
Superintending Engineer of that great 



work, Mr. Latimer Clark became his 
Assistant Engineer, and afterwards 
published a small work entitled : " A 
Description of the Britannia and Conway 
Tubular Bridges," which has run through 
several editions. In 1850 he entered the 
service of the Electric Telegraph Com- 
pany as Assistant Engineer, under his 
brother. He afterwards became their 
Engineer-in-Chief and Consulting Engi- 
neer, an office which he held until the 
General Post Office finally took over the 
telegraphs, in Jan., 1870. In the year 
18.53 he made a long series of researches 
on the subject of the underground tele- 
graph wires, the results of which were 
afterwards fully set forth in the Govern- 
ment Report, issued in 1861, on Sub- 
marine Telegraph Cables. In the course 
of the experiments he was the first to 
witness the retardation of electric signals 
in submarine lines, and to demonstrate 
that currents of low tension travel as fast 
as those of high tension. At the request 
of Professor Airy, the late Astronomer 
Koyal, some of these experiments were 
repeated before Professor Faraday, and 
formed the subject of a lecture at the 
Royal Institution, delivered in Jan., 1854. 
Tliey are fully described in Faraday's 
" Experimental Researches." He also 
aided Professor Airy in the simultaneous 
announcement of time throughout the 
country, and assisted in magnetic research, 
and in 1857 was the means of affording the 
interesting information that during a dis- 
play of Aurora Borealis the magnetic 
needles were strongly affected by the mag- 
netic storm of which this northern light is 
a sign. He wrote to the Astronomer Royal 
suggesting that magnetic observatories 
should be furnished with wires stretching 
out towards the four cardinal points, to 
act as feelers for electric currents. This 
suggestion has since been acted upon 
with valuable results to science. During 
his brief intervals of leisure he amused 
himself with photography, and in 1853 
devised a plan of obtaining stereoscopic 
pictures with a single camera. In 1858 
he became a Member of the Institution of 
Civil Engineers. In the succeeding year, 
after the failure of the first Atlantic 
cable, he became for a short time Engi- 
neer to the Atlantic Cable Telegraph 
Company, and in 1860 he was chosen a 
Member of the Committee appointed 
jointly by the Government and that 
Company to inquire into the whole subject 
of Submarine Telegraph Cables. This 
investigation lasted for some time, and 
resulted in the publication of an elaborate 
and valuable report of considerable ex- 
tent, embodying all that up to the period 
of its issue was knowji yvith relation to 

submarine telegraphy. In 1861 he read 
a paper before the British Association, 
" On the Principles to be Observed in 
Forming Standards of Electric Measure- 
ments." In this paper he suggested the 
names of Ohm, Farad, and Volt, to be 
employed for the Electrical units, names 
which have since become so familiar to 
Electricians. Mr. Latimer Clark also for 
many years was Engineer to the Indian 
Government Cable lines in the Persian 
Giilf. On one occasion the expedition of 
which he had charge was wrecked in the 
" Carnatic " on the Island of Shadwan 
in the Red Sea, and he narrowly escaped 
with his life. As head of the firm of 
Clark, Forde, & Co., and in connection 
with other engineers, he has siiper- 
intended the submergence of about fifty 
thousand miles of submarine cables in all 
parts of the globe. In 18G8 he published 
a work in which he laid down with great 
clearness the principles of Electric 
measurement. It was translated into 
French, Italian, and Spanish, and eagerly 
perused by foreign savants, whose idea of 
its value may be gathered from the fact 
that when, some time afterwards, Mr. 
Latimer Clark was in Paris and entered 
a scientific meeting then sitting, the 
President rose from his seat and hailing 
with delight the advent of their visitor, 
stated that he had never fully appreciated 
the laws of Electricity until he had read 
that work. In 1871 Mr. Latimer Clark 
published, in conjunction with Mr. Robert 
Sabine, "Electrical Tables and Formula 
for Operators in Submarine Cables." In 
1873 he read before the Royal Society a 
paper on "A Single Cell Battery as a 
Standard of Electro Motive Force," now 
in general use under the name of " Clark's 
Standard Cell." In 1875 he was elected 
the fourth President of the Society of 
Electric Telegraph Engineers, and in his 
inaugural address gave some highly in- 
teresting outlines of the harbingers, and 
even what might be called premonitions, 
of the electric telegraph, mentioning the 
idea of some old writers, that two mag- 
netic needles wovdd vibrate in unison at 
any distance apart, though unconnected 
with each other. He referred to the 
fact that a Scotchman, named Charles 
Marshall, or Morrison, of Paisley, had in 
1758 published a fxxll and clear description 
of a practicable electric telegraph, sug- 
gesting that the wires should be coated 
with an insulating matei-ial ; and he re- 
ferred to the electric telegraph erected by 
the late Sir Francis Ronalds, in the year 
1816, in his garden at Hammersmith. 
He bore testimony to the remarkable 
foresight of Sir F. Ronalds with regard to 
the value of the telegraph, which, m 1S2S, 



he had proposed that the Government 
should establish all over the kinf^dom. 
The Government, however, snubbed him, 
and his invention sliared the fate of 
many others, beinLf before its time. Mr. 
Latimer Clark has taken out about 150 
patents in different countries to secure 
the value of his various inventions, re- 
lating not only to electrical telegraphy, 
but also to engineering work in general. 

CLAEKE, Lieut. -General Sir Andrew, 
G.C.M.G., C.B., C.I.E., son of Colonel 
Andrew Clarke, of Belmont, co. Donegal, 
was born at Soiithsea, in 1824, and edu- 
cated at the Koyal Military Academy, 
Woolwich. He entered the Koyal En- 
gineers as second lieutenant, 1844 ; be- 
came captain, 1S54 ; lieut.-colonel, 1867 ; 
colonel, 1872 ; major - general, 1884 ; 
lieut. -general, 1886. He was aide-de- 
camj) and then jjrivate secretary to 
Sir W. Denison, the Governor of Van 
Diemen's Land, subsequently a member 
of the Legislative Council of that colony, 
served in New Zealand during the years 
1847-48, and became a member of the 
Legislative Council there in 1851. In 
1853 he was appointed Surveyor-General 
of Victoria. He was elected to the 
Victorian Assembly for Melbourne, under 
the new constitution, and became Minister 
for Public Lands, but he resigned office 
in 1857, and returned to this country in 
the following year. He commanded the 
Koyal Engineers of the Eastern and 
Midland districts of England till 1863. 
when he went on special service to the 
West Coast of Africa respecting the 
Ashantee difficulties. On his return he 
was ajipointed in Aug., 1SG4, Director of 
the Works of the Navy, which office he 
held till June, 1873. From the latter 
date till Feb., 1875, he was Governor of 
the Straits Settlement, and he was next 
appointed Minister for Public Works in 
India. He was commandant of the School 
of Militiiry Engineering at Chatham from 
1881 to 1882, when he was ai^i^ointed 
Inspector-General of Fortifications. In 
Nov., 1882 he was dispatched to Cairo, 
charged with the duty of inquiring into 
the causes of the sickness and mortality 
which were prevailing among the British 
army of occupation, and was invested with 
full power to make any alterations which 
he might consider necessary in the 
sanitary arrangements. Sir Andrew 
Clarke is the author of several works on 

CLAEKE, Charles Baron, F.K.S., F.L.S., 

F.G.S., born June 17, 1832, at Andover, 
Hants, is the son of Turner I'oulter 
Clarke, of Andover, J. P., and was edu- 

cated, from 8 to 14, under the Kev. Lewis 
Tomlinson, of Salisbury, from 14 to 19 at 
King's College School, London, then at 
Trinity and Queen's Colleges, Cambridge, 
where he took the degree of B.A. in Jan., 
1856 (bracketed third Wrangler). He 
was called to the Bar in 1858 at Lincoln's 
Inn, was elected Fellow of Queen's 
College, Cambridge, 1857. He was 
Mathematical Lecturer of Queen's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, from 1858-65, entered 
the Bengal Educational Service in 1866, 
was superannuated 1887. He has pub- 
lished " Speculations from Political 
Economy," 1886 ; and numerous other 
papers on Political Economy ; various 
papers on music (as in Nature Jan., 1883); 
the " Class-Book of Geography," 1889 ; 
and other text-books ; also an account of 
Khasi Dolmen in the Journal of the 
Anthropological Society. He is a Fellow